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1 Chapter 2 pt 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Life Including the lecture Materials of Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida with amendments and additions by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc..

2 2.3 Why Is Water So Important To Life? Water interacts with many other molecules. Oxygen released by plants during photosynthesis comes from water. Water is used by animals to digest food. Water is produced in chemical reactions that produce proteins, fats, and sugars.

3 Many molecules dissolve easily in water. Water is an excellent solvent, capable of dissolving a wide range of substances because of its positive and negative poles. example NaCl dropped into H2O The positive end of H2O is attracted to Cl. The negative end of H2O is attracted to Na+. These attractions tend to pull apart the components of the original salt.

4 Water as a solvent Cl Na+ Na+ Cl H H O Cl Na+ Fig. 2-8

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6 Water-insoluble molecules are hydrophobic Water molecules repel and drive together uncharged and nonpolar molecules like fats and oils The clumping of nonpolar molecules is called hydrophobic interaction

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8 Water molecules tend to stick together. Surface tension: water tends to resist being broken Cohesion: water molecules stick together Fig. 2-9

9 Water Molecules Tend to Stick Together Hydrogen bonding between water molecules produces high cohesion Water cohesion explains how water molecules can form a chain in delivering moisture to the top of a tree

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11 Water Molecules Tend to Stick Together Cohesion of water molecules along a surface produces surface tension Fishing spiders and water striders rely on surface tension to move across the surface of ponds

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13 Water Molecules Tend to Stick Together Water molecules stick to polar or charged surfaces in the property called adhesion Adhesion helps water climb up the thin tubes of plants to the leaves

14 Water can form ions. Water dissociates to become H+ and OH. Acid solutions have more H+ (protons). Alkaline solutions have more OH (hydroxyl ions). A base is a substance that combines with H+, reducing their numbers. ph measures the relative amount of H+ and OH in a solution.

15 Acid, Basic, and Neutral Solutions A small fraction of water molecules break apart into ions: H2O OH- + H+

16 A water molecule is ionized. ( ) O H O H water (H2O) (+) + H H hydroxide ion (OH ) hydrogen ion (H+) Fig. 2-10

17 Acid, Basic, and Neutral Solutions Solutions where H+ > OH- are acidic e.g. Hydrochloric acid ionizes in water: HCl H+ + Cl Lemon juice and vinegar are naturally produced acids

18 Acid, Basic, and Neutral Solutions Solutions where OH- > H+ are basic e.g. Sodium hydroxide ionizes in water: NaOH Na+ + OH Baking soda, chlorine bleach, and ammonia are basic

19 Acid, Basic, and Neutral Solutions The degree of acidity of a solution is measured using the ph scale phs 0-6 are acidic (H+ > OH-) ph 7 is neutral (H+ = OH-) ph 8-14 is basic (OH- > H+)

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21 Buffers Maintain Constant ph A buffer is a compound that accepts or releases H+ in response to ph change The bicarbonate buffer found in our bloodstream prevents ph change

22 Buffers Maintain Constant ph If the blood becomes too acidic, bicarbonate accepts (and absorbs) H+ to make carbonic acid HCO3bicarbonate acid + H+ hydrogen ion H2CO3 carbonic

23 Buffers Maintain Constant ph If the blood becomes too basic, carbonic acid liberates hydrogen ions to combine with OH- to form water H2CO3 + OH- carbonic acid hydroxide ion HCO3bicarbonate + H2O water

24 Water stabilizes temperature Temperature reflects the speed of molecular motion It requires 1 calorie of energy to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1oC (specific heat), so it heats up very slowly Because it heats up very slowly water moderates the effect of temperature change Very low or very high temperatures may damage enzymes or slow down important chemical reactions

25 Water Stabilizes Temperature Water requires a lot of energy to turn from liquid into a gas (heat of vaporization) Evaporating water uses up heat from its surroundings, cooling the nearby environment (as occurs during sweating)

26 Water Stabilizes Temperature Because the human body is mostly water, a sunbather can absorb a lot of heat energy without sending her/his body temperature soaring

27 Water Stabilizes Temperature Water requires a lot of energy to be withdrawn in order to freeze (heat of fusion) Water freezes more slowly than other liquids

28 Water Forms an Unusual Solid: Ice Most substances become denser when they solidify from a liquid Water molecules spread apart slightly during the freezing process Because of this ice is less dense than liquid water

29 Water Forms an Unusual Solid: Ice Ice floats in liquid water Ponds and lakes freeze from the top down and never freeze completely to the bottom

