List of References. ACC/SCN and IFPRI. Nutrition: A foundation for development. CAN/SCN and IFPRI. Geneva 2002.

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1 List of References ACC/SCN and IFPRI. Nutrition: A foundation for development. CAN/SCN and IFPRI. Geneva Adair LS & Cole TJ. Rapid child growth raises blood pressure in adolescent boys who were thin at birth. N Engl J Med 2003; 41: Agarwal A, Singh P. Nutritional status and diet intake of preschool children in Delhi. Indian Pediatr 2002; 39: Agarwal DK, Agarwal KN, Upadhyay SK, Mittal R, Prakash R, Rai S. Physical and sexual growth pattern of affluent Indian children from 6-18 years of age. Indian Pediatr 1992; 29: Agarwal DK, Agarwal KN. Physical growth in Indian affluent children (Birth - 6 years). Indian Pediatr 1994: 31: Agarwal S, Taneja S. All Slums are Not Equal: Child Health Conditions Among the Urban Poor. Indian Pediatr 2005; 42: Agarwal, K.N., Agarwal, D.K., Benakappa, D.G., Gupta, S.M., Khanduja, P.C., Khatua, S.P., Ramachandran, K., Udani, P.M. and Gopalan, C: Growth performance of affluent Indian children (under-fives). Nutrition Foundation of India. Scientific Report, 11, Alam SD, Marks CG, Baqui AH, Yunus M, Fuchs JG. Association between clinical type of diarrhea and growth of children under 5 years in rural Bangladesh. International J of epidemiology. 2000; 29: Alvarado BE, Zunzunegui MV, Delisle H, Osorno J. Growth Trajectories Are Influenced by Breast-Feeding and Infant Health in an Afro-Colombian Community. J Nutr 2005; 135: Anand K, Sundaram KR, Lobo J, Kapoor SK. Are diarrheal incidence and malnutrition related in under five children? A longitudinal study in an area of poor sanitary conditions. Indian Pediatr 1994; 31:

2 Aneja B, Singh P, Tandon M, Pathak P, Singh C, Kapil U. Etiological factors of malnutrition among Infants in two urban slums of Delhi. Indian Pediatr 2001;38: Arifeen SE, Black RE, Caulfield LE, Antelman G,Baqui AH. Determinants of infant growth in the slums of Dhaka: size and maturity at birth, breastfeeding and morbidity. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55: Arnold F. The Nutrition Landscape in India: findings from the National Family Health Surveys. Demogr India 2007; 36: Ashworth A, Shrimpton R, Zamil K. Growth monitoring and promotion: review of evidence of impact. Maternal Child Nutr 2008; 4: Avsm YS, Gandhi N, Tandon BN, Krsihnamurthy KS. Integrated Child Development Services Scheme and nutritional status of Indian children. J Trop Pediatr 1995; 41: Avula R, Frongillo EA, arabi M, Sharma S, Schultink W. Enhancements to nutrition program in Indian integrated child development services increased growth and energy intake of children. J Nutr 2011; 141 (4): Awasthi S, Pande VK. Prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasites in preschool slum children in Lucknow. Indian Pediatr 1997; 34: Awasthi S, pande VK. Seasonal pattern of morbidities in preschool slum children in Lucknow, north India. Indian Pediatr 1997; 34 (11): Barker DJ. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ 1995; 311: Barker DJP, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, Harding JE, Owens JA & Robinson JS. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 1993; 341: Barker DJP, Hales CN, Fall CHD, Osmond C, Phipps K & Clark PMS. Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 1993; 36:

3 Barker DJP, Winter PD, Osmond C, Margetts B & Simmonds SJ (1989) Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1989; Barker DJP. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ 1995; 311: Beaton G. Appropriate uses of anthropometric indices in children. Geneva, United Nations, 1990 Berger MPF. A comparison of efficiencies of longitudinal, mixed-longitudinal and cross-sectional designs. J Edu stats 1986; 11 (3): Betts NM, Baranowski T, Hoerr SL. Recommendations for planning and reporting focus group research. J Nutr Ed 1996; 28: Bhagowalia P, Chen SE, Masters WA. Effects and determinants of mild underweight among preschool children across countries and over time. Econ Hum Biol 2011; 9: Bhalani KD, Kotecha PV. Nutritional status and gender differences in the children of less than 5 years of age attending ICDS anganwadis in Vadodara city. Indian J Community Med 2002; 27