1 Nutrition of Horticultural Crops Monica Ozores-Hampton University of Florida/IFAS/SWFREC Spring 2013
3 Essential Nutrients - List MACRONUTRIENTS: MICRONUTRIENTS: Nitrogen Boron Phosphorus Chlorine Potassium Copper Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese Sulfur Molybdenum Zinc Free elements : C, H, O
4 Why are N, P, and K the primary nutrients? Plant uses a lot. Easily lost from soil. Plant uses a lot. Can be fixed in clay soil, or leached from sandy soil. N P K Plant uses a moderate amount. Many soils fix P, rendering it unavailable to plants.
5 Production of P fertilizers Most P fertilizers are based on the production of wet process phosphoric acid, made by acidulating phosphate rock (apatite) with sulfuric acid Ca 10 F 2 (PO 4 ) H 2 SO 4 10 CaSO HF + 6 H 3 PO 4
6 Mining of P: North Africa, North America (FL, TN), Kola Peninsula in Russia
7 Relative Essential Element Composition of an Average Plant MICRO- NUTRIENTS Required in smaller amounts MACRO- NUTRIENTS Required in large amounts Element No. atoms relative to Mo Molybdenum 1 Copper 100 Zinc 300 Manganese 1,000 Boron 2,000 Iron 2,000 Chlorine 3,000 Sulfur 30,000 Phosphorus 60,000 Magnesium 80,000 Calcium 125,000 Potassium 250,000 Nitrogen 1,000,000 Oxygen 30,000,000 Carbon 35,000,000 Hydrogen 60,000,000
8 P: Chemistry Background Phosphorus (P). Atomic weight: 31 Between Si and S in periodic chart P fractions in cultivated soils: P in solution Labile P Non-labile P Important forms for plant nutrition: Orthophosphates: H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4 - at ph 5.5 to 7 Phophorus acid (H 3 PO 3 ) has no nutritional value
10 Conversion Factor - P Element X 2.29 Oxide P X P 2 O 5 Formula Element Atomic weight Total molecular weight P 2 O 5 P O X2= x5=80.00 Total = The % of P in P 2 O 5 = x 100/ = factor lb of P 2 O 5 = lb of P
11 P Fertilizer Name Analysis (oxide/p 2 O 5 ) Diammonium phosphate (DAP) Monoammonium phosphate (MAP) Normal or Triple-Super phosphate (SP or TSP) & Monopotassium phosphate Rock phosphate variable
13 Ammonium Orthophosphates are Produced by Ammoniating Phosphoric Acid MAP (Monoammonium phosphate) (NH 4 H 2 PO 4 ): 10-12% N 48-55% P 2 O 5 DAP (Diammonium phosphate) [(NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ]: 18% N 46% P 2 O 5 P 2 O 5 N
14 Concentrated Superphosphate (Triple superphosphate) [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 H 2 O]: Made with phosphoric acid Contains 46% P 2 O 5 (0-46-0) P 2 O 5
15 Normal or Single Superphosphate Made with sulfuric acid Contains 20% P 2 O 5 Contains 12% S Is no longer in widespread use P 2 O 5 S
17 Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid: H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4-2H + + HPO H + + PO P-acid: pka1 = 2.12; pka2 = 7.21; pka3 = Soil ph: - Green: target - Blue: sandy soils FL - Red: calcareous soils
19 Eutrophication The excessive growth of aquatic plants and algae caused by the addition of nutrients and sediments to water.
20 Phosphorus in soils: Does it move or not? Midwest textbook If there was a Fla textbook Most soil P is tied up due to insolubility. Available P is 1% or less of total soil P. Crops use 30% or less of applied P fertilizer. P fertilizer moves less than 2 from where it is applied. The risk of P movement is high in Spodosols. S. Fla. sandy soils can lose P by both leaching and runoff. P leaching from sandy soils can be a water quality concern.
