1 Nutrition of Horticultural Crops Monica Ozores-Hampton University of Florida/IFAS/SWFREC Spring 2013
3 Essential Nutrients - List MACRONUTRIENTS: MICRONUTRIENTS: Nitrogen Boron Phosphorus Chlorine Potassium Copper Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese Sulfur Molybdenum Zinc Free elements : C, H, O
4 Why are N, P, and K the primary nutrients? Plant uses a lot. Easily lost from soil. Plant uses a lot. Can be fixed in clay soil, or leached from sandy soil. N P K Plant uses a moderate amount. Many soils fix P, rendering it unavailable to plants.
5 Production of P fertilizers Most P fertilizers are based on the production of wet process phosphoric acid, made by acidulating phosphate rock (apatite) with sulfuric acid Ca 10 F 2 (PO 4 ) H 2 SO 4 10 CaSO HF + 6 H 3 PO 4
6 Mining of P: North Africa, North America (FL, TN), Kola Peninsula in Russia
7 Relative Essential Element Composition of an Average Plant MICRO- NUTRIENTS Required in smaller amounts MACRO- NUTRIENTS Required in large amounts Element No. atoms relative to Mo Molybdenum 1 Copper 100 Zinc 300 Manganese 1,000 Boron 2,000 Iron 2,000 Chlorine 3,000 Sulfur 30,000 Phosphorus 60,000 Magnesium 80,000 Calcium 125,000 Potassium 250,000 Nitrogen 1,000,000 Oxygen 30,000,000 Carbon 35,000,000 Hydrogen 60,000,000
8 P: Chemistry Background Phosphorus (P). Atomic weight: 31 Between Si and S in periodic chart P fractions in cultivated soils: P in solution Labile P Non-labile P Important forms for plant nutrition: Orthophosphates: H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4 - at ph 5.5 to 7 Phophorus acid (H 3 PO 3 ) has no nutritional value
10 Conversion Factor - P Element X 2.29 Oxide P X P 2 O 5 Formula Element Atomic weight Total molecular weight P 2 O 5 P O X2= x5=80.00 Total = The % of P in P 2 O 5 = x 100/ = factor lb of P 2 O 5 = lb of P
11 P Fertilizer Name Analysis (oxide/p 2 O 5 ) Diammonium phosphate (DAP) Monoammonium phosphate (MAP) Normal or Triple-Super phosphate (SP or TSP) & Monopotassium phosphate Rock phosphate variable
13 Ammonium Orthophosphates are Produced by Ammoniating Phosphoric Acid MAP (Monoammonium phosphate) (NH 4 H 2 PO 4 ): 10-12% N 48-55% P 2 O 5 DAP (Diammonium phosphate) [(NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ]: 18% N 46% P 2 O 5 P 2 O 5 N
14 Concentrated Superphosphate (Triple superphosphate) [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 H 2 O]: Made with phosphoric acid Contains 46% P 2 O 5 (0-46-0) P 2 O 5
15 Normal or Single Superphosphate Made with sulfuric acid Contains 20% P 2 O 5 Contains 12% S Is no longer in widespread use P 2 O 5 S
17 Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid: H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4-2H + + HPO H + + PO P-acid: pka1 = 2.12; pka2 = 7.21; pka3 = Soil ph: - Green: target - Blue: sandy soils FL - Red: calcareous soils
19 Eutrophication The excessive growth of aquatic plants and algae caused by the addition of nutrients and sediments to water.
20 Phosphorus in soils: Does it move or not? Midwest textbook If there was a Fla textbook Most soil P is tied up due to insolubility. Available P is 1% or less of total soil P. Crops use 30% or less of applied P fertilizer. P fertilizer moves less than 2 from where it is applied. The risk of P movement is high in Spodosols. S. Fla. sandy soils can lose P by both leaching and runoff. P leaching from sandy soils can be a water quality concern.