30

31 Frozen water floats (left) and frozen benzene sinks (right) Figure 2.13x2

32 - Lower water is protected by the surface layer of ice. Life can survive in cold water underneath ice. Spring thaw pushes nutrient-rich bottom water to surface

33 Like no other common substance on earth, water naturally exists in all three physical states: solid liquid gas Figure 2.10B

34 Figure 2.10Bx

35 Organic vs. Inorganic in Chemistry Organic refers to molecules containing a carbon skeleton Inorganic refers to carbon dioxide and all molecules without carbon

36 2.4 Why Is Carbon So Important To Life? Carbon can combine with other atoms in many ways to form a huge number of different molecules. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell, leaving room for four more electrons from other atoms (4 covalent bonds). Carbon atoms are versatile and can form up to four bonds (single, double, or triple) and rings.

37 Arrangement of atoms determines molecular shape. Shape determines function of molecules Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model Methane The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron.

38 Butane, ball and stick model Figure 3.1x3

39 Cyclohexane, ball and stick model Figure 3.1x5

40 The great variety of substances found in nature is constructed from a limited pool of atoms. Organic molecules have a carbon skeleton and some hydrogen atoms. Much of the diversity of organic molecules is due to the presence of functional groups. Functional groups in organic molecules confer chemical reactivity and other characteristics

41 Functional (R) Groups groups of atoms that participate in chemical reactions determine the chemical properties of molecules Examples: acidity, solubility -OH -COOH -NH2 -CH3

42 What affects solubility in water? Molecules with +/- charge are usually hydrophilic or water-loving Molecules with no charge and non-polar are usually hydrophobic and not soluble in water

43

44 2.5 How Are Biological Molecules Joined Together Or Broken Apart? Biomolecules are polymers (chains) of subunits called monomers A huge number of different polymers can be made from a small number of monomers Biomolecules Are Joined Through Dehydration and Broken by Hydrolysis

45 Organic Molecule Synthesis Monomers are joined together through dehydration synthesis An H and an OH are removed, resulting in the loss of a water molecule (H2O)

46

47 Organic Molecule Synthesis Polymers are broken apart through hydrolysis ( water cutting ) Water is broken into H and OH and used to break the bond between monomers

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49 Organic Molecule Synthesis All biological molecules fall into one of four categories Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

50

51

52 2.6 What Are Carbohydrates? Composition: C, H, and O in the ratio of 1:2:1 Construction: Simple or single sugars are monosaccharides Two linked monosaccharides are disaccharides Long chains of monosaccharides are polysaccharides

53 Monosaccharides Basic monosaccharide structure Backbone of 3-7 carbon atoms Many OH and H functional groups Usually found in a ring form in cells Simple sugars provide important energy sources for organisms. Most small carbs are water-soluble due to the polar OH functional groups

54 A simple sugar CH2OH H H H 6 H 5 C O C H 4 O H C O H C H H (a) Glucose, linear form H O 3 O 2 1 C O H C O H H H H HO OH H H OH OH (b) Glucose, ring form Fig. 2-13

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56 Monosaccharides Example monosaccharides continued Fructose (found in corn syrup and fruits) Galactose (found in lactose) Ribose and deoxyribose (found in RNA and DNA)

57

58

59 Most small carbs are water-soluble due to the polar OH functional groups

60 Disaccharides Disaccharides are two-part sugars Sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose Lactose (milk sugar) = glucose + galactose Maltose (malt sugar)= glucose + glucose

61 Manufacture of a disaccharide glucose fructose CH2OH O H H HOCH2 H CH2OH O O H + HO OH H H OH OH HO H OH sucrose HO H dehydration CH2OH synthesis H H HO HOCH2 H OH H H OH O H O H OH O H HO CH2OH H H Fig. 2-14

62 Polysaccharides Monosaccharides are linked together to form chains (polysaccharides) Polysaccharides are used for energy storage and structural components

63 Polysaccharides Storage polysaccharides Starch (polymer of glucose) Formed in roots and seeds as a form of glucose storage Glycogen (polymer of glucose) Found in liver and muscles

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65

66 Polysaccharides Structural polysaccharides Cellulose (polymer of glucose) Found in the cell walls of plants Indigestible for most animals due to orientation of bonds between glucoses

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72 Polysaccharides Structural polysaccharides continued Chitin (polymer of modified glucose units) Found in the outer coverings of insects, crabs, and spiders Found in the cell walls of many fungi

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