Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body composition assessment 62

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1 Subject Index 3 -Adrenergic receptor, gene polymorphisms and obesity 10 Aging, body composition effects 64, 65 Air-displacement plethysmography, body composition assessment 62 Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), body composition assessment Biomarkers, nutritional epidemiology Bladder cancer, physical activity effects 181 Body cell mass (BCM) aging studies 65 body composition measurement 60 physical activity studies 63, 64 Body mass index (BMI), see also Obesity comorbidity correlation China 14, 15 Japan 2 4 obesity classification China Japan 5, 6 Bone mineral density adolescent physical activity relationship to adult health 39, 40 mechanical loading effects 60, 61 Breast cancer omega 3 fatty acid protective effects , 166 physical activity effects 176, 178 Cancer dietary contribution 144, 145 fish and omega 3 fatty acid protective effects breast cancer , 166 case-control studies by region Italy 169, 170 Switzerland 171, 172 mechanisms of action 172 overview 166, 167 gene-environment interactions in nutritional epidemiology 145 Mexico rural community study of diet effects cancer prevalence 155, 156 food consumption survey 154, 155 study design 153, 154 Westernization of diet 152, 153 nutritional epidemiology measurement error assessment biomarkers nitrogen and potassium in 24-hour urine 147, 148 types 146, 147 calibration and effects on end points 148, 149 overview 146 prospects 149, 150 physical activity effects adverse effects 182 bladder cancer 181 breast cancer 176,

2 colorectal cancer 179, 180 endometrial cancer 179 leukemia 181 level of exercise for benefit 182 lung cancer 181 nonspecific effects 181, 182 ovarian cancer 179 prostate cancer 180, 181 recommendations 183, 184 renal cell carcinoma 181 window of opportunity for benefit 182, 183 Carbohydrates gene expression effects during exercise inflammatory cytokine response simple sugar promotion of fat storage 91 China, obesity classification and assessment physical activity exercise prescription for weight reduction 21, 22 trends and obesity impact prevalence age effects 19 district differences 17, 18 sex differences 18, 19 trends 16, 17 prevention guidelines 13, 14, 24 weight reduction phases Colorectal cancer methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and protection 145 physical activity effects 179, 180 Computed tomography (CT), fat distribution 7, 8 Coronary heart disease European gradient of myocardial infarction mortality as model of gene-environment interaction 99, 100 gene polymorphisms and environmental interactions factor VII gene fibrinogen gene 98, 99 overview 96, 97 prospects for study lipoxygenase-fatty acid interactions and atherosclerosis myocardial infarction prevention importance 96 Cortisol 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase metabolism metabolic syndrome role 70, 71, 75 Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body composition assessment 62 Endometrial cancer, physical activity effects 179 Endothelial function, activation inhibition by polyunsaturated fatty acids 113, 114 Exercise, see Physical activity Factor VII, gene polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risks Fat-free mass (FFM) aging effects 64, 65 assessment Fat mass (FM), assessment 61 Fatty acid, see also specific fatty acids blood drop analysis applications 143 average composition findings 140, 141 subgroup findings dietary habits 142 lifestyle factors 142 pregnancy 142 sex differences 142 technique 139, 140 brain serotoninergic activity modulation 90, 91 effects on insulin action 87, 88 endothelial activation inhibition by polyunsaturated fatty acids 113, 114 gene expression effects during exercise overview 108, 109 polyunsaturated fatty acids 111, lipoxygenase interactions and atherosclerosis Fatty-acid-binding protein, fatty acid effects on expression during exercise 108, 109 Subject Index 191

3 Fatty acid translocase, fatty acid effects on expression during exercise 108 Fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risks 98, 99 Helicobacter pylori interactions 98, 99 Fish oils, see Omega 3 fatty acids Greece, obesity prevalence prevention 29 31, 33 serum lipoproteins in children 30, 32 Helicobacter pylori, coronary heart disease risks 98, 99 -Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, fatty acid effects on expression during exercise Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase cortisol metabolism insulin regulation 78 Hypertension aerobic physical activity management prevention epidemiology 120 etiology 121 lifestyle modification in management 120 Italy, fish intake protective effects on cancer 169, 170 Japan, obesity causes 9, 10 criteria and classification 2, 3, 5, 6, 11 definition 1, 2 pathological obesity differentiation 7 9 Lebanon, adolescent obesity assessment 44, 47 comparison of Middle East countries 47, 48 prevalence 42, 44, 45 prevention 48, 49 risk factors 44, 46, 47 study design 43 Leukemia, physical activity effects Lipoxygenase, fatty acid interactions and atherosclerosis Lung cancer, physical activity effects 181 Metabolic syndrome chronic inflammation role 71 clinical features 68, 69, 75 cortisol role 70, 71, 75 diagnostic criteria 68, 69 dietary fat and diabetes risks 85, 86 environmental factors 70 epidemiology 68 factor analysis of etiology 79 genetic susceptibility 70 hyperinsulinemia, see Pima Indians management 72 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer protection 145 Mexico, rural community study of dietary effects cancer prevalence 155, 156 food consumption survey 154, 155 study design 153, 154 westernization of diet 152, 153 Muscle, see Skeletal muscle Myocardial infarction, see Coronary heart disease Nutritional epidemiology gene-environment interactions in nutritional epidemiology 145 measurement error assessment in cancer studies biomarkers nitrogen and potassium in 24-hour urine 147, 148 types 146, 147 calibration and effects on end points 148, 149 overview 146 prospects 149, 150 Obesity adolescent prevalence 42 China classification and assessment Subject Index 192

