S215 Sports & Exercise Nutrition. Problem 7 Extra Extra 6 th Presentation

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1 S215 Sports & Exercise Nutrition Problem 7 Extra Extra 6 th Presentation Activity Owner: Edmund Foo Module Chair: Chia Ee Von Reviewed by: Koh Han Chow/Grain Baysa-Pee

2 In Today s Problem A fitness instructor asked 2 of his students if they have been taking the vitamins and supplements that he gave them Their responses were mixed and they gave their reasons why they have and have not been taking the vitamins and supplements You were asked how important are sports supplements and whether or not we need them

3 The Approach Why are vitamins & minerals important to us? How much vitamins & minerals should we take? What are sports supplements? How effective are sports supplements? Will consuming them lead to any adverse effects? Are these substances available in natural foods?

4 Physiological Function Why Vitamins & Minerals Important To Us? Optimal Sub-Optimal Poor Energy Metabolism Nerve Function Muscular Contraction Haemoglobin Synthesis Immune Function Anti-Oxidation Bone Metabolism Various Regulatory Functions Low Adequate High Micronutrient Intake Dose-response relationships either Plateau or Diminish

5 How Much Vitamins & Minerals Should We Take? Health Promotion Board 1 recommendations and (Benardot, 2006) 2 Vitamins RDI for average adult per day 1 RDI for athlete Minerals RDI for average adult per day 2 per day 1 RDI for athlete per day 2 Vitamin A 750 mcg mcg Manganese N.A mg Vitamin C 30 mg 200 mg Iron 6 mg (males) mg 6-19 mg (females) Vitamin E N.A. 15 mg Selenium N.A mcg Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) mg (male) mg (female) mg (Depending on total energy intake) Copper N.A. 900 mcg Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) mg (male) mg (female) N.A. 200mg N.A. N.A. 2.75mg (male) 2.2mg (female) mg 400mcg 4-5mg 30mcg mg (male) 14 20mg (female) 2.0 mg mcg Zinc N.A mg

6 What Are Sports Supplements? Also known as Ergogenic Aids Any substance, process or procedure that may, or is perceived to, enhance performance or hasten recovery Applying any nutritional, physical, mechanical, psychological, or pharmacological procedure to improve physical work capacity Work producing substances or phenomena believed to increase performance Source:

7 How Effective Are Sports Supplements? The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sports Supplement Program classifies supplements into 4 groups according to their effectiveness and safety. (Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Website, 2008) Source: Group A -Supported for use by athletes Group B -Considered for provision to (AIS) athletes only under a research protocol Group C -No proven beneficial effects Group D - Should not be used by (AIS) athletes

8 How Effective Are Sports Supplements? Group A Supplements Supported for use by AIS athletes These sports foods and supplements: Provide a useful and timely source of energy and nutrients in the athlete's diet, or Have been shown in scientific trials to benefit performance, when used according to a specific protocol in a specific situation in sport 1) Antioxidants 2) Bicarbonate 3) Caffeine 4) Calcium 5) Creatine 6) Electrolyte replacement 7) Glucosamine 8) Glycerol 9) Iron 10) Liquid meal supplements 11) Multivitamin/mineral 12) Sick pack 13) Sports bars 14) Sports drink 15) Sports gels

9 How Effective Are Sports Supplements? Group B Supplements Considered for provision to AIS athletes only under a research protocol These sports foods and supplements: Are too new to have received adequate scientific attention, or have preliminary data which hints at possible benefits, and Are of particular interest to athletes and coaches 1) Colostrum 2) Glutamine 3) HMB 4) Melatonin 5) Probiotics 6) Ribose

10 How Effective Are Sports Supplements? Group C Supplements Supplements which have no proof of beneficial effects and are therefore not to be provided to official AIS programs This category includes the majority of supplements and sports products promoted to athletes. These supplements, despite enjoying a cyclical pattern of popularity and widespread use, have not been proven to enhance sports performance. In some cases, these supplements have been shown to impair sports performance, with a clear mechanism to explain these results. We have named many of the products that belong in this category, but others that have not been named in our supplement system more than likely belong here. 1) Branched chain amino acids (& other free-from amino acids) 2) Carnitine 3) Chromium Picolinate 4) Coenzyme Q10 5) Cordyceps 6) Cytochrome C 7) Gamma-Oryzanol & Ferulic Acid 8) Ginseng 9) Inosine 10) Nitrous Oxide supplements 11) Oxygen Boosters 12) Pyruvate 13) Rhodiola Rosea 14) Vitamin supplements when used in situations other than summarised in Group A 15) ZMA

11 How Effective Are Sports Supplements? Group D Supplements These supplements should not be used by AIS athletes These supplements are banned or are at high risk of being contaminated with substances that could lead to a positive drug test. 1) Androstenedione 2) 19-norandrostenediol 3) 19-norandrostenedione 4) DHEA 5) Ephedra 6) Strychnine 7) Tribulus Terrestris & other herbal testosterone supplements

12 Will Consuming Them Lead To Any Adverse Effects? There are both: - Clear & Unclear POSITIVE effects of supplementation - Clear & Unclear NEGATIVE effects of supplementation Always seek advice if unclear Never consume if unsure! Source:

13 Are These Substances Available In Natural Foods? These substances can be found in natural foods Often more an issue of quantity rather than availability Food preparation ability/methods an inhibiting factor Food preferences also an inhibiting factor Social, cultural and religious eating habits may also inhibit natural consumption of certain micronutrients

14 Back To The Problem So Do We Really Need Supplements? Yes if your diet is deficient in the essential macro and micronutrients or requires more than normal levels Especially useful and important in maintaining immune system function as falling sick means inability to train/compete No if you are healthy and maintain a balanced diet Yes if you want convenience and are able to afford it Yes or No, be aware of the effectiveness and possible side-effects of consuming supplements

15 Back To The Problem For intended gains, sports supplements MUST be taken as PART OF a well planned training program and diet If not, their full effects & benefits will never be realized Source: Supplements are aids and NOT A SOLUTION!

16 What You Have Learnt Today Vitamins and minerals play important roles in maintaining the body s regulatory functions. Supplementation has it benefits and advantages if used prudently in sports. Over supplementation can have adverse effects on health and exercise performance. Natural sources of supplementation should always be used first before resorting to commercially packaged products.

17 References McArdle, W.D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2005). Sports & Exercise Nutrition. 2 nd Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, MD, USA. Burke, L., & Deakin, V. (2006). Clinical Sports Nutrition. 3 rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, NSW, Australia. Cardwell, G. (2006). Gold Medal Nutrition. 4 th Edition. Human Kinetics, IL, USA. Burke, L. (2007). Practical Sports Nutrition. Human Kinetics, IL, USA. McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.l., & Katch, V.L. (2007). Exercise Physiology Energy, Nutrition & Human Performance. 6 th Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Maryland, USA. Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Website. Retrieved 30 August 2008 from Benardot, D. (2006). Advanced Sports Nutrition. 1 st Edition. United Graphics, USA.

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