21 Relative Movement of N, P, K in the Soil
22 P uptake P moves in the soil along concentration gradients H 2 PO - 4 taken up is not chemically altered Uptake uses co-transport or antiport (HCO 3- ) involving ATPases P moves in the xylem and phloem
23 Phosphorus Is Taken Up by Plants as: primary orthophosphate ion: H 2 PO 4 - (ph < 7.0) secondary orthophosphate ion: HPO 4 = (ph > 7.0) Solution P The form most common is a function of soil ph both equally present at neutral
24 Roles Phosphorus Plays in Plant Growth Cell buffer system as H 3 PO 4 Nucleotides (AMP, ADP, ATP) Phytin (Ca-Mg phytic acid salt) in seeds Early root formation and growth Constituent of P-lipids, lipoproteins and lipo-saccharides
25 Crops Take Up Large Quantities of Phosphorus Yield P 2 O 5 taken up Crop level in total crop ( lb) Alfalfa 8 tons 120 Coastal bermudagrass 8 tons 96 Corn 160 bu 91 Cotton, lint 1,000 lb 51 Grain sorghum 8,000 lb 84 Soybeans 60 bu 58 Wheat 60 bu 41
26 Seeds Contain More Phosphorus than Other Plant Parts Plant Yield P content P removal Crop part level (%) (lb/acre) Corn Grain 150 bu Stover 7,500 lb Cotton Seed 2,000 lb Stalks 2,500 lb Soybeans Grain 50 bu Straw 7,000 lb Wheat Grain 60 bu Straw 5,400 lb
27 Factors Affecting P Uptake and Efficiency Root surface: Vesicular Arbuscular Rhizobacteria (VAR) increases P uptake Moisture: increased moisture increases P uptake Chemical form: ph, precipitation Placement: banded vs broadcast Soil temperature: cool soil have lower P availability
28 Mycorrhizae Fungal hyphae closely associated (symbiosis) with roots: Carbohydrates are supplied by the roots Water and nutrients (mainly P) uptake is favored by the sheath oh hyphae Thin fungal hyphae better colonize the soil Most families, except Brassica
29 Increase of root surface with VAR a1 b1 a2 b2
30 P Level Affects P Uptake by Corn during Periods of Moisture Stress P uptake, lb/1,000 lb of roots High P Medium P Low P Soil moisture tension, bars
31 The decision to band or broadcast largely depends on the management philosophy of the grower and water quality issues
32 Phosphorus Placement Has a Significant Effects on Yields Low P soil tests Application Corn Sorghum, Wheat method (bu/acre) (lb/acre) (bu/acre) Broadcast 170 4, Pre-plant band 184 5,600 64
33 Phosphorus Fertility Program
34 Soil sample
35 Soil Testing Phosphorus Interpretations Soil test rating M3 Soil-test P (ppm) Probability that crop will respond to K fertilizer Low 25 Good Medium It might, it might not High 41 > About zero
36 ESTL Phosphorus Soil Test Summary Vegetables Citrus Lawns H M L VL M L VL M L VL VH H VH H VH 73% 54% 44% High + Very High
37 Florida are Based on the Results of Mehlich 3 Nutrient Recommended base fertilization Recommended supplemental fertilization (lb/acre) Pre-plant (lb/acre) Leaching rain Measured low plant nutrient content Extended harvest season Target ph N VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P 2 O K 2 O (lb/acre/crop season) N and K: A leaching rain is defined as a rainfall amount of 3 inches in 3 days or 4 inches in 7 days.
39 Sample Fertilizer Label GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Total Nitrogen (N) % 5.8% Ammoniacal Nitrogen 9.2% Urea Nitrogen Available Phosphoric Acid (P2O5) % Soluble Potash (K2O) % Boron (B) % Copper (Cu) % 0.07 Water Soluble Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) % 0.15% Chelated Iron Manganese (Mn)...0.5% 0.05% Chelated Manganese Molybdenum (Mo) % Zinc (Zn) % 0.06 Water Soluble Zinc Derived from Urea, Ammonium Phosphate, Urea Phosphate, Muriate of Potash, Boric Acid, Copper Sulfate, Iron EDTA, Manganese EDTA, Sodium Molybdate, and Zinc Sulfate.
40 P in Fertilization Programs P taken up throughout crop cycle and little mobile in the soil: P is mostly supplied in the pre-plant fertilizer P favors root growth: P added in pop-up fertilizer (ex.: ) Phosphoric acid used to clean drip tubes
42 Adequate P Range Vegetables: 0.2% to 0.7% Ornamentals: 0.1% to 0.5% Trees: 0.1% to 0.3% These broad ranges need to be fine-tuned based on production system
45 Interactions with other Elements Ca in solution helps P uptake, but high Ca in soil precipitates P (Ca-P) Mg is activator of kinase enzymes and activates P transfer reactions Aluminum P in intracellular regions of root tips reduces P translocation
46 Summary Plant P content is about 1/10 th that of N or K. Importance of P as a primary nutrient is related to P-soil interaction. Florida soils are not high P-fixers. P soil tests suggest that P can accumulate and remain available for years. Plant P deficiency is rare in FLorida. Soil tests should be counted on to guide P fertilization.
