Adrenal & Gonadal Hormones

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1 Adrenal & Gonadal Hormones Topics for today: Adrenal cortex hormone Adrenal medulla hormones Hormone control of organs Steroid hormone synthesis Vitamin D3 Estrogens and Progesterone Layers of adrenal cortex zona glomerulosa zona fasiculata zona reticularis 1

2 Hormones of adrenal cortex zona glomerulosa zona fasiculata zona reticularis Androgens dehydroepiandrosterone increased protein synthesis masculinizing effects in female (hypersecretion) dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA is weak androgen with almost no effect in male but has masculinizing effects in females Adrenal medulla (interior) Composed of modified post-synaptic sympathetic neurons Releases mostly epinephrine. Has effects similar to those triggered by sympathetic nervous system Adrenal medulla hormones -CH-CH2 - N- H H epinephrine Effects of epinephrine: causes elevated blood glucose level stimulates glycolysis & fatty acid use increases cardiac output & blood pres shifts blood flow to skeletal muscle increases rate and depth of respiration 2

3 rgan responses to Epinephrine Causes glycogen degradation in muscle Causes fatty acid release from adipose tissue glycogen fatty acids triglycerides muscle lactate lactate glycerol adipose tissue Causes release of glucose from liver liver glycogeno lysis glucose...elevated plasma level Hormone action time Epinephrine is in group of fast-acting hormones Fast-acting Hormones Norepinephrine Epinephrine Insulin glucagon Slow-acting Hormones Throxine Cortisol Growth hormone Estrogens Androgens Hormone control of metabolism (Pathway/metabolic effects) Insulin Glucagon Epinephrine Cortisol Glycogenesis Gluconeogenesis Glycogen degrad Protein degradation Glycolysis Glycogen degrad Glycolysis (effect in muscle) Lipid synth (effect in liver) Lipid degrad Protein synth Protein synth Gluconeogenesis Glycogen degrad (effect in liver) 3

4 Endocrine disfunctions Cushing s syndrome excessive cortisol resulting in loss of muscle protein Addison s disease insufficent aldosterone causing cardiac disturbance due to high K + Adrenogenital syndrome excessive androgen causing virilization in female C CH2H C= H CH2H C= Steroid synthesis cholesterol cholesterol pregnenolone CH2H C progesterone 17-H progesterone progesterone H testosterone desoxycorticosterone cortisol 19-Nor-testosterone testosterone H Vitamin D3 synthesis cholesterol H CH2 1,25-dihydroxy Vit D3 4

5 Hormone control of Calcium levels Parathormone Calcitonin Vitamin D. Renal reabsorption of Ca - - Intestinal absorption of Ca - - Ca mobilization from bone * - Serum Ca level * Ca mobilization results from action on hydroxyapatite(the mineral matrix of bone) by acid phosphatase released from osteoclasts. varian follicles & corpus luteum Follicular phase - FSH control primary follicles follicle cells (estrogen synthesis) secondary oocyte mature follicle LH triggered ovulation ovum corpus luteum Luteal phase - LH control Hormones of the ovaries Hormones of the Follicular phase: H H estriol estrone (the estrogens ) The Luteal phase CH2H C progesterone 5

6 Hormonal effects of estrogens General effects: stimulates bone elongation and then closure of the epiphyseal plates produce a general anabolic effect stimulates female pattern of fat distribution stimulates mammary gland growth Reproductive system effects: stimulates growth of uterus & fallopian tubes stimulates growth of external genitalia Synthetic estrogen H Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that binds estrogen receptors. It was formerly used to prevent premature labor and also used as a feed additive to promote growth of livestock and poultry. It has been linked to increased risk of vaginal or cervical carcinoma. Effects of progesterone maturation of uterine mucous glands stimulates uterine glands to secrete mucus blocks androgen effects (competes for binding) 6

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