Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

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1 Pakistan J. Agric. Res. Vl. 25 N. 4, 2012 BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L. Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf* ABSTRACT:- The bilgical parameters f Menchilus sexmaculatus Fab., as influenced by different temperature regimes and hst were studied at Insectary-Bilgical Cntrl Labratries, Natinal Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that there was a significant effect f different temperature regimes n the develpment and predatry ptential f M. sexmaculatus reared n Rhpalsiphum padi. The egg incubatin perid f predatr beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at 221 C, 28 1 C and 34 1 C, respectively. Mean fecundity was , and eggs, respectively. Percentage egg hatchability f the predatr was significantly higher at 281 C. The ttal larval duratin f predatr was 9.47, 7.70 and 5.49 days, respectively. Duratin f pupal perid ranged between 2.21 and 4.35 days n R. padi at three temperatures. The pre-vipsitin, vipsitin and pst-vipsitin perids were between 4.64 and 7.48, and and 4.76 and 8.09 days, respectively n R. padi. Mean predatry ptential f all larval s ranged frm 148 t 162 aphids, respectively. The prey cnsumptin f female beetle was significantly higher than male. The adult male cnsumed frm 2294 t 2422 aphids and female cnsumed frm 2912 t 3085 aphids, respectively. Based n results f present study, pssibility f quality mass rearing and cmmercializatin f predatry beetle, M. sexmaculatus was ascertained. Key Wrds: Menchilus sexmaculatus; Rhpalsiphum padi; Predatr; Prey Cnsumptin; Bilgy; Predatry Ptential; Pakistan. INTRODUCTION The zigzag beetle, Menchilus sexmaculatus (Fab.), cmmnly knwn as lady bird beetle is a predaceus cccinellid with wide distributin in Suth Western Asia, Indnesia, Philippines, Suth Africa, Pakistan and India. The predatr beetle is an efficient feeder and prey n a wide range f sft bdied insects including aphids, plant hppers, thrips, jassids, scale insects, mealy bugs and white fly infesting large number f cultivated crps (Rahman et al., 1993; Slangi et al., 2007). The adult f M. sexmaculatus are bright yellw in clur with black vertical zigzag lines. The bth adult and larval stages are vracius feeder f aphid species. Many aphid species are serius pests f different cereal *Department f Plant and Envirnmental Prtectin, PARC Institute f Advance Studies in Agriculture, Islamabad, Pakistan. **Insect Pest Management Prgramme, Institute f Plant and Envirnmental Prtectin, Natinal Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. ***Crp Sciences Institute, Natinal Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Crrespnding authr: 318

2 ASRAR ALI ET AL. crps in Pakistan. The bird cherryat aphid, Rhpalsiphum padi (L) has recently becme ne f the mst imprtant pests f wheat and been cnsidered a serius threat t cereals. Besides causing yield lsses directly, the aphid als acts as the vectr f barley yellw dwarf virus (Sunil et al., 2007). Temperature is ne f the mst imprtant envirnmental factrs that influence the develpmental rate f Cccinellids and affect its reprductive and predatry perfrmance. The predacius cccinellids are f great ecnmic imprtance and have been successfully emplyed in the bilgical cntrl f many injurius insects (Ali and Rizvi, 2009). The present studies were aimed t investigate sme bilgical parameters as well as pre-datry ptential f M. sexmaculatus n bird cherry-at aphid, R. padi at varius cnstant temperature levels. MATERIALS AND METHOD The study was carried ut under labratry cnditins n the bilgical parameters f M. sexmaculatus feeding n R. padi. The experiments were cnducted at the Insectary- Bilgical Cntrl Labs., Insect Pest Management Prgramme (IPMP), Institute f Plant and Envirnmental Prtectin (IPEP), Natinal Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The predatr beetles were cllected frm the wheat fields at NARC fr rearing in the labratry. The culture f predatr was maintained n its hst, R. padi. The pairs f adult M. sexmaculatus were cllected frm the culture and kept int the plastic jars cvered with muslin clth. Aphid infested, leaves f wheat plant were kept inside the plastic jar t serve as a fd fr the beetle. Every day, the eggs depsited by the female were remved frm jars. Freshly laid eggs (n=50) were transferred int Petri dishes (9cm diameter) with the help f sft camel hair brush and allwed t hatch at three cnstant temperature levels (221 C, 281 C and 341 C) and 60 5 % R.H. in the insect hlding rm. Incubatin perid and number f eggs hatched per batch were recrded. In the first set f experiment, 30 predatr grubs f the same age were cllected frm jars and were individually reared n R. padi at three temperatures in plastic vials (4.0cm 6.0cm). Cunted number f first and secnd s f R. padi was prvided as fd t the early larvae f M. sexmaculatus. The number f aphids increased with the develpment f larval s. This prcedure was fllwed till pupatin. The data n develpmental perid and predatry ptential f immature M. sexmaculatus were recrded. In anther set f experiment, 30 pairs f newly emerged adults were cllected frm culture and each pair was released in small plastic jars t study predatry ptential f adults. Minimum number f aphids (150 nymphs per day) was prvided t M. sexmaculatus till the predatr's mrtality. The data n develpmental perid, predatry ptential f adult beetles, and eggs laid by each female were recrded daily. The data btained was analyzed statistically by ANOVA accrding t prcedure given by Mari et al. (2005). The means f significant differences were cmpared by LSD at 5% level. 319

