Summary of Findings Related to Milk Selection in Eugene School District

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1 Crnell Unrrtnirty Charles H. Qlsn Schl f ApplÈd Estmics and Managemcnt Summary f Findings Related t Milk Selectin in Eugene Schl District Whether t include r mit chclate milk frm schl lunchrms is htly debated. While mitting chclate milk des reduce available calries and sugars in a student's lunch, students may nt cnsume milk at all. As a result they may nt receive the prtein, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D that are very imprtant fr yung peple, and that are available in chclate milk. n the reprt belw, we demnstrate that this is a real cncern and that further research is needed t draw clearer cnclusins. We received milk selectin data frm Eugene Schl District fr 2L schls but in the analysis we mitted 9 because the schl either clsed after the schl year, r had large swings in enrllment between the LL and 20ll-2012 schl years. The 11 schls we used in analysis are Chavez, Crridr, Edisn, Fx Hllw, Gilham, Hlt, Hward, McCrnach River Rad, Spring Creelç and Twin Oaks. T begin, ur analysis eches the results frm in the Schl District's reprt that participatin in the schl lunch prgram decreased despite increased enrllment in schls. n Figure 1 we shw that average enrllment decreasedby 0.4/ [p = 0.512)1but average daily participatin decreased by 6.80/ [p < 0). This result suggests that mitting chclate milk may have an impact n participatin in the schl lunch prgram. t is imprtant t fllw this up with further research, Participatin in the schl lunch prgram is nly ne f the effects f mitting chclate milk. We find that mitting chclate milk als affects verall milk selectin which may ptentially have negative health cnsequences. n Figure 2 we demnstrate that daily milk selectin decreased by nearly ll/ (p < 0) after chclate milk was n lnger ffered, Even thugh many students pted t take mre 1% milk, nearly 15 students per day decided nt t take milk at all. We dug deeper int the milk selectin data t determine the health cnsequences f remving chclate milk frm the cafeterias. Figures 3a-e demnstrate that althugh average daily calries cnsumed per student frm milk decreased, there were nt increases in calcium, vitamin A, r vitamin D frm milk t accmpany the calrie decrease. Specifically, Figure 3a shws that average daily milk calries per student decreased by 2l.3/ [p < 0.088), Withut further thught this appears t be a psitive gain, Ntice, hwever, that average daily grams f prtein per student increased by 4/ (p = 0.749), average milligrams f calcium decreased by 3.5/ (p = 0.Zg+J, average daily quantity f vitamin A per student decreased by 3.5/ (p = 0,784), and average daily quantity f vitamin D per student decreased by 3.5/ (p = 0.Zg+). Unfrtunately, nly the amunt f prtein increased, thugh by an extremely small amunt, but amunts f the ther ingredients decreased, als by small amunts. This calls fr a mre in depth analysis t mre fully understand hw students are affected. 1 This is a p-value. P-values less than 0.05 are statistically B.E.N. Center smarterlunchrms.rg

2 (ì rnr{l [-rhivuniity Charles H. Dysn fthl f Appli.d Esrcnics and Managsnrerrt These results bring up tw very interesting pints. First f all, the decrease in average daily calries per student frm the decrease in milk selectin des nt accunt fr the decrease in ttal lunch calries reprted in the nutrient analysis prvided by Eugene Schl District. Since this decrease in ttal lunch calries happened at the same time chclate milk was n lnger available, we cnjecture that there are imprtant but unknwn substitutins between fds when chclate milk is n lnger ffered. f we understand these substitutins, we can better understand what fds main and side dishes students prefer with different types f milk. This will prvide insight int the cmbinatins f fds students chse t meet their calric needs. Unmet calric targets in the Eugene Schl District als suggest that students meet these needs with ptentially higher calrie fds frm vending machines r hme. Anther very imprtant implicatin f ur results is that the "marginal", r fence sitting, student n lnger cnsumes milk nce chclate milk is taken frm the line. These students may be thse wh need the mst attentin in terms f health and withut chclate mil( they are nt receiving the calcium, and ther vitamins available in chclate milk. Furthermre, they culd very well be filling their stmachs with higher energy dense fds nce they return hme. These results are nly a step twards understanding the effects f mitting chclate milk frm cafeterias. This is fruitful grund fr a carefully designed experiment that will enable us t draw much clearer cnclusins regarding the impacts keeping r remving chclate milk. n an experiment, we prpse that ut f the 17 nn-cnslidated schls, chclate milk be re-intrduced t randmly assigned schls. Thse 9 schls that keep the //skim cmbinatin will act as the cntrl grup. Befre chclate milk is re-intrduced in the B schls, we als prpse that waste measurements n tw separate ccasins at each schl. Our team has develped a relatively quick and efficient methd fr measuring waste and we will pass this infrmatin alng. Once chclate milk is reintrduced in the randmly assigned schls, we prpse that waste be measured again n tw separate ccasins in all schls. These waste measurements will be essential in determining cmbinatins f fds children select, and cnsume, with r withut chclate milk ønd the nutrient effect f ffering chclate milk. We believe a study f this type will prvide strng evidence fr parents that fd service staff and schl administratrs are very invlved in prmting health in schls and take strng interest in prviding the best ptin fr their children. t will als be an imprtant element in the current debate regarding chclate milk in B.E.N. Center 2 smarterlunchrms.rg

3 Crnell Univemily Charles H. Dysn Schl l Applied Esrcmis and Management Figure 1: Average Enrllment Drpped Very Little ButAverage Participatin in the Schl Lunch Prgram Drpped Mre 40 ta ã :s. ttt E. ã 2s O Þ0 fil g 20 2t Enrllment.20t ADP Figure 2: After Chclate Milk was Remved Milk Selectin Decreased by 11% 25 tt c) at z q,) Þ c!, L42.L9 1% milk Chclate[' 1 0] /Skim(' 1 1l r O B.E.N. Center 3 smarterlunchrms.rg

4 Cmell Llniveniity Cha les H. Dysn Schl f Applied Ësmarics and Manatern rnt Figure 3a: Average Daily Calries per Student Decreased, È E JU L JE 8ü x (! Ê b0 r!, T r 1l milk Chclate[' 10J/Skim ['1 1) tt Figure 3b: Average Daily Grams f Prtein per Student Slightly ncreased OJ Hq) Á t)!!õ à ri = ^ O ê (lt ( ) % milk Chclate(' 101 /Skim['1 1) B.E.N. Center 4 smarterlunchrms.rg

5 Cmcll Uniwsity Chârtes H. Qrn Schl f Applie,t Ectcrics and Managsfivrt Figure 3c: Average Daily Milligrams f Calcium per Student Decreased _ 35 Ë f; ^,s. =õ!! z. ãul þ!. rs. =g þ i r! r. â S" 5 t r! å. L% milk Chclate['10)/Skim[' 1 1J.20t0.20tt Figure 3d: Average Daily Quantity f Vitamin A per Student Decreased 60 >õ T! àfi E - Êí) ð := (! Ê= 9",E G iri È 30 ( ) % milk L29.75 Chclate['10)/Skim[' 1 1] ú.67 All miìk.20t0.207l O B.E.N. Center 5 smarterlunchrms.rg

6 C nrell Uniwruity Ch rles H. D snfthl f Applie,t Ecurpmb and Managencnt Figure 3e: Average Daily Quantity f Vitamin D per Student Decreased _ 72 Ë Ê 10 t S B. >õ S3 à t 6 É9 (E J! ð 40'00 = =à (lt Ê 2 ) Þ0 G L% milk Chclate(' 1 0l/Skim('1 1J r t O B.E.N. Center 6 smarterlunchrms.rg

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