Choline & Autoimmunity

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1 Impact of vitamins & nutrients on neurological function Choline & Autoimmunity Instructor: Nafisa Jadavji, PhD

2 Lecture Outline Topics/Questions from last week Choline Questions BREAK Choline and Neurodegeneration Autoimmunity & Nutrition Questions

3 Brain is 10 times more active than previously measured, UCLA researchers find - Study focuses on dendrites - Found that dendrites are more active than initially thought - Thought that the cell body was the most active part of the neuron - Dendrites are more electrochemically active in animals moving around freely

4 How what we eat affects our brain

5 Nutrition text books Available on Amazon: Whole: Rethinking the Science of Nutrition by T. Colin Campbell, Howard Jacobson The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Longterm Health by T. Colin Campbell Introduction to Human Nutrition 2nd Edition by Michael J. Gibney, Susan A. Lanham-New, Aedin Cassidy, Hester H. Vorster

6 Vitamins Can be categorized as: 1) FAT SOLUBLE 2) WATER SOLUBLE Solubility

7 Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Soluble in fats Stores in body tissues Intestine they are absorbed by fat globules and moved into circulation BOTTOM LINE: vitamin stays in your body

8 Fat Soluble Too much vitamins in body can develop hypervitaminosis (too much vitamins) Can become deficient in vitamins if: Fat intake is too low Fat absorptions is compromised by certain drugs (e.g. cystic fibrosis deficiency of enzyme (breaks things down) in pancreas which disrupts absorption of fate from intestine

9 Water Soluble Vitamins B and C Require continuous supple to your body Steady daily intake required Take too much, then your body removes it (e.g. pee it out)

10 Why does coffee affect B-vitamins absorption? Caffeine is a mild diuretic (increases urination) B-vitamins are water soluble, so they can be depleted as a result of fluid loss Vitamin B12 is not depleted Caffeine stimulates production of stomach acid Increase in stomach acid helps body absorb vitamin B12

11 When to combine vitamins, nutrients, etc. Fat-Soluble vs. Water-Soluble - difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins - water-soluble vitamins will be excreted if we overconsume them - fat-soluble vitamins will be stored, which can lead to a toxicity if we aren't cautious.

12 When to combine vitamins, nutrients, etc. How to Best Absorb Water-Soluble Vitamins - water-soluble vitamins, important to recognize how easily these nutrients are compromised in storage and cooking - For example, overcooked vegetables will become depleted of vitamin C, leading to only vitamin-rich cooking water - avoid this by limiting storage and monitoring cooking methods

13 Websites for more information.

14 Vitamin B17 also called amygdalin or laetrile, is a glycoside nutrient linked with cancer prevention in alternative medicine practices (anecdotal claims) Vitamin B17 is derived from natural food sources and most abundant in seeds of plants of the prunasin family, such as apricots and apples. Vitamin B17 interacts with other antioxidants including vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E along with pancreatic enzymes to break down and eliminate harmful cells from the body. This makes it beneficial for detox support, immunity and potentially even various forms of disease prevention More information:

15 Vitamin B50 complex Combination of B vitamins (B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin and folic acid) Used to treat or prevent vitamin deficiency due to poor diet, certain illnesses, alcoholism or during pregnancy vitamin group is essential for the body's enzyme systems, that it regulates the metabolism, supplies energy, keeps the nervous system balanced and regulates the endocrine system

16 Choline Essential Nutrient Involved in maintenance of DNA and chromosome stability

17 Food sources of choline - food sources of choline are high in fats and cholesterol - only 20-25% of people get adequate levels of choline

18 Choline & Neurological Function Membrane formation

19 Neurotransmitter: acetylcholine Choline acetyltransferase Choline + AcetylCoA Acetylcholine

20 Choline & Neurological Function Makes Acetylcholine Acetylcholine is involved in memory and motor function Cholinergic Neuron

21 Choline & Neurological Function Metabolism of Homocysteine Reduces levels of homocysteine Interacts with folates metabolism

22 How choline affects DNA summary

23 Choline Review Video

24 Choline and Neurodevelopment Generally: involved in building of cellular membranes, DNA methylation and stores of choline in body Brain demands a lot of choline Specially for cellular membranes Neurotransmitter: acetylcholine Myelination Synapse formation Neural tube defects: preliminary animal studies

25 Questions?

26 Break!

27 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration Significant cholinergic cell loss during aging

28 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration Possibly a result of a loss of nerve growth factor (NGF) NGF is neurotrophic factor

29 Neurotrophins

30 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration STUDY clinical trial of NGF gene therapy individuals with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) for 22 months No long-term adverse effects of NGF Delayed the rate of cognitive decline Schliebs et al., 2010

