APPLICATION OF THE INNER PART OF KECOMBRANG STEM (Nicolaia speciosa) AS A NATURE PRESERVATIVE ON MEAT-BALLS AND NUGGET 1

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1 APPLICATION OF THE INNER PART OF KECOMBRANG STEM (Nicolaia speciosa) AS A NATURE PRESERVATIVE ON MEAT-BALLS AND NUGGET Rifda Naufalin and Herastuti Sri Rukmini ABSTRACT Kecombrang (Nicolaia speciosa Horan) is one of spice crops which are usually used as food flavoring and medicines. Parts of the plant that common used are flower and stem. Kecombrang contain of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, saponin and essential oil. The aims of this research were. To study the concentration inner part of kecombrang stem for increasing shelf life of meat balls and nugget,. To determine the effect of adding inner part of kecombrang stem in microbial quality and sensory meat balls and nugget. This research uses experimental methods with Randomized Block Design (RDB) which consisted of treatments and two replications. Various factors such as the powder concentration inner part of kecombrang stem (%; %; %; 3%) and store at room temperature ( day; day; days; 3 days). The results showed that the increased concentration of inner part of kecombrang stem can reduce the sensory quality of meat balls and nugget (taste, texture, color, and value preferences) but able to improve the quality of chemical and microbial through a reduction in ph value, the Formol value, total bacteria, total mold and yeast. The inner part of kecombrang stem could be used as a nature preservative for increasing the shelf life of meat balls and nugget in concentration of %. The shelf life extended from hours to 8 hours. Key words: The inner part of Kecombrang stem, natural preservative, meat-balls, nugget INTRODUCTION Meat-ball is the favorite food in for many people; usually it produced by fish as the main substances such as tengiri fish, because it has the good taste. Besides it has good quality. The usage of this fish as the base ingredient also has the negative points such as early broken thus these products only had the short shelf life, ± 8 hours in the room temperature ± 5 days in the refrigerator and ± month for freezing storage and vacuum place (Khansa 8) Chicken nugget is the one of chicken processing within molding, cooking, and freezing. Made of mixing chicken meat within layer or without any other additional food where as permitted additional food (SNI -83-) in this process of producing nugget, preservative additions are used in order to extend storage. Now the usage of The International conference of EXHIBITION AND SHORT COURSE ON NUTRACEUTICALS AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS Bali, October -5, Lecturers of Agricultural Technology Department of Faculty Technology Departmen of Faculty of Agriculture, Jendral Soedirman University

2 these synthetic preservative have been being attention for the case of negative indication when it was consumed continuously and there are accumulations in the body. After knowing the short shelf life of meatball and nugget, there are many trials for extending the shelf life, such as using natural ingredient with antimicrobial affectivity. Kecombrang stem is the part of kecombrang plant with antimicrobial affectivity. Contain of alkaloid, saponin, fenolik, flavonoid, triterpenoid, steroid, glycoside (Naufalin et.,al 9) the research whom held by Istianto (8) about antimicrobial affectivity on parts of kecombrang plants resulted extraction of the powder kecombrang stem on water with concentrate % have a mold on snake fruit and antimicrobial on Bacillus cereus. Kecombrang stem have two different kinds: inner and outer part. Syukri () reported that inner part of kecombrang stem is more active than the outer. The inner part processed into powder. According to Istianto (8) the dry powder of inner part kecombrang stem is more effective as antimicrobial. It was more safety in storage and usage, and it can be used anytime. It can be mixed when the meatball and nugget was processing after mold. Because at present will be more effective than in the past which is decreased the activity of the yield, and the yield will be store in the cool place (-8 C) for knowing the affectivity as food nature preservative. Study from the potential of inner part kecombrang stem and the producing powder of inner part kecombrang stem method, the result applied as nature preservative for meatball and nugget which is more practice, safety, and efficient. Aims of research are to determine ) the effect of addition the inner part of kecombrang stem into microbial, chemical, and sensory of meatball and nugget, ) for storage in room temperature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This research used experimental method with Randomize Block Design. Consist of 3 combinations with two replications and yield trials. Meatball and nugget are the trial factors from food product. Inner part of kecombrang stem concentrated on % (K), % (K), % (K), 3% (K3). And for shelf life of meatball on present (L), day- (L), day- (L), day-3 (L3). The observed variables in this research are including chemical, microbial, and sensory variables. First, it analyzed on ph value based on chemical variable. In microbial

