CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions

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1 CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions Glucose metabolism 1. Below is depicted glucose catabolism. Indicate on the pathways the following: A) which reaction(s) of glycolysis are irreversible B) where energy rich molecules are produced, such as NADH, FADH 2 and ATP or GTP C) Where carbon molecules are released as waste D) two examples of inhibition by high concentrations of a metabolite E) two examples of activation by high concentrations of a metabolite. Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphoglycerate 2-phosphoglycerate phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate Acetyl-CoA oxaloacetate citrate malate isocitrate fumarate -ketoglutarate succinate Succinyl-CoA

2 1. The vitamin precursor for the synthesis of NADH in humans is A. niacin B. thiamine C. pantothenate D. riboflavin 2. Which of the following metabolites, when present at high concentrations, inhibits glycolysis in liver cells? B. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) C. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) D. glucose 3. Which of the following metabolites, when present at high concentrations, activates glycolysis in liver cells? B. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) C. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) D. acetyl-coa 4. What is an end product of anaerobic glucose metabolism in muscle? A. acetyl-coa B. citrate C. lactate D. ethanol 5. Which of the following reactions of glycolysis is metabolically irreversible? A. glucose 6-phosphate fructose 6-phosphate. B. fructose 1,6-bisphosphate dihydroxyacetone phosphate + glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. C. fructose 6-phosphate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. D. 2-phosphoglycerate phosphoenolpyruvate. 6. The enzyme Phosphofructokinase (PFK-1) is allosterically regulated. Which is not a regulatory effect? A. AMP activates PFK-1. B. Protons activate PFK-1. C. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate activates PFK-1. D. ATP inhibits PFK What class of enzymes uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in oxidation-reduction reactions? A. Dehydrogenases B. Isomerases C. Transaminases D. Kinases 8. Biological oxidation-reduction reactions involve: A. direct participation of oxygen. B. formation of water. C. transfer of hydrogens. D. transfer of electron(s).

3 9. Which of the following molecules, in high concentration, activates the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1? B. ATP C. AMP D. 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate 10. In humans the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are found in the A. Cytosol B. Mitochondria C. Endoplasmic reticulum D. Nucleus 11. A reaction of the citric-acid cycle in which a carbon-carbon bond is formed is catalyzed by synthase B. isocitrate dehydrogenase C. succinyl-coa synthetase D. fumarase 12. Which molecule is a crucial intermediate at the branch point of the glyoxylate and citric acid cycles? B. isocitrate. C. oxaloacetate. D. α-ketoglutarate. 13. Which of the following is FALSE for the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A. Biotin participates in the decarboxylation. B. Both NAD + and a flavin nucleotide act as electron carriers. C. The reaction occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. D. The substrate is held by the lipoyl-lysine swinging arm molecule of acetyl-coa proceeds through the citric acid cycle until 1 molecule of oxaloacetate forms. This results in the net production of: A. 7 molecules of ATP. B. 1 molecule of FADH 2. C. 1 molecule of NADH. D. 1 molecule of CO The oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate proceeds by means of multistep reactions in which all but one of the following cofactors are required. Which one is not required? A. ATP B. Coenzyme A C. Thiamine pyrophosphate D. NAD +

4 16. The conversion of 1 molecule of glucose to 6 molecules of CO 2 via glycolysis and the citric acid cycle also yields molecules of NADH, molecules of FADH 2, and molecules of ATP (or GTP). A. 9; 2; 4 B. 4; 1; 2 C. 4; 5; 3 D. 8; 4; Entry of acetyl-coa into the citric acid cycle is decreased when: A. [AMP] is high. B. [NAD + ] is high. C. metabolism is anaerobic. D. the person is hyperventilating. 18. Which enzyme catalyzes a reaction that releases carbon dioxide (CO 2 )? A. α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex B. succinate dehydrogenase C. malate dehydrogenase D. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 19. Isocitrate dehydrogenase is inhibited by high concentrations of A. acetyl-coa. B. ATP. C. AMP. D. NADH. 20. Vitamin deficiencies can have a profound effect on metabolism. Which enzyme would be affected by a deficiency of niacin? A. Hexokinase B. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase C. Citrate synthase D. Succinate dehydrogenase 21. What is the only enzyme of the citric acid cycle that is membrane-bound? A. Hexokinase B. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase C. citrate synthase D. succinate dehydrogenase 22. When glucose is needed by the body during periods of starvation, what organ or tissue supplies it? A. adipose tissue B. liver C. brain D. intestine

5 23. An increase in the concentration of which of the following molecules would increase the rate of gluconeogenesis? A. glucose B. fructose 2,6-bisphosphate C. acetyl-coa D. adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 24. In humans, gluconeogenesis: A. can result in the conversion of protein into blood glucose. B. helps to reduce blood glucose after a carbohydrate-rich meal. C. is activated by the hormone insulin D. is essential in the conversion of fatty acids to glucose. 25. There is reciprocal regulation of glycolytic and gluconeogenic reactions interconverting fructose-6- phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Which one of the following statements about this regulation is not correct? A. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate activates phosphofructokinase-1. B. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate inhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. C. The fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase reaction produces ATP. D. The phosphofructokinase-1 reaction consumes ATP.

6 A physician encounters a patient that has a defect in a proton pump that causes the ph of the person s stomach to be 5.5. What concerns might the doctor have and what medical complications might arise as a result of the stomach ph? Give a biochemical rationale for your answer that includes the role of proton pumps in the stomach. A college student finds out he is going to have to undergo a surgical procedure to remove his gall bladder. Will the individual be able to survive without his gall bladder? If so, what medical symptoms might the student exhibit after their gall bladder is removed? If you were the person s physician what changes in lifestyle or diet might you suggest to the college student? Give biochemical rationales for your answers that include the role of the gall bladder. A physician encounters a patient that has a genetic mutation in their gene encoding α-amylase that causes an inactive form of α-amylase to be synthesized. What concerns might the doctor have and what medical complications might arise as a result of the inactive α-amylase? If you were the person s physician what changes in lifestyle and/or diet might you suggest to the patient? Give a biochemical rationale for your answer that includes the role of α-amylase. An alien from the planet Mutato comes to earth and tells you he is going to zap you and cause a genetic mutation that will eliminate the ability to synthesize one enzyme. The alien gives you the choice of losing one of the enzymes listed below from your body. Choose the enzyme that you believe will result in the least severe medical problems for the rest of your life and allow you to live as long as possible. Then explain why you chose the enzyme and rationalize your choice using your knowledge of the biochemical and metabolic role of the enzyme. Then describe how you would change your lifestyle and diet once you have the mutation and why you would make those lifestyle changes. Finally, give a biochemical rationale for why you did not choose the other three enzymes using your knowledge of the biochemical and metabolic role of each of the enzymes. Enzyme 1: fructokinase Enzyme 2: phosphofructokinase-2 Enzyme 3: glucose 6-phosphatase

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