Biology. Lectures winter term st year of Pharmacy study

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1 Biology Lectures winter term st year of Pharmacy study

2 3 rd Lecture Chemical composition of living matter chemical basis of life. Atoms, molecules, organic compounds carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

3

4 Atoms -protons,neutrons,electrons electrons electrons

5 Macroelements H,O,C,N,P,S,Na,K,Cl,Fe,Mg Microelements I,Mn,F,Zn,Cu,Co,Se,...

6 Bonds of atoms

7 Molecules Bond ionic, covalent, polar and non-polar metán Sodík Chlór NaCl

8 H2O

9 ATP - energy - Structure of Nucleic acides - signal molecule

10 Macromolecules - sugars -saccharides -lipids -proteins - nucleic acids

11 Sugars - saccharides Monosaccharides - pentose ribose, deoxyribose - hexose glucose, fructose, galactose

12 Sugars - saccharides disascharides - saccharum, maltose, lactose

13 Sugars - saccharides Polysaccharides - starch, glycogen, cellulose glucose glucogen

14 Proteins

15 Proteins

16 Proteins biogenic amino acids, names a codes Aspartic Acid Asp D Glutamic Acid Glu E Phenylanine Phe F Glycine Gly G Alanine Ala A Cystine Cys C Histidine His H Isoleucine Ile I Lysine Lys K Leucine Leu L Methionine Met M Asparagine Asn N Proline Pro P Glutamine Gln Q Arginine Arg R Serine Ser S Threonine Thr T Valine Val V Tryptophan Trp W Tyrosine Tyr Y

17 Amino acids

18 Amino acids sequence 3-D structure Function of protein

19 Genetic code

20 Peptide bond Proteins

21 Proteins

22

23

24

25

26

27 Folding of proteins

28 Amino Acid Sequence 3-D Structure Protein Function

29

30 α, β Helix pleadted sheet

31 3-D structure of proteins 1. Primary structure amino acids sequence (determine by mrna) 2. secondary α-or β-helix; pleated sheet (H-bonds) 3. Tertiary 3-D protein structure (S-S bonds) 4. Quaternary the final structure of proteins (subunits, prostetic units and etc.)

32

33 3-D Structure of proteins

34 Three ways of proteins bonds

35 Proteins are hungry

36 Amino Acid Sequence 3-D Structure Protein Function

37

38 Nucleic acids DNA-RNA

39 Nucleic acids DNA

40 Chromosome Nucleus consists one or more molecules DNA organized into chromosomes Human: 22 pars autozomes 1 par sex chromosome Human karyotypes

41 Human and mouse chromosomes:

42 DNA chemical structure

43

44 Double helix of DNA

45 Double helix Two complementary DNA strains Spring will be 52th anniversary of its discovery

46

47

48 Detection of DNA

49 Detection of DNA

50 Red increase of sample transcripts Green increase of sample transcripts Yellow equal abundance Limit of Detection: 1 in 30,000 transcripts ~ 20 transcripts/cell

51 Affymetrix GeneChip Limits: 1: 100,000 transcripts ~ 5 transcripts/cell Affymetrix GeneChip

52 3-D Structure of DNA in nucleus Nuclear membrane Chromatin fiber Chromatin fiber (30 nm dia.) H1 Nucleosomes H1 Nuclear pore DNA } Other Chromatin factors Nuclear matrix

53 DNA-protein complex

54 DNA folding

55 Chromatin structure

56 DNA is wrapped Chromatin around histone structure proteins as chromatin

57

58 The Obstacles are Regulated: Histone Modifications A Histone Code? Bromo Domain Chromo Domain regulation of transcription complex of genes to the DNA locus protection of specific genes

59 All cells the same DNA - different reading of DNA - differentiation of cells

60 Histones play Key role in Regulation of gene expression

61 Transcription and Processing DNA in blue PolyA+RNA in red PolyA+RNA in red (a spliceosomal component) in green Overlap (red + green) = yellow

62 RNA Ribonucleic Similar as DNA Tymine (T) is substituted by uracile (U) RNA can be: One-strain helix Double strains helix Hybridisated with DNA

63 RNA RNA is usually one strain It forms the 3-D secondary and tertiary structure The most important is extreme variability of the RNA molecules - sequence

64 trna: sequence, 3-D structure

65 mrna Messenger RNA Linear molecule coded genetic information copy from DNA Transcription: process of copy mrna from DNA

66 mrna modification Eukaryotic genes are built: Exons: coding regions Introns: non-coding regions splicing: cut of introns from molecule of mrna and link the exons After this modification of mrna is translated to sequence of protein

67 mrna modification Image source:

68 trna Transfer RNA Precise 3-D structure The translation process of protein

69 trna structure

70 trna Specific trna for each amino acid Determine by 3 nucleotide - anticodone (complementary with mrna) Translation: process of prescription of codons of mrna to sequence of amino acids to protein

71 trna

72 trna: sequence, 3-D structure

73 trna structure

74 rrna secondary structure

75 16S ribosomal RNA

76 T. thermophilus - Ramakrishnan et al., Cell, 2002

77 Lipids

78 Schematic Diagram of a phospholipid molecule (phosphatidylcholine)

79 Phospholipids Membranes of mammalian cells contain 3 major phospholipids Classified according to the polar headgroup

80 Choline head-group Polar Saturated fatty acid Unsaturated fatty acid Phosphatidylcholine Nonpolar Differences in the length and degree of saturation of fatty acids affect their ability to pack & hence the fluidity of the bilayer

81

82 Amphipathic A, formula B, schematic drawing C, space-filling model

83 Cholesterol is oriented in the membrane between phospholipid molecules with its polar end towards the outside surface of the monolayer and its hydrophobic end projecting into the interior of the membrane

84

85 Lodish et al, Fig 5-30

86

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