3 ph value analyzed total of microbe, bacteria and mold, and the other analyzed color, aroma, taste, texture, flavor and preference. Stretching data analyzed by particular analysis (test F) on belief degree 95% and 99%. Continue into DMRT when it has given the real effect on 5% for knowing the comparative of trials and also regression trial to get the best one. Data of sensory trial is analyzed by Friedman treatments. When it gives the good trial, it will be continuing into comparative trials on degree 5%. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. ph value ph value of meatball and nugget decreased as high as powder of inner part kecombrang stem concentrate. Assumed by ph solution of the powder of inner part kecombrang stem -3% quiet little, 3, 3, caused by the highest acid contents. It passed as antimicrobial or synergy with flavonoid compounds.,5,,3,, Inner stem of kecombrang concentration (%) Fig.. Effect inner stem of kecombrang concentration of meatball and nugget.on ph value ph value will decreased in a row of store increasing. Decreasing ph value indicated by acid smell detection on meatball and nugget with the longer shelf life. Assumed by organic acid of carbohydrate fragments resulted from microbes. Stamer (98) reported that microbes could change many components such as sugar or carbohydrate into acetate acid and lactate. As long as the storage, the growth of microbes will increase. According to Buckle et, al (7). Bacteria will change sugar into lactate acid or compounding lactate acids, acetate, 3

4 Formol value ph value propionate and butyrate, gathering with hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This case caused ph value of some product decreasing because of increasing of acidity.,8,,, 5,8 5, Storage time (days) Fig.. Effect of storage time of meatball and nugget on ph value. Formol value Formol value of meatball and nugget decreased in a row of increasing the concentrate of the powder of inner part kecombrang stem. Assumed by the higher concentrate, the more antimicrobial compounds affected microbe inhibitor in protein hydrolith. Then formol value will be low. Jay (99) reported that protein hydrolyzed by bacteria such as Clostridium, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas into peptide and amino acid enzymatic by proteolysis bacterium and spoiled.,5,5 Inner stem of kecombrang concentration (%) Fig. 3. inner stem of kecombrang concentration of meatballs and nugget.on formol value Formol value of meatballs increased in a row of increasing of shelf life. These are assumed by shelf life. The growth of microbial will increase and protein will be degradation. Antimicrobial of inner part kecombrang stem decreased as long as the long

5 Total microba (log cfu/g) Formol value shelf life and it could not inhibit the activity of microbial metabolism. According to Jay (99) spoiled is protein decomposition which is separated into pepton and the next peptide and should be amino acid and the last into carbonyl compound, carbohydrate acid, NH₃, H₂S, indol and skatol so it should be spoiled smell.,5,5 Storage time (days) Fig.. Effect of storage time of meatballs and nugget on Formol value 3. Total microbial Total microbial of meatballs and nugget increased in a row of increasing long shelf life. Assumed by the more shelf life, the great of the growth microbial. Microbial use nutrient essence such as fat and protein. According to Buckle et al (7) microorganism were better on cooking food product than raw product, because of nutrient essences were better and comparative pressure from other microorganism is decreased. 8 Storage time (days) Fig. 5. Effect of storage time of meatballs and nugget on total microbial 5

6 Total bacteria (cfu/g). Total of bacteria The lower total of bacteria in meatballs and nugget, the higher concentrate of the powder of inner part kecombrang stem. It is meant that the higher concentrate of the powder of inner part kecombrang stem, the higher to the compound of antimicrobial. The research of antimicrobial activity from kecombrang had been done by valianty (). The result showed that the oil of kecombrang flower can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria (negative Gram) and Bacillus substillis (positive Gram). According to Naufalin et al (5) who researched the characteristic of antibacterial from kecombrang flower, the kecombrang flower can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Istianto (8) reported that the powder of kecombrang stem can inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus with the inhibition zone of diameter 3,5mm.,8,,, 3,8 3, Inner stem of kecombrang concentration (%) Fig.. Effect inner stem of kecombrang concentration of meatballs and nugget.on total bacteria The long shelf life of the meatballs and nugget, the high total of bacteria is inside of these. It is meant that the longer shelf life of the meatballs and nugget, the higher growth and amount of the bacteria is in it. The growth of bacteria based on the nutrition in the meatballs and nugget. According to Fardiaz (99), all of bacteria which grow in the food have neterotrofix characteristic which need the organic essence for the growth. Neterotrofix bacteria use protein, carbohydrate, fat and other components of food as substances of carbon and energy for the growth.