31 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration STUDY: Aged monkeys long-term NGF delivery cholinergic basal forebrain (subcortical structure) restored cholinergic neuronal markers to levels of young monkeys extended NGF support to neurons may reverse aging-related neuronal loss Schliebs et al., 2010

32 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration cognitive deficits in Parkinsons s disease, Down-syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Jakob Creutzfeld disease, Korsakoff s syndrome, traumatic brain injury significant degenerations of basal forebrain cholinergic cells have been observed

33 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration Late stage of Alzheimer s disease, extensive cholinergic loss in cortex Early stages of Alzheimer s disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment no loss of cholinergic cells

34 Alzheimer s disease

35 Choline in Aging and Neurodegeneration

36 Neurodegeneration Progression

37 Acetylcholine and Alzheimer's disease

38 Choline and Cancer Deficiency causes increased mutation rates and strand breaks Animals studies have shown that supplementation (0.8% more choline) decreases cancer Human studies have shown that supplementation also decreases risk of developing cancer Breast Cancer

39 Fatty Liver and Choline Choline deficiency results in fatty liver Choline is involved in the synthesis of Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylcholine, is an essential part of the outer phospholipid component of lipoproteins This leads to reduced secretion of liver triglyceride as VLDL, resulting in accumulation of liver triglycerides

40 What is immunity?

41 Immune response in the brain Limited Microglial (type of glial cells) Macrophage cells First and main form of active immune defense in the brain and Spinal cord

42

43 Microbiome Microbial cells and genetic material Involved in digestion, growth, immunity and brain 1014 microorganisms reside in the GI tract Sensitive to diet, stress, infection and pharma logical interventions Changes during different milestones in lie

44

45 Microbiome brain gut axis Maintains homeostasis Regulation of satiety and digestive function Modulation linked to stress Communication via neurons and hormones Disruption of bacteria in gut may be linked to development of autoimmune diseases

46 Autoimmunity Systems of immune responses Instead of targeting foreign /harmful things, hosts own healthy tissue is targeted Causes: genes, environment

47 Autoimmunity and Nutrition lack of evidence-based information about dietary treatments for autoimmune diseases nutritional red flags that may arise during the management of autoimmune conditions Examples: analgesics nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Corticosteroids disease-modifying drugs may cause side effects such as nausea and vomiting, stomach pains, mouth sores, and decreased appetite

48 Alzheimer's disease: autoimmunity More prevalent in women, 1 in 6 Males, 1 in 11 Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are present in low levels in normal brains Brain naturally produces molecules (antibodies) to remove plaques and tangles when they become too much Proposed that too much of these antibodies actually causes disease progression Antibodies start to attack healthy brain tissue

49 Inflammation Inflammation is a key component of the immune response

50 Alzheimer's disease: autoimmunity Study presented at the 2014 Alzheimer s Association International Conference Drug etanercept might halt the progression of Alzheimer s disease Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a type of anti-inflammatory drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis Also immune suppresent

51 Multiple Sclerosis and Nutrition Paleolithic diet based on the hypothesis that our bodies are poorly evolved to handle modern diet Focus on consuming food from hunter-gatherer life style Consume 3 servings of vegetables/day Consume 2 tablespoons of omega -3 oils Do not consume any dairy, eggs of gluten containing grains MS patients: improvement in fatigue scores over a period of 12 months *study also incorporated exercise, stretching, massage, meditation and electrical stimulation and no control group; more studies needed More information: Documents/Diet-and-Multiple-Sclerosis-Bhargava pdf

52 Rheumatoid Arthritis

53 Omega 3 anti-inflammatory properties, useful in the management of autoimmune diseases thus they ve been investigated in conditions such as arthritis, Crohn s disease, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis

54 Omega 3 a May 2010 review published in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society long-standing rheumatoid arthritis meta- and mega-analyses of randomized, controlled trials indicate reduction in tender joints and decreased use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fish oil supplementation in

55 Anti inflammatory eating One approach dietitians can support is an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant eating strategy aimed at decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress and promoting a healthy immune balance study published in the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were found to have a significantly lower antioxidant capacity compared with control subjects.

56 Anti inflammatory eating study published August 15, 2006, in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology researchers found that diets high in refined starches, sugar, saturated fats, and trans fats and low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acids appeared to turn on the inflammatory response. a diet rich in whole foods, including healthful carbohydrates, fats, and protein sources, cooled inflammatory response down. Optimal diet for all? Rich in whole plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds; is rich in healthful fat sources such as extra-virgin olive oil, avocado, nuts, and fish; and includes foods such as tea, dark chocolate, spices and herbs, and red wine in moderation.

57 Questions? Next week: Vitamin E and D

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