Radioprotective Efficiency of Fullerenol in Irradiated Mice

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1 Materials Science Forum Vol. 494 (25) pp online at 25 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Radioprotective Efficiency of Fullerenol in Irradiated Mice S. Trajkovic 1,a, S. Dobric 1,b, A. Djordjevic 2,c, V. Dragojevic-Simic 1,d and Z. Milovanovic 1 1 National Poison Control Centre, Military Medical Academy, Crnotravska 17, 11 Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro 2 Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Novi Sad, Serbia & Montenegro a b c d Keywords: Fullerenol, Ionizing Radiation, Mice, Radioprotective Efficiency, X-rays. Abstract. In vitro studies have demonstrated that fullerenol, a polyhydroxylated derivative of fullerene (C 6 (OH) n n = 12-26), has a high antioxidative potential. Since any radiation injury is mainly a consequence of the action of free radical species, the aim of this study was to examine radioprotective efficiency of fullerenol in whole-body irradiated mice. The experiment was performed on male, adult, white mice, whole-body irradiated with X- rays doses of 6 to 8 Gy (X-ray energy of 8 MV). Fullerenol C 6 (OH) 24 was given in doses of 1 and 1 mg/kg i.p. 3 minutes before irradiation. The experimental groups consisted of 25-3 animals each. The survival rate and body mass gain of irradiated animals were monitored for 3 after irradiation. The mean lethal times (LT 5 ) of irradiated mice and mean lethal dose of X-rays were calculated and compared. The results showed that fullerenol C 6 (OH) 24, in a dose of 1 mg/kg i.p., prolonged LT 5 of irradiated mice. This effect was especially pronounced in mice irradiated with 7 and 8 Gy of X-rays. It seems that radioprotective efficiency of fullerenol C 6 (OH) 24 is more marked in mice irradiated by higher doses of X-rays. Introduction New carbon structures, fullerenes and their derivatives, demonstrated high biological activity in vitro and in vivo [1, 2, 3, 4]. The biological effects of fullerenes depend considerably on their chemical modification and light treatment. Fullerenes exhibit higher antioxidant activity than natural biological antioxidants like ascorbic acid and vitamin E [5]. Oxygen radicals induce cellular instability, known as oxidative stress, leading to a programmed cell death. In these situations, free radical scavengers decrease, but not eliminate, cell death. The protective activity of fullerenes and their derivatives, including fullerenols C 6 (OH) n (n = 12-26), is based on their capability to react with oxygen radical species, such as superoxide (O 2 ) and hydroxyl (OH ) radicals, which attack lipids, proteins, DNA, and other macromolecules [6-12]. Polyhydroxylated fullerenes C 6, named fullerenols are particularly excellent antioxidants. They are highly water soluble, able to cross the blood-brain barriers and to absorb many oxygen radicals per fullerene molecule, reducing the free radical damage [13]. The mechanism by which fullerenols scavenge free radicals is mediated via electron transferring to the OH groups on the fullerenols molecules. Possible pathway of fullerenol radical geneses is summarized as follows [14]: e aq - + C 6 (OH) n [C 6 (OH) n ] - (1) O C 6 (OH) n radical product (2) Licensed to Dobric - Serbia-Montenegro All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of the publisher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Switzerland, (ID: /3/5,17:49:17)