7 Total mold and yeast (log CFU/g) Total bacteria (log cfu/g) Storage time (days) Fig. 7. The effect of shelf life meat balls and nugget on the total of bacteria 5. Total of mold and yeast The lower total of mold and yeast in the meatballs and nugget, the higher concentrate of powder of inner part kecombrang stem. It is meant that the higher concentrate of powder of inner part kecombrang stem, also the higher the compound of antimicrobial. According to naufalin et al (9) the content of inner part kecombrang stem are alkaloid, saponin, phenolic, flavonoid, triterpenoid, steroid, and glycoside which have the function as antimicrobial. According to Istianto (8) kecombrang stem has antifungi activity to snake fruit fungi, with inhibition zone of diameter mm. This value is higher than antifungi activity from flower and leaf of kecombrang with the inhibition zone of diameter 9,5 mm and 5,75 mm. 3, 3,3 3, 3, 3,9,8,7, Inner stem of kecombrang concentration (%) Fig. 8. Effect inner stem of kecombrang concentration of meatballs and nugget.on total mold and yeast 7

8 Total mold and yeast (log CFU/g) The higher total of mold and yeast in meatballs and nugget, the higher shelf life of meatballs and nugget too. It is meant that the longer shelf life of meatballs and nugget, the higher growth and amount of mold and yeast. The powder of inner part kecombrang stem cannot inhibit their growth. 5 3 Stotage time (days) Fig. 9. The effect of shelf life meatballs and nugget on the total of mold and khamir Sensory characteristic Kecombrang stem is nature preservative that can be used in meatballs and nugget. Based on organoleptic trial, the nature preservative with the concentrate % of kecombrang stem is preferred by panelist. There are meatballs with delicious taste, meatballs aroma, elastic, white color, flavor, and it is preferred by panelist. While nugget has delicious taste, aroma, elastic, white color, flavor, and it is also preferred by the panelist. Based on the trial, meatballs with kecombrang stem preservative appropriates with SNI meatballs (maximal total microbial 5 log cfu/g), and nugget (maximal total microbial 5 log cfu/g). CONCLUTIONS. Additional powder of inner part kecombrang stem can increase the quality of chemical and microbial, but decrease the quality of meatballs sensory which is produced. The concentrate of powder kecombrang stem can inhibit the increase of meatballs formol value. Every additional powder kecombrang stem % can decrease formol value amount to,5ml NaOH/g. the powder of kecombrang stem can decrease total of bacteria, and also total of mold and khamir in meatballs. Every additional powder % can decrease total of bacteria amount to,3 x cfu/g and total of mold and 8

9 khamir amount to,8 x cfu/g. the additional powder of kecombrang stem can decrease the panelist s judgment about the taste, texture, color, and preference. It could be used as a nature preservative for increasing the shelf life of meat balls and nugget in concentration of %.. The increase of shelf life in meatballs and nugget will decrease ph value in meatballs and nugget, but it will increase formol value, total of microbial, bacteria, mold and khamir. 3. The higher concentrate of the powder of inner part kecombrang stem, the higher shelf life of meatball and nugget too. REFERENCES Andayani, R. Y Standarisasi mutu bakso sapi berdasarkan kesukaan konsumen (studi kasus bakso di Wilayah DKI Jakarta). Skripsi. Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB, Bogor. Buckle, K. A., R. A. Edwards, G. H. Fleet dan M. Wooton. 7. Ilmu Pangan. UI Press, Jakarta. Fardiaz, S. 99. Mikrobiologi Pangan I. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta. Hidayanti, K. P. Mikroenkapsulasi hasil fraksinasi batang kecombrang (Nicolaia speciosa Horan) bagian dalam: penetapan aktivitas antibakteri mikrokapsul. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto. Istianto, T. 8. Efektivitas antimikroba kecombrang (Nicolaia speciosa Horan): pemgaruh bagianbagian tanaman kecombrang terhadap bakteri pathogen pangan dan fungi salak. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto. Jay,J. 99. Modern Food Microbiology. Chapman&Hall, New York. Milatina, N. 7. Pemanfaatan ekstrak jahe (Zingiber officinale R.) untuk meningkatkan masa simpan bakso. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, UNSOED, Purwokerto. Naufalin, R., B. S. L. Jenie, F. Kusnandar, M. Sudarwanto, dan H. S. Rukmini. 5. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak bunga kecombrang terhadap bakteri pathogen dan perusak pangan. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan (): 9-5. Naufalin, R., B. S. L. Jenie, F. Kusnandar, M. Sudarwanto, dan H. S. Rukmini. 7. Pengaruh ph, NaCl, dan pemanasan terhadap stabilitas antibakteri bunga kecombrang dan aplikasinya pada daging sapi giling. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 7 (3): 97-. Naufalin, R., H. S. Rukmini, T. Yanto, dan Erminawati. 9. Formulasi dan produksi pengawet alami dari kecombrang (Nicolaia speciosa Horan). Laporan Penelitian Hibah Kompetensi. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi. 9

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