3 BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Incubatin Perid and Percent Egg Hatchability The data revealed that there was a significant effect f different temperature regimes n the incubatin perid and egg hatchability f the predatr. The incubatin perid was shrter at 34 C, whereas, percent egg hatchability was higher at 28 C (Table 1). The egg incubatin perid was ranged frm 2.24 t 4.16 days and hatchability was between and 76.8 % at three different temperature levels n R. padi. Slangi et al. (2007) reprted incubatin perid f M. sexmaculatus frm 7.1 t 7.5 days. Hwever, percent hatchability was very much similar t the present results ( at 252 C). This difference may be due t the aphid species, the predatr was reared n. The mean number f eggs laid per female ranged frm 430 t 549 at three different temperatures. The results n mean number f eggs laid per female f M. sexmaculatus were als very much clser t the results f Khan and Yusaf (1986) wh reprted that 347.5, and 356 eggs were laid by each female at 26 C, 28 C and 34 C, respectively. Develpmental Perid f Larval The data n develpmental perid revealed that temperature significantly influenced the develpment f first, secnd, third and furth s f M. sex-maculatus reared n R. padi. With the gradual increase in temperature the duratin f larval s reduced (Table 1). The ttal larval duratin was significantly higher (9.47 days) at 22 C. Hwever, there was n significant difference in ttal larval duratin at 28 C and 34 C. Prdhan et al. (1995) als reprted ttal larval perid f M. sexmaculatus frm 7 t 9 Table 1. Bilgical parameters f Menchilus sexmaculatus reared n Rhpalsiphum padi at three temperatures regimes Parameter Temperature (ºC) LSD Egg incubatin perid (days) N f eggs/female Percent hatchability st Duratin f 1 (days) nd Duratin f 2 (days) rd Duratin f 3 (days) th Duratin f 4 (days) Ttal larval duratin (days) Pupal perid (days) Pre-vipsitin (days) Ovipsitin (days) Pst-vipsitin (days) Adult male lngevity (days) Adult female lngevity days) a b 2.33 ab 0.04 a 0.04 a 0.05 a 0.06 a 0.09 b 0.08 a 0.18 a 0.61 a 0.20 a 0.44 a 0.47 a b a a 0.03 b 0.02 b 0.07 b 0.05 b a b 0.14 b 0.42 b 0.17 b 0.38 b 0.38 b c 7.67 b 4.22 b 0.02 c 0.02 c 0.04 c 0.04 c 0.07 a 0.06 c 0.19 c 0.40 c 0.21 c 0.27 c 0.30 c Means fllwed by same letter d nt differ significantly at P