47 Bonus questions What is the relationship between P presence and its availability? What is the current soil test used in Florida for P? Do you always need to apply P? Why?
Potassium and Phosphorus as Plant Nutrients Secondary Nutrients and Micronutrients Potassium is required in large amounts by many crops Yield K 2 O taken up Crop level/ac in total crop, lb Alfalfa 8 tons
The Supply and Availability of Plant Nutrients in Mineral Soils Plant Nutrients in Mineral Soils Factors Controlling the Growth of Higher Plants 1. Light 2. Mechanical Support. Heat. Air 5. Water 6. Nutrients
Fertilizer Proper Selection and Use J.B. Sartain University of Florida Gainesville, FL NITROGEN NITROGEN MOST HEAVILY USED NUTRIENT SOURCE AFFECTS GROWTH RATE AND COLOR CAN BE EASILY MISUSED SOIL ANALYSES
Reading and Analyzing your Fertilizer Bag Dr. Cari Peters Vice President firstname.lastname@example.org Designer, Formulator, Producer and custom manufacturer of high quality fertilizer products. Hand s on Horticulture
Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers Essential Standard 6.00- Explain the role of nutrients and fertilizers. Objective 6.01 Discuss macro and micro nutrients and the role they play in plant deficiencies. Macro
Multi-K Potassium Nitrate Products For Healthy Crops Contents Potassium in the plant Multi-K and its advantages Nutrigation with Multi-K Foliar nutrition with Haifa Bonus Multi-K properties Multi-K products
AGRY 515: What do you know? In 10 minutes, fill out what you can. Educated guesses are strongly encouraged. Criteria for Essential Elements A. B. C. Essential Elements (17): Nonmineral (3): Mineral (14):
REMEMBER as we go through this exercise: Science is the art of making simple things complicated! Fertilization of Hops Ron Godin, Ph.D., Colorado State University Extension Fertilization of Hops - Care
Soils, Nutrients and Fertilizers Part I I Handouts: Home Garden Soil Testing and Fertilizer Guidelines MontGuide Nutrients 17 elements essential for plant growth Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED Abbreviation Meaning Abbreviation Meaning % Per cent Mn Manganèse & and mm milimetre * Asterisk IW Irrigation water Ca Calcium K Potassium cm centimetre kg kilogram CPE Cumulative
Plant Food Nitrogen (N) Functions: Promote plant growth Increase protein content of crops Improves quality of crop Makes plant more efficient with water Helps for stay green and dry down Plants take up
2014 Integrated Crop Management Conference - Iowa State University 129 Corn and soybean yield respoes to micronutrients fertilization Antonio P. Mallarino, professor, Agronomy, Iowa State University; Joshua
MICRONUTRIENT PRINCIPLES MGGA Convention Great Falls December 1, 2015 Clain Jones email@example.com 994-6076 MSU Soil Fertility Extension Clickers are better than cell phones because: A. You don t listen
RULES OF TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIVISION OF MARKETING CHAPTER 0080-05-10 COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER TABLE OF CONTENTS 0080-05-10-.01 Definitions and Terms 0080-05-10-.07 Labeling of Soil Conditioners
Preventing, diagnosing and understanding nutrient deficiencies in plants Dr. Michael J. Mulvaney Cropping Systems Specialist 35 th Florida Master Gardener Continued Training Conference St. Augustine, FL
Fertilizer Compatibility Raun Lohry Terry Robinson Doyle Meeker NPK s & Micros Concentration Chemistry Constraints Can t put 6 gallons in a 5 gallon bucket! Certain elements need help to stay in solution
Unit B Understanding Animal Body Systems Lesson 3 Understanding Nutrients and Their Importance 1 Terms Balanced ration Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates Disaccharides Essential nutrients Ether Fat Fat-soluble
COMPUTATION & PREPARATION OF NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS Principles, properties & preparation of nutrient solutions Nutrient solutions Nutrient solutions are diluted water solutions containing one or more inorganic
Lecture 14 More Soil chemistry and nutrients in soils SOIL INORGANIC SOLIDS saprolite development elemental changes that occur during weathering The gain or loss of chemical constituents in saprolite records
AAPFCO Product Label Guide Association of American Plant Food Control Officials 2015 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Label Defined... 1 Fertilizers... 2 General Requirements... 2 Types of Fertilizers...