2 55 Current Research in Advanced Materials and Processes One of the most possible ways of fullerenols reaction with OH free radicals is that OH radical adds to the remaining double bonds of fullerenol core as follows: OH + C 6 (OH) n [C 6 (OH) n+1 ] (3) Similarly, the reaction of H with fullerenol is attributed to the formation of H-adducts of fullerenol as follows: H + C 6 (OH) n [C 6 (OH) n H] (4) Once homogeneously dissolved, fullerenes and fullerene derivatives, with their moderate electron affinity and hydroxyl functional groups, exhibit an interesting range of biological activities, especially promising in the field of photodynamic and AIDS therapy, neuroprotection and apoptosis [15,16]. On the other hand, fullerenes are capable to initiate the processes of lipid peroxidation and to increase an ionic permeability of biomembranes [13]. Fullerenol-induced damage is more expressed for both lipids and proteins, than that showed by fullerene. These phenomena can be prevented by endogenous or natural antioxidants. Yet, in vitro studies have demonstrated that fullerenol C 6 (OH) n (n = 12-26) has high antioxidative potential. A possible approach to assessing antioxidant activity is to examine directly the free radical production and their inhibition by antioxidants. The LD 5 value of fullerenol was estimated to be 1.2 g/kg. Pretreatments with.1 and.1 g/kg had no effect on cytochrome P45, NADPH-cytochrome P45 reductase, aniline hydroxylase and other monooxygenases responsible for the oxidative and reductive metabolism of a variety of foreign chemicals and endogenous substrates [18]. The absorption of energy of X-ray or ultraviolet light, as well as a variety of chemicals, results in an enhanced generation of free-oxygen species and free radical intermediates in a cell. Since the radiation injury is mainly a consequence of the action of free radical species, the aim of this study was to examine radioprotective efficiency of fullerenol C 6 (OH) n (n = 12-26) in wholebody irradiated mice. Materials and Methods Polyhydroxylated fullerene C 6 (OH) 24 was synthesized in alkaline media by complete substitution of bromine atoms from C 6 Br 24 [19,2], dissolved in distilled water and ph was adjusted to 7.4. The experiment was performed on male, adult, white mice, whole-body irradiated with doses of 6 to 8 Gy (linear accelerator SL 75-2 Philips, X-ray energy of 8 MV). The experimental groups consisted of 25-3 animals each. The irradiation was performed in two series. Each series consisted of three groups, irradiated with 6, 7 and 8 Gy successively, and a control group. First group was given 1 mg/kg fullerenol i.p. and the second group was given 1 mg/kg fullerenol i.p., both 3 minutes before irradiation. The survival rate and body mass gain of irradiated animals were monitored for 3 after irradiation. The mean lethal time (LT 5 ) and mean lethal dose (LD 5 ) of irradiated animals were calculated for each radiation dose used and compared. The data were calculated by Litchfield and Wilcoxon s statistical method [21]. Results and Discussion The results of the influence of fullerenol on the mass gain are given in Fig. 1.

3 Materials Science Forum Vol A,4 body mass gain,2 -, ,4 B,4 body mass gain,2 -, ,4 C,8 body mass gain, ,4 Fig.1 Body mass gain of irradiated mice: A. with 6 Gy, B. with 7Gy and C. with 8 Gy not protected with fullerenol protected with 1mg/kg fullerenol protected with 1mg/kg fullerenol (some points are missing because no animal from that group survived) The results indicate better body mass gain in mice given 1 mg/kg of fullerenol than in those given 1 mg/kg of the compound. The influence of fullerenol on the survival rate is given in Fig. 2.

4 552 Current Research in Advanced Materials and Processes A 1 % survived B 1 % survived C 1 % survived Fig. 2 Survival rate of irradiated mice: A. irradiated with 6 Gy, B. irradiated with 7 Gy, C. irradiated with 8 Gy not protected with fullerenol, protected with 1 mg/kg fullerenol, protected with 1 mg/kg fullerenol The results indicate that the given dose of 1 mg/kg of fullerenol increased significantly LT 5 of irradiated mice. On the other hand, fullerenol given in the dose of 1 mg/kg decreased LT 5 of irradiated mice. (Table 1)

5 Materials Science Forum Vol Table 1 Influence of fullerenol on LD 5 of X-ray irradiation in mice Fullerenol dose [mg/kg] LD 5 [Gy] 95% conf. Protective index* p None (control) 6.54 ( ) Fullerenol ( ).93 n.s. Fullerenol ( ) *protective index = LD 5 protected / LD 5 control 1.18* p <.5 The results presented in Table 1 indicate that fullerenol given in a dose of 1 mg/kg produced a statistically significant increase in LD 5 of irradiation, while given in a dose of 1 mg/kg has no significant protective effect compared to the control group. Table 2 Influence of fullerenol on LT 5 of mice irradiated with 8 Gy Fullerenol dose [mg/kg] LT 5 95% conf. p None (control) ( ) Fullerenol ( ) p <.5 vs. control Fullerenol ( ) p <.5 vs. control p <.5 vs. group 1 The results given in Table 2 indicate that fullerenol administrated in a dose of 1 mg/kg leads to a statistically significant increase in LT 5 of mice irradiated with 8 Gy, compared to both control group and group given 1 mg/kg of fullerenol. The group of mice pretreated with fullerenol 1 mg/kg shows a decrease in LT 5 of mice irradiated with 8 Gy compared to the control one. These results demonstrate radioprotective effects of fullerenol C 6 (OH) 24 when given in higher dose (1 mg/kg). To our knowledge, they are the first results suggesting radioprotective efficiency of this compound in vivo. Our results are encouraging and request further investigations in this challenging field. Conclusion The results showed that fullerenol, C 6 (OH) 24, in a dose of 1 mg/kg i.p. given 3 minutes before irradiation produced radioprotective effect in X-ray irradiated mice. On the other hand, given in a dose of 1 mg/kg, it even aggravated harmful effect of X irradiation. Results indicate possible radioprotective effect of the dose of 1 mg/kg fullerenol. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No.1893.