21 Relative Movement of N, P, K in the Soil
22 P uptake P moves in the soil along concentration gradients H 2 PO - 4 taken up is not chemically altered Uptake uses co-transport or antiport (HCO 3- ) involving ATPases P moves in the xylem and phloem
23 Phosphorus Is Taken Up by Plants as: primary orthophosphate ion: H 2 PO 4 - (ph < 7.0) secondary orthophosphate ion: HPO 4 = (ph > 7.0) Solution P The form most common is a function of soil ph both equally present at neutral
24 Roles Phosphorus Plays in Plant Growth Cell buffer system as H 3 PO 4 Nucleotides (AMP, ADP, ATP) Phytin (Ca-Mg phytic acid salt) in seeds Early root formation and growth Constituent of P-lipids, lipoproteins and lipo-saccharides
25 Crops Take Up Large Quantities of Phosphorus Yield P 2 O 5 taken up Crop level in total crop ( lb) Alfalfa 8 tons 120 Coastal bermudagrass 8 tons 96 Corn 160 bu 91 Cotton, lint 1,000 lb 51 Grain sorghum 8,000 lb 84 Soybeans 60 bu 58 Wheat 60 bu 41
26 Seeds Contain More Phosphorus than Other Plant Parts Plant Yield P content P removal Crop part level (%) (lb/acre) Corn Grain 150 bu Stover 7,500 lb Cotton Seed 2,000 lb Stalks 2,500 lb Soybeans Grain 50 bu Straw 7,000 lb Wheat Grain 60 bu Straw 5,400 lb
27 Factors Affecting P Uptake and Efficiency Root surface: Vesicular Arbuscular Rhizobacteria (VAR) increases P uptake Moisture: increased moisture increases P uptake Chemical form: ph, precipitation Placement: banded vs broadcast Soil temperature: cool soil have lower P availability
28 Mycorrhizae Fungal hyphae closely associated (symbiosis) with roots: Carbohydrates are supplied by the roots Water and nutrients (mainly P) uptake is favored by the sheath oh hyphae Thin fungal hyphae better colonize the soil Most families, except Brassica
29 Increase of root surface with VAR a1 b1 a2 b2
30 P Level Affects P Uptake by Corn during Periods of Moisture Stress P uptake, lb/1,000 lb of roots High P Medium P Low P Soil moisture tension, bars
31 The decision to band or broadcast largely depends on the management philosophy of the grower and water quality issues
32 Phosphorus Placement Has a Significant Effects on Yields Low P soil tests Application Corn Sorghum, Wheat method (bu/acre) (lb/acre) (bu/acre) Broadcast 170 4, Pre-plant band 184 5,600 64
33 Phosphorus Fertility Program
34 Soil sample
35 Soil Testing Phosphorus Interpretations Soil test rating M3 Soil-test P (ppm) Probability that crop will respond to K fertilizer Low 25 Good Medium It might, it might not High 41 > About zero
36 ESTL Phosphorus Soil Test Summary Vegetables Citrus Lawns H M L VL M L VL M L VL VH H VH H VH 73% 54% 44% High + Very High
37 Florida are Based on the Results of Mehlich 3 Nutrient Recommended base fertilization Recommended supplemental fertilization (lb/acre) Pre-plant (lb/acre) Leaching rain Measured low plant nutrient content Extended harvest season Target ph N VL L M H VH VL L M H VH P 2 O K 2 O (lb/acre/crop season) N and K: A leaching rain is defined as a rainfall amount of 3 inches in 3 days or 4 inches in 7 days.
39 Sample Fertilizer Label GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Total Nitrogen (N) % 5.8% Ammoniacal Nitrogen 9.2% Urea Nitrogen Available Phosphoric Acid (P2O5) % Soluble Potash (K2O) % Boron (B) % Copper (Cu) % 0.07 Water Soluble Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) % 0.15% Chelated Iron Manganese (Mn)...0.5% 0.05% Chelated Manganese Molybdenum (Mo) % Zinc (Zn) % 0.06 Water Soluble Zinc Derived from Urea, Ammonium Phosphate, Urea Phosphate, Muriate of Potash, Boric Acid, Copper Sulfate, Iron EDTA, Manganese EDTA, Sodium Molybdate, and Zinc Sulfate.
40 P in Fertilization Programs P taken up throughout crop cycle and little mobile in the soil: P is mostly supplied in the pre-plant fertilizer P favors root growth: P added in pop-up fertilizer (ex.: ) Phosphoric acid used to clean drip tubes
42 Adequate P Range Vegetables: 0.2% to 0.7% Ornamentals: 0.1% to 0.5% Trees: 0.1% to 0.3% These broad ranges need to be fine-tuned based on production system
45 Interactions with other Elements Ca in solution helps P uptake, but high Ca in soil precipitates P (Ca-P) Mg is activator of kinase enzymes and activates P transfer reactions Aluminum P in intracellular regions of root tips reduces P translocation
46 Summary Plant P content is about 1/10 th that of N or K. Importance of P as a primary nutrient is related to P-soil interaction. Florida soils are not high P-fixers. P soil tests suggest that P can accumulate and remain available for years. Plant P deficiency is rare in FLorida. Soil tests should be counted on to guide P fertilization.
47 Bonus questions What is the relationship between P presence and its availability? What is the current soil test used in Florida for P? Do you always need to apply P? Why?
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