UNDERSTANDING MICRONUTRIENT FERTILIZATION IN ALFALFA Roland D. Meyer, Daniel B Marcum and Steve B. Orloff 1 ABSTRACT Alfalfa is the major forage used for feed in the dairy and other animal industries in
A New Innovation in Plant Nutrients Importance of Plant Nutrients For farmers, turf managers and homeowners, plant nutrients are key to lush grass and bountiful crops. Anuvia Plant Nutrients is proud to
LECTURE 12 NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY Causes and Symptoms Nitrogen When N supplies are more than sufficient, carbohydrates are converted to proteins. Hence, vegetative portion is less with carbohydrates
Product Name : Fish s Amino Nutrients Bio Organic Fertilizer Provides Quality Nitrogen, Among with Other Nutrients to Plants Fish Hydrolysate Fertilizer is an excellent source of many nutrients. As natural,
PART 1. LEGAL AUTHORITY COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Inspection and Consumer Services Division Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners 8 CCR 1202-4 1.1 Title 35, Article 12, Colorado Rrevised Sstatutes
Turfgrass Manager Fertilisers Sports & Amenity Product Guide 19 The Function of Macronutrients in Plants Primary macronutrients (Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K)) are required in relatively
Gerald Brust IPM Vegetable Specialist Vegetable Fertility There are 3 ways that nutrients move to a plant s roots to be absorbed Infection by mycorrhizae fungus in plant roots allows the plant to absorb
May 2008 AG/Soils/2008-01pr Understanding Your Soil Test Report Grant E. Cardon, USU Extension Soil Specialist Jan Kotuby-Amacher, Coordinator for North American Proficiency Testing Program Pam Hole, Supervisor
WATER SOLUBLE FERTILISERS Standard water soluble fertilisers for crops grown in soil and artificial growing media. All containing magnesium (Mg) and premium levels of trace elements. water soluble fertilisers
Soil 4234 Guest Lecture Soil Fertility in Potted Horticulture Crops Dr. Bruce Dunn Determine Water Quality Prior to selecting a site for a new business and periodically thereafter, test water Seasonally
ICL Specialty Fertilizers ICL Specialty Fertilizers Product Line Innovation in fertigation and foliar nutrition All from a Single Source only available from ICL Specialty Fertilizers Notice of Warranty
mineral fertilizers www.uralchem.com КСКК BRANCH, KIROVO-CHEPETSK AZOT BRANCH, BEREZNIKI JSC VOSKRESENSK MINERAL FERTILIZERS J.S.Co MINUDOBRENIA, PERM About URALCHEM URALCHEM Group is one of the leading
15. Mixed fertilizers sources preparations- their compatibility advantages Mixed fertilizers For over hundred years the mixed fertilizers are in use besides straight fertilizers. Many fertilizer mixtures
Page 1 of 12 Tim Mundorf Fall 2016 Introduction In 2014, clients in Iowa and Canada asked Midwest Laboratories to compare Mehlich III extraction of nutrients analyzed by ICP to Midwest Laboratories traditional
Welcome Greg Patterson C.C.A. President A&L Canada Laboratories Compost Quality Consumer of the Future Population dynamics - more and more people involved in use of compost Better educated on what is expected
Crop nutrition Peanuts differ from other plants in some of their nutritional needs. Most of the pod s calcium and boron is taken directly from the soil rather than via the roots. Calcium is often applied
1.3.1 Function of Food Why do we need food? Need to know The Function of Food Three reasons for requiring food 2 Food is needed for: 1.Energy 2.Growth of new cells and Repair of existing cells, tissues,
PEACH TREE CARE KIT Just the right products prescribed by the grower 18-5-10 Slow Release Fertilizer: Net Cont: 1.5 Cup Net Wt: 12.3 oz. (348.7 g.) Max Cvr: 7.5 Sq. Ft. Beneficial Soil Amendment: Net Cont:
University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Historical Materials from University of Nebraska- Lincoln Extension Extension 1973 EC73-197 Fertilizer Know How D. H. Sander
MICRONUTRIENT SOURCES FOR GREENHOUSE CROPS Paul V. Nelson Products and Methods of Application Cultural procedures for greenhouse crops have been refined to the point where the probability of micronutrient
REPORT ON RESEARCH OF BAE SYNERGY LIQUID PREPARATION INFLUENCE ON MINERAL METABOLISM Edward V. Krizhanovsky, Ph.D., Kamila B. Tursunova Bioenergy Technologies Institute, Sveaborgskaia, 12, Saint- Petersburg,
Micronutrients By Regis Voss Department of Agronomy Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 1998 Micronutrients Introduction Increased interest in micronutrients as limiting factors in crop growth and yield
The World of Perfect Blend Advanced Technology for the Organic Grower THE STORY OF PERFEC T BLEND BIOTIC FERTILIZERS Perfect Blend has an extraordinary history. It took decades of development and repeated
700 different soils in WI Productive soil must be fertile physical fertility texture, structure, drainage, tilth chemical fertility nutrient supply soil testing Soil formation- weathering physical freezing,
Minerals, Trace Elements and Enzymes Dan Kittredge 978 257 2627 firstname.lastname@example.org Minerals Critical for plant growth Macronutrients Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Magnesium Calcium Iron Manganese
S.U. Tea Sci. 67(1/2), 6-12, 2002, Printed in Sri Lanka AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FOLLOWING DOLOMITE AND UREA APPLICATIONS IN A TEA SOIL S. Ananthacumaraswamy and L. S. K. Hettiarachchi (Tea Research Institute
MINERALS INTRODUCTION 90 elements in the earth s s crust. 25 are known to be essential to life, they are present in living cells, including in food. Food contains additional, non-essential elements. Some
Title: Overview of Micronutrients and Focus on Fe and Mn Speaker: Bill Pan online.wsu.edu Overview of Micronutrients and Focus on Fe and Mn Micronutrients: Essential Elements Required in Small Concentrations
Int. J. Chem. Sci.: 12(4), 2014, 1153-1160 ISSN 0972-768X www.sadgurupublications.com EDTA CHELATED MICRONUTRIENTS FOR GROWTH OF RICE, ONION AND LEMON PLANTS AND ENHANCING THEIR FRUIT YIELDS MUHAMMAD ABDUL
Date Sampled/Received: 18 Dec. 17 / 20 Dec. 17 Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility Tom Holstrom 800 W. Central Valley Road Salt Lake City UT 84119-3379 Product Identification Compost 1/4" Screened
Visual diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies in plants Botany 453/553: Summer 2016 Nutrient deficiencies are not easy to diagnose Various deficiencies can mimic one another Symptom location and pattern assists
Chelated Nutrients something stupid Chelated Roots The word chelated comes from the Greek word chele meaning claw Slovenian translation: kelatirani Different chelates are named after the metals they contain.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Inspection and Consumer Services Division FERTIZILERS AND SOIL CONDITIONERS 8 CCR 1202-4 [Editor s Notes follow the text of the rules at the end of this CCR Document.] Part 1.
Orange Hammock Grove Swingle Carrizo Small trees Subject: Maury Boyd Program Assumptions: Heavily infected HLB areas of Florida and areas reaching the Tipping Point 1 ) The bacteria prevents/impedes availability
Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research ISSN 2077-4605 Volume : 04 Issue : 02 April-June 2015 Pages: 388-394 Effect of Different Phosphorus Sources on the Plant Growth, Tubers Yield and Nutritional
6 Nutrients Essential for Life Mind Moo-Ver SWBAT identify the 6 essential nutrients for life QOD: What does ph measure Give an example of an acidic substance, a basic substance and a neutral substance
Chapter 2 pt 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Life Including the lecture Materials of Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida with amendments and additions by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc..
The Netherlands 2011 & 2012 12:15 1:30pm Lunch Sjoerd Smits Sap testing the future is now for nutrient testing that actually can result in disease and insect resolution, crop yield maximization and nutrient
Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research 42(1): 99-103 (June 2016) Research Paper Effect of nitrogen, zinc and boron on growth, yield attributes and yield of wheat under mid hill conditions of Himachal
Academic Journal of Plant Sciences 3 (): 99-03, 00 ISSN 995-8986 IDOSI Publications, 00 Role of Potassium and Sulphur on the Growth, Yield and Oil Content of Soybean (Glycine max L.) I.S.M. Farhad, M.N.