Chapter 5: Nutrition Eating for Optimum Health. - water - vitamins - minerals

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1 Chapter 5: Nutrition Eating for Optimum Health The Nutrients in Foods: 6 essential nutrients Macro Micro - carbohydrates - amino acids - lipids - water - vitamins - minerals Calorie Values of Energy Nutrients: - a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular food Nutrient (substrate) Energy - carbohydrate (sugars) - fats (lipids) - protein (amino acids) - alcohol (ethanol) - 4 cal/g - 9 cal/g - 4 cal/g - 7 cal/g The Digestive Process: - process by which food is broken down and absorbed or excreted by the body Even before you take your first bite, your mouth prepares for the food by increasing saliva production SALIVA: fluid secreted by the salivary glands that contains enzymes that assist in the digestion of some foods AMYLASE: initiates the digestive process for carbohydrates from your mouth food passed down your... ESOPHAGUS: tube that transports food from the mouth to the stomach by a series of contractions and relaxations called peristalsis food then moves to the next digestive organ your... STOMACH: large muscular organ that temporarily stores, mixes and digests food (HCL)

2 SMALL INTESTINE: contains duodenum, jejunum, ileum. Each section secretes digestive enzymes that contribute to breakdown of nutrients LIVER: major organ that determines whether nutrients are stored, sent to cells or organs, or excreted LARGE INTESTINE: digestive wastes sent, most water and salts reabsorbed and fibre is passed through to the anus *The entire digestive process takes approx. 24 hours* Obtaining Essential Nutrients: Carbohydrates (sugars): supplys the body with energy Simple carbohydrates (found primarily in fruits) Monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, fructose Disaccharides: maltose, lactose, sucrose Complex carbohydrates ex. Grains, cereals, breads, pastas, legumes (beans) Polysaccharides: fibre (non-digestible part of plants), starch, glycogen (stored in the liver) Fibre: 25 g/day women, 38 g/day men - when the body requires a sudden burst of energy, it breaks down glycogen into glucose Fats (lipids) - basic nutrient that provides taste and texture to food, absorb vitamins and are needed for proper functioning of cells, insulation of body organs against shock, maintenance of body temperature, and healthy skin and hair Triglycerides ~95% of lipid family; 5% sterols (cholesterol) Saturated (fats) vs. Unsaturated (oils) Lipoproteins: HDL/LDL

3 Transport vitamins: A, D, E, K Proteins (amino acids) - essential constituent of nearly all body cells, necessary for the development and repair of bone, muscle, skin and blood, and key elemets of antibodies, enzymes and hormones Essential: 8 of the basic nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein Non-Essential amino acids Complete (20: meat, meat derived products); Incomplete (>20: plant-based products) Plant sources: legumes, grains, nuts & seeds Recommendation: ~0.8g/kg bodyweight Water Approx % of body composition Minimum 6 glasses a day (ideally water) Vitamins Fat soluble: absorb through intestinal tract with help of fat (A, D, E, K) Water soluble: dissolves easily in water (B complex, C) Minerals Growth and metabolism: without minerals, vitamins could not be absorbed Macrominerals (>5grams in the body) (7) Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium Trace minerals (<5grams in the body)

4 (15) Iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, fluoride Calcium: recommended 1000 milligrams of calcium per day Milk products, green vegetables Carbonated drinks may cause excretion Vitamin D increases absorption Osteoporosis Iron Vitamin C will increase absorption Caffeine prevents absorption Anemia: iron deficiency disease that results from the body s inability to produce hemoglobin. When this occurs the body cells receive less oxygen and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficiently resulting in a person feeling tired and run down - women are more likely than men to suffer from iron deficiency problems, partly because they eat less than men and because of blood loss from menstrual flows Changing the Meat & Potatoes Person - Eating red meat, main dish, 5x/week = 4 times risk of colon cancer (vs. those eating red meat 1x/month) - Fruits and vegetables (phytochemicals): antioxidants lowers risk of stroke and cancer - About 4% of Canadians are vegetarians - Legumes are important - Many types of vegetarians Food Safety: A growing Concern Food allergies

5 Reactions: hives, rash, swelling, itchiness, vomiting, irregularity in breathing, shock, etc. Common: legumes (soy), nuts, shellfish, eggs, wheat, and milk Food intolerances Do not involve the immune system Minimizing Food-borne Illness Eat red meat, seafood, and poultry within 1 to 2 days; leftovers within 3 days Hot foods hot, cold foods cold Refrigerate cooked food within 2 hours Thaw food in the refrigerator Avoid cross-contamination (soap, hot water) When Funds Are Short Eating Well as a University or College Student Fruits and vegetables, canned or frozen Sales, discount/bulk food chains Buy in volume, freeze; cook large meals and freeze/store smaller portions Healthy Eating in the Dormitory ( The Freshman 15 ) Eat small and frequent meals (do not skip meals) Emotional eating (ex. during exams) Social events (alcohol and high fatty foods) Fast Foods: Eating on the Run Nutritional analyses, if possible

6 Skinless, non-fried meats Minimize all types of fried foods Minimize mayo, sauces, salad dressings, etc. Less processed food, more unprocessed foods High fiber, lots of liquids = satiation - hunger vs. appetite Balanced Diet: % carbs - 30% fats % protein The Nutrition Facts Panel - Servings per container - Macronutrients - Vitamin A, C; Calcium, Iron - Daily Values - Ingredients list Keep in Mind: Healthy Eating Frequency! ex. 3 feedings per day vs. 6 feedings per day Quantity! ex. 2 egg white omelette and water vs. 5 strips of bacon, 2 sausage links, and 2 slices of buttered white toast Quality! ex. grilled slices of zucchini vs. deep-fried zucchini sticks dipped in sour crème

7 CHAPTER 5: QUIZ 1. Which would be the best to maximize for your health? - high-density lipoproteins, therefore low-density lipoproteins are bad for your health 2. Each gram of fat provides calories of energy. - 9 cal/g 3. A major form of complex carbohydrates that are stored in the liver are called: - glycogen 4. Organically grown foods: - are reported to be pesticide and chemical-free 5. The recommended amount of water per day is: - 6 to 8 glasses 6. Proteins in this food group have all eight essential amino acids: - poultry 7. What percentage of calories should come from fat in a healthy diet? - 30 percent 8. A vitamin that assists with calcium absorption is: - vitamin D 9. The major organ that determines whether nutrients are stored, sent to cells or organs, or exerted is the - liver 10. All of the following statements about fats are true EXCEPT - Fats provide less energy per gam than carbohydrates

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