4 physical activity exercise prescription for weight reduction 21, 22 trends and obesity impact prevalence age effects 19 district differences 17, 18 sex differences 18, 19 trends 16, 17 prevention guidelines 13, 14, 24 weight reduction phases dietary fat and diabetes risks 85, 86 European countries 57 Greece prevalence prevention 29 31, 33 serum lipoproteins in children 30, 32 heritability 84 Japan causes 9, 10 criteria and classification 2, 3, 5, 6, 11 definition 1, 2 pathological obesity differentiation 7 9 Lebanese adolescents assessment 44, 47 comparison of Middle East countries 47, 48 prevalence 42, 44, 45 prevention 48, 49 risk factors 44, 46, 47 study design 43 peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor- polymorphisms 87, 93 Serbia adults body mass index 56, 57 dietary patterns 55, 56 physical activity 56 overview 51 schoolchildren body mass index and eating behavior 53, 54 body mass index and lifestyle 52, 53 eating behavior and lifestyle risk factors 53 physical activity 57, 58 study design 51, 52 Omega 3 fatty acids brain serotoninergic activity modulation 90, 91 cancer protective effects breast cancer , 166 case-control studies by region Italy 169, 170 Switzerland 171, 172 mechanisms of action 172 overview 166, 167 effects on insulin action 87, 88 endothelial activation inhibition 113, lipoxygenase-fatty acid interactions and atherosclerosis structure 129, 130 ventricular fibrillation prevention calcium channel effects 133, 134 dog model 130, 131 electrical stabilization of neonatal cardiomyocytes 135, 136 historical perspective 129 human studies following myocardial infarction 136, 137 sodium channel inhibition 131, 132 Ovarian cancer, physical activity effects 179 Pathological obesity, Japanese definition 7 9 Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR ) activators and insulin resistance management 86, 87 coactivator 92 gene expression regulation with high-fat diet 109 polymorphisms and obesity 87, 93 polyunsaturated fatty acid activation 111, 112 Physical activity body composition relationship 63, 64 cancer effects adverse effects 182 bladder cancer 181 breast cancer 176, 178 colorectal cancer 179, 180 endometrial cancer 179 leukemia 181 level of exercise for benefit 182 Subject Index 193

5 Physical activity (continued) cancer effects (continued) lung cancer 181 nonspecific effects 181, 182 ovarian cancer 179 prostate cancer 180, 181 recommendations 183, 184 renal cell carcinoma 181 window of opportunity for benefit 182, 183 childhood activity and obesity prevention 57, 58 China exercise prescription for weight reduction 21, 22 trends and obesity impact epidemiology from adolescence to young adulthood adolescent physical activity relationship to adult health 39, 40 change in physical activity 37, 38 longitudinal study design 36, 37 overview 36 tracking of physical activity 38, 39 genetic predisposition to inactivity 93 guidelines 65, 66 hypertension and aerobic exercise management prevention Lebanese adolescents 44, 46, 47 nutrient effects on gene expression during exercise carbohydrates fatty acids 108, 109 Pima Indians 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase levels 78, 79 hyperinsulinemia 76 metabolic syndrome factor analysis of etiology 79 protection 76 sympathetic nervous system activity 77 Prostate cancer, physical activity effects 180, 181 Renal cell carcinoma, physical activity effects 181 Serbia, nutrition and lifestyle adults body mass index 56, 57 dietary patterns 55, 56 physical activity 56 overview 51 schoolchildren body mass index and eating behavior 53, 54 body mass index and lifestyle 52, 53 eating behavior and lifestyle risk factors 53 physical activity 57, 58 study design 51, 52 Serotonin, brain activity modulation by fatty acids 90, 91 Sibutramine, mechanism of action 89 Skeletal muscle inflammatory cytokine response to carbohydrates nutrient effects on gene expression during exercise carbohydrates fatty acids 108, 109 oxidative metabolic capacity in diabetes and obesity 92 Skinfold thickness, body composition assessment 61, 62 Sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) fatty acid effects on expression 89, 112 lipid metabolism regulation 88, 89 Switzerland, fish intake protective effects on cancer 171, 172 Sympathetic nervous system metabolic syndrome activity 77 Pima Indian studies 77 Syndrome X, see Metabolic syndrome Total body potassium (TBK), body composition assessment 60, 63 Subject Index 194

6 Underwater weighing, body composition assessment 61 Ventricular fibrillation (VF) omega 3 fatty acid prevention calcium channel effects 133, 134 dog model 130, 131 electrical stabilization of neonatal cardiomyocytes 135, 136 historical perspective 129 human studies following myocardial infarction 136, 137 sodium channel inhibition 131, 132 pathophysiology 132, 133 Subject Index 195

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