6 Nutrients Essential for Life

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1 6 Nutrients Essential for Life

2 Mind Moo-Ver SWBAT identify the 6 essential nutrients for life QOD: What does ph measure Give an example of an acidic substance, a basic substance and a neutral substance

3 What is nutrition? Nutrition: Animals receiving a properly balanced food and water ration so they can grow, maintain their body, reproduce, or produce things we expect from them. Nutrient: Single food or group of foods of the same general chemical composition that support animal life.

4 How do we get nutrients? Digestion: The breakdown of food materials and the absorption of nutrients. Assimilation: Conversion of food material into an absorbable form. Calorie: 1,000 calories or 1 kilocalorie

5 5 Functions of Food 1. Provides energy for daily activity. 2. Gives raw materials needed for body growth and repair. 3. Help regulate body functions. 4. Reproduction 5. Produce things we expect from animals.

6 Six Nutrient Groups 1. Water 2. Protein Macro-nutrients 3. Carbohydrates 4. Fats 5. Vitamins Micro-nutrients 6. Minerals

7 Water Most important nutrient group! In every cell of the animal. Water is absorbed into the body through the walls of the stomach.

8 Sources of Water Sources of Water: Drinking Feed Metabolic Losses from Body: Urine Feces Sweat Glands Lungs and skin

9 Animal s body: 55% to 65% Blood: 90% to 95% Muscle: 72% to 78% Bone: 30% to 40% Water Composition

10 Proteins Complex nutrients composed of: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Broken down into amino acids during the digestion process. Amount needed depends on the animal s function and stage of growth.

11 Proteins cont. 25 amino acids found in animal feeds, 10 are considered essential. Essential amino acids CANNOT be produced by the animal and MUST be supplied in their food ration. Nonessential amino acids are either not needed or can be synthesized by the body.

12 Proteins cont. Necessary for: Repairing body organs and tissues Producing DNA Generating enzymes and hormones Developing antibodies

13 Protein Feed Ingredients Animal Sources Meat meal Fish meal Dried whey Casein Dried skim milk Meat and bone meal Plant Sources Linseed meal Soybean meal Cottonseed meal Dehydrate alfalfa meal

14 Carbohydrates Contain the chemical elements: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Made up of the groups of chemicals called sugars, starches, and crude fiber. Groups classified as nitrogen-free extract (N.F.E.) and crude fiber on feed tags.

15 Necessary for: Carbohydrates cont. Supporting bodily functions that require energy Producing heat to keep the body warm Storing fat

16 Carbohydrate Feed Ingredients Corn Wheat Oats Barley Alfalfa Bromegrass Bluegrass

17 Fats Made up of the same chemical elements as carbohydrates, but in different combinations. Contain 2.25 times the energy of equivalent carbohydrates and proteins.

18 Fats cont. Come from both animal and vegetable sources. Animal Fats = Solid at room temperature Aka Saturated fats Vegetable Fats Liquid at room temperature Aka Unsaturated fats

19 Necessary for: Providing energy Fats cont. Aiding in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Providing fatty acids, some of which are essential in animals diets

20 Vitamins Organic substances required in very small amounts. Classified on their solubility: Fat-soluble vitamins Water-soluble vitamins Necessary for regulatuion of bodily functions and normal development.

21 Fat-Soluble Vitamins Can be dissolved in fat. Stored in the liver, fatty tissues, and other parts of the body. Include: Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K

22 Water-Soluble Vitamins Can be dissolved in water. Include: Vitamin C B-complex vitamins

23 Minerals Inorganic materials needed in small amounts by animals. Essential to support animals, but do not contribute to tissue development. Necessary for supplying the materials for building the skeleton and producing body regulators.

24 Minerals cont. Divided into 2 groups: Macro-minerals Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Sulfur Chlorine Magnesium Micro-minerals Iron Iodine Copper Cobalt Fluorine Manganese Zinc Selenium

25 Stop

26 Vitamin A Required to prevent: Poor vision Respiratory problems Digestive problems Reproductive difficulties Green leafy plants are a good source.

27 Vitamin D Associated with the use of calcium and phosphorus in the body. Animals low in vitamin D have weak, trembling legs. Sunlight and sun-cured hay are good sources.

28 Vitamin E Important for successful reproduction. Female rat for normal gestation. Male rat to prevent sterility. Associated with muscle development. Lack of vitamin E causes white muscle disease in lambs (form of paralysis) Animals being fed proper rations are receiving sufficient amounts of Vitamin E.

29 Vitamin K Necessary for maintenance of normal blood coagulation to prevent excessive bleeding. Lack of vitamin K has been shown to cause respiratory problems in rabbits. Green forages, seeds, and good hay provide sufficient amounts of vitamin K.

30 Vitamin C Also known as ascorbic acid. Produced in digestive system of most animals. Diarrhea, rough hair, and hair loss signs of vitamin C deficiency. Monkeys and guinea pigs need Vitamin C to prevent scurvy. Scurvy: characterized by swollen, painful joints, and bleeding gums.

31 B-Complex Vitamins Important for improving appetite, growth, and reproduction. Include: Vitamin B 1 (thiamine) Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) Niacin Biotin Choline Folic Acid Vitamin B 12 Pantothenic acid Inositol Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine)

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