Selenium biofortification and human health. Gijs Du Laing

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1 Selenium biofortification and human health Gijs Du Laing

2 Selenium discovered in Sweden by Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1817) impurity contaminating sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) sulphur analogue semiconductor used in electronics speciation!

3 Selenium speciation In environment and human health: selenocysteïne selenaat (+VI) selenocystine seleniet (+IV) selenomethionine H 2 Se selenide (-II) selenoproteïnen Different fate in environment, availability to crops, humans and animals, accumulation risks, toxicity

4 Importance of selenium Selenocysteine incorporated in selenoproteins (>25) glutathione peroxidases (GPx) antioxidant thyroid hormone deiodinases (DIO) functioning thyroid gland Synergy with vitamin E Source: Rayman, 2004

5 Selenium in environment Europe: generally low Se contents in soil Source: Dumont, 2006; Robberecht et al., 1982

6 Selenium in food crops Decrease due to exhaustion of soil + altered food consumption pattern Content (µg Se/g) Cereals 0,01-0,55 Meat, fish, eggs 0,01-0,36 Milk and dairy products Fruit and vegetables Se-accumulating crops <0,001-0,17 0,001-0,022 >1000

7 Selenium in food crops Wheat imports to the UK Fairweather-Tait et al. (2011). Antioxidants and redox signaling, 14,

8 Dietary selenium intake Fairweather-Tait et al. (2011). Antioxidants and redox signaling, 14,

9 Dietary selenium intake EFSA: adequate intake 70 µg/day (adults); 85 µg/day (pregnant women) males (M) and females (F); obtained from Fairweather-Tait et al., 2011

10 Dietary selenium intake FIFA World Ranking males (M) and females (F); obtained from Fairweather-Tait et al., 2011

11 Dietary selenium intake EFSA: cause - effect relationship between the dietary intake of selenium and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, normal function of the immune system, normal thyroid function and normal spermatogenesis Possible to claim health effects! males (M) and females (F); obtained from Fairweather-Tait et al., 2011

12 Selenium in Africa

13 Selenium deficiency White muscle disease Kashin-Beck Mastitis

14 Selenium toxicity: selenosis

15 Positive impact of supplementation Indications Anti-inflammatory, antiviral Cardiac diseases, arthritis, HIV/AIDS Cancer Rat trials Anticarcinogenic Allium Brassica +Se

16 Selenium requirements Toxic Cancer protection Adequate Deficiency diseases Fairweather-Tait et al. (2011). Antioxidants and redox signaling, 14,

17 Cancer protection Clark s experiment (NPC) men Se-containing yeast, 200 μg Se/day, mainly selenomethionine Significant decrease of cancer incidence SELECT clinical trial men pure L-selenomethionine, 200 μg Se/day No effect (on prostate cancer) Participants NPC trial more Se deficient compared to SELECT Se yeast does not only contain L-selenomethionine

18 Composition Se yeast selenomethionine (70%) selenocysteine Se-methylselenocysteine selenoethionine selenoglutathione selenodiglutathione γ-glutamyl-semethylselenocysteine selenite

19 Role of Se speciation Se-methylselenocysteine Bron: Rayman, 2004 γ-glutamyl-se-methylselenocysteine anticarcinogenic effects?

20 20 Differences in uptake and metabolism Organic Se mainly SeMet - considered to have higher absorption and retention Source: RVS Lavu, PhD thesis, 2013

21 Strategies to increase Se intake Biofortification (biofortified food crops) Food/feed supplements, dietary diversification, addition during food/feed processing

22 Benefits of biofortification Organic species! Fairweather-Tait et al. (2011). Antioxidants and redox signaling, 14,

23 Effectiveness of supplementation strategies Bioaccessibility and bioavailability to be taken into account! Role of food matrix and speciation

24 Upper digestive tract Colon 24 Oral uptake Bioaccessibility Bioaccessibility Microbial Release Bioaccessibility Transfer to the colon Uptake by body (bioavail ability) Microbial metabolism Biotransformations in the colon Fecal excretion

25 Selenium bioaccessibility In vitro Se bioaccessibility in different Se-enriched rice crop samples (unpublished data) SHIME system: 100 % 80% 60% Small intestine 4h Small intestine 2h 40% 20% Stomach (1h) 0% Rice samples

26 Selenium bioaccessibility Low bioavailability: relation with formation of elemental selenium (microparticles)?

27 Relative Se bioaccessibility (%) Selenium bioaccessibility Different yeast types Ab Ba Ba Bca Bb Bb Ca Cab Ca Bb Yeast 1607 Yeast 1631 Selenoprecise Ac ADa Aa Da Aa Ca Aa Ca G SI T0 T2 T24 T48 Digestion phase

28 Upper digestive tract Colon 28 Oral uptake Bioaccessibility Bioaccessibility Microbial Release Bioaccessibility Transfer to the colon Uptake by body (bioavail ability) Microbial metabolism Biotransformations in the colon Fecal excretion

29 Selenium bioavailability Organic Se: higher transfer Selenate: unclear transport mechanism Selenite: paracellular transport Organic species: combined paracellular and transcellular transport, transport system shared with S-analogue

30 Conclusion Selenium supplementation may be beneficial also for those having already an adequate uptake Narrow range between deficiency and toxicity Role of speciation: organic species preferred Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Se in enriched products is variable, depending on speciation and growth conditions

31 Selenium society and conference

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