6 554 Current Research in Advanced Materials and Processes References [1] T. Mashino, N. Usuia, K. Okuda, T. Hirotab and M. Mochizukia, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 11 (23), p [2] T. Da Ros and M. Prato, Chem. Commun, (1999), p [3] U. Jenga, T.-L. Lina, K. Shinb, C.-H. Hsuc, H.-Y. Leec, M.H. Wud, Z.A. Chi, M.C. Shihd and L.Y. Chiang, Physica B, Vol. 336 (23), p. 24. [4] R.D. Bolskar, A.F. Benedetto, L.O. Husebo, R.E. Price, E.F. Jackson, S.Wallace, L.J. Wilson, and J.M. Alford, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 9 (23), p. 18. [5] S.R. Wilson, Fullerenes: Chemistry, Physics, and Technology, Wiley, New York (2), p [6] M.C. Tsai, Y.H. Chen and L.Y. Chiang, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., Vol. 49 (1997), p [7] L.H. Lu, Y.T. Lee, H.W. Chen, L.Y. Chiang and H.C. Huang, Br. J. Pharmacol., Vol. 123 (1998), p [8] I.C. Wang, L.A. Tai, D.D. Lee, P.P. Kanakamma, C.K.F. Shen, T-Y. Luh, C.H. Cheng and K.C. Hwang, J. Med. Chem., Vol. 42 (1999), p [9] H.S. Lai, Y. Chen, W.J. Chen, K.J. Chang and L.Y. Chiang, Transplant. Proc., Vol. 32 (2), p [1] D.W. Cagle, S. J. Kennel, S. Mirzadeh, J.M. Alford and L.J. Wilson, Proc. Natl.Acad Sci USA, (1999), p [11] G. Bogdanović, V. Kojić, A. Djordjević, J.Čanadanović-Brunet, M. Vojinović-Miloradov and V. V. Baltić, Toxicology in Vitro, Vol. 18 (24), p [12] S. Mirkov, A. Djordjevic, N. Andric, S. Andric, T. Kostic, G. Bogdanovic, M. Vojinovic- Miloradov and R. Kovacevic, in press [13] A. Golub, O. Matyshevska, S. Prylutska, V. Sysoyev, L. Ped, V. Kudrenko, E. Radchenko, Y. Prylutskyy, P. Scharff and T. Braun, J. Mol. Liq., (23). [14] L. Dugan, J. Gabrielsen, S. Yu, T. Lin and D. Choi, Neurobiol. Dis., Vol. 3 (1996), p [15] R. Sijbesma, G. Srdanov, F. Wudl, J. A. Kastro, C. Wilkins, S. H. Friedman, D. L. DeCamp and G. L. Kenyon, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 115 (1993), p [16] I. Lambarth and A. Hirsh, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm., (1996), p [17] C-Y. Lu, S-D. Y, W-Z. Lin, W-F Wang, N-Y Lin, Y-p Tong and T-W. Rong, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 53 (1998), p [18] T-H. Ueng, J-J Kang, H-W. Wang, Y-W. Cheng and L.Y. Chiang, Toxicology Letters, Vol. 93 (1997), p. 29. [19] A. Djordjević, M. Vojinović-Miloradov, N. Petranović, A. Devečerski, D. Lazar and B. Ribar, Fullerenes Sciences & Technology, Vol. 6/4 (1998), p [2] A. Djordjevic, dissertation, University of Novi Sad (2). [21] J.T. Litchfield and F.A. Wilcoxon, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., Vol. 96 (1949), p. 99.

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