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1 Nutrition Basics Chapter 12 1

2 The Body s Nutritional Requirements Essential nutrients The Six Essential Nutrients: Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals, Water Defined as : Nutrients one must obtain from diet (digestive system) 2

3 The Body s Nutritional Requirements What is a Calorie (C) Energy in foods= Daily requirement: Of the six essential nutrients, only 3 supply energy: Fat = Protein = Carbohydrates = 3

4 LIPIDS (FATS) 4

5 Lipids (Fats) Three Main Classes: 1) Steroids 2) Phospholipids and 3) Triglycerides (food fats) Triglycerides function in: 5

6 6

7 Fats and Your Health Hydrogenation Increases: Purpose is to: Trans Fatty Acids Formed through: Increases: Decrease:

8 Fats and Your Health Cholesterol (Steroid) High Density Lipo-Protein (HDL s) - Low Density Lipo-Protein (LDL s) Beneficial Fats (polyunsaturated fats) Omega-3 fatty acids (fish) Omega-6 fatty acids (corn and soybean oil) 8

9 Fats and Your Health Dangers of high fat diets -Difficulty managing weight -Obesity, heart disease, etc. -Increased risk of cancer 9

10 Fats and Your Health Recommended Intake AMDRs = Obtained from: 10

11 PROTEINS 11

12 Proteins Proteins Carry Out Many Different Functions: Function: Complete vs. Incomplete proteins Complete provide: Incomplete have: 12

13 Proteins Recommended Intake AMDRs = Obtained from: 13

14 CARBOHYDRATES 14

15 Carbohydrates Composed of: Function to: Two groups: Simple Carbs: Found in: Complex Carbs: Starch and fiber 15

16 Complex Carbohydrates: Whole vs. Refined Grains Whole Grains = Whole Grains Contain: 16

17 Complex Carbohydrates: Whole vs. Refined Grains Refined grains = Germ and bran: Retain: 17

18 Fiber A Closer Look Dietary fiber- Fiber present naturally in: Functional fiber Recommended intake = 18

19 The Glycemic Index Foods with a high glycemic index are: High glycemic index foods: May increase: Foods w/ Low Glycemic index: 19

20 Carbohydrates Recommended carbohydrate intake Men and women require the same amount AMDRs = 20

21 Vitamins Organic Aid in chemical reactions; important in RBC production Required in small amounts Humans need 13 vitamins: Four Fat Soluble: Nine Water Soluble: Sources: 21

22 Minerals Inorganic Help regulate body functions Growth & maintenance of body tissues 17 essential minerals Major minerals = Trace Minerals = 22

23 Water Human body = Food and fluid intake provide: Men need: Women need: 23

24 Other substances in food Antioxidants Protect body from free radical damage Are phytochemicals (may prevent chronic disease) Examples: 24

25 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods Control calorie intake Be physically active every day Eat plenty of grains, vegetables and fruits Choose fats wisely Choose carbohydrates wisely Use little salt and sugar Moderation of alcohol consumption Keep foods safe to eat 25

26 Food Safety Causes of foodborne Illnesses: Mainly bacteria Fewer viruses Can cause cramps, gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting, etc. 26

27 Food Safety Environmental Contaminants Contaminants in food growing environment Examples: Effects of contaminants depends on: 27

28 Food Safety Food Additives are Added to : (1) Maintain or improve nutritional quality (2) Maintain freshness (3) Help in processing or preparation (4) Alter taste and appearance 28

29 Food Safety Organic foods Limits on pesticide residues Animals given organic feed; Animals have access to outdoors No antibiotics or growth hormones given to animals Genetic engineering is prohibited 29

30 My Pyramid 30

31 Vegetarians Reasons Types: Vegans (plants only) Lacto-vegetarians (plant & dairy) Lacto-ovovegetarians (plants, dairy, eggs) Require Vitamin B- 12 Vitamin D Calcium Iron, zinc 31

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