4 ASRAR ALI ET AL. days n bean aphid. Pupal perid f the predatr ranged between 2.21 and 4.35 days at different temperatures. These findings are in cnfirmatin with Mari et al. (2004) wh reprted the average pupal perid f 3.6 days. Develpmental Perid f Adults The data revealed that lngevity f adult M. sexmaculatus (male and female) ranged between and and between and days, respectively, and was lngest at 22 C. The increase in temperature resulted in faster develpment f the predatrs by reducing develpmental perids (Table 1). The results als shwed that adult female lived lnger than male n R. padi at the three tested temperatures. Similar, findings were als reprted by Ngammuang (1987). He fund that the lngevity f male was less (37.8 days) than female (59.53 days) fed n A. craccivra Kch. Pre-vipsitin, vipsitin and pst-vipsitin perid ranged frm 4.64 t 7.48 frm t and frm 4.76 t 8.09 days, respectively. These results were in agreement with Millar and Lamana (1995), wh fund that the vipsitin perid f C. trifasciata Linnaeus was reduced frm 44.2 t 11.1 days with the increase in temperature frm 18 C t 34 C. Predatry Ptential f Immature Predatry ptential f first, secnd, third and furth ranged frm t 15.56, frm t 37.43, frm t and frm t aphids at different temperatures and the ttal larval ptential was between and aphids (Figure 1). These Aphid cnsumed Figure 1. 1st 221 c 281 c 341 c 2nd 3rd 4th Predatry ptential f immature stages f M. sexmaculatus feeding n R. padi at three temperature levels results varied frm Khan and Yusaf (1986) wh reprted that the ttal larval predatry ptential ranged frm 323 t 614 aphids at cnstant temperature. These variatins may be due t different insect hsts r hst density r size f hsts. Predatry Ptential f Adults In adult female it ranged frm 2912 t 3085 aphids and was greater than the adult male, i.e. frm 2294 t 2422 aphids at three temperature levels. It may be due t lnger adult Aphid Cnsumed Figure 2. Temperatures 221 C 281 C 341 C Male Female Predatry ptential f adult M. sexmaculatus feeding n R. padi at three temperature levels 321

5 BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL lngevity perid in females than males. Predatry ptential f male was significantly higher at 28 C, hwever, it was equally gd at 22 C and 28 C (Figure 2). Similarly, Mari et al. (2005) fund that the predatry ptential f male M. sexmaculatus and C. undecimpunctata Linnaeus was 2548 and 2930, and f female 2800 and 3080 alfalfa aphids, respectively. LITERATURE CITED Ali, A. and Rizvi, P.Q Life table studies f Menchilus sexmaculatus Fabr. (Cleptera: Cccinellidae) at varying temperature n Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Wrld Appl. Sci. J. 7(7): Khan, M. A. and Yusaf, M Temperature and fd requirements f Chilmenes sexmaculata (Cleptera : Cccinellidae). Envirn. Entml. 15: Mari, J. M. Nizamani, S. M. and Lhar, M.K Bilgy f Menchilus sexmaculatus Fab. and Cccinella undecim-punctata L. (Cleptera: Cccinellidae) n alfalfa aphid. J. Asia- pacific Entml. 7(3): Mari, J. M. Rizvi, N. H. Nizamani, S. M. Qureshi, K. H. and Lhar, M. K Predatry efficiency f Menchilus sexmaculatus Fab. and Cccinella undecim punctata L. (Cleptera: Cccinellidae) n alfalfa aphid. Asian J. Pl. Sci. 4(4): Millar, J. C. and Lamana, M. L Assessment f temperature dependent develpment in the general ppulatin and amng isfemale lines f Cccinella trifasciata (Cleptera: Cccinellidae). Entmphag. 40(2): Ngammuang, Pa-Nan Study n the Cccinelidae, Micraspis sexmaculatus (F.) (Cleptera: Cccinellidae) and its rle as bilgical cntrl agent. Thai J. Agric. Res. 2(1): Prdhan, N. Z. H. Haque, M. A. Khan, A. B. and Rahman, A. K. M Bilgy f Micraspis sexmaculatus (Cccinellidae) and its susceptibility t tw insecticides. Bangladesh J. Entml. 5(1-2): Rahman, M. H. Sardar, M. A. Miah, M. R. U. and Kamal, N. Q Cnsumptin rate f Aphis medicaginis by the grubs f Menchilus sexmaculatus Fab. Bangladesh J. Zl. 21(1): Slangi, B. K. Hulli, M. H. and Balch, N Bilgical parameters and prey cnsumptin by zigzag beetle, Menchilus sexmaculatus Fab. against R. maidis, A. gssypii and T. triflii. Sarhad J. Agric. 23(4): Sunil, K.R.G. Laskar, N. and Senapati, S.K Seasnal incidence f Predatr Menchilus sexmaculatus (Berliner) n brinjal and harmful effect f insecticides n predatr. Indian J. Agric. Res. 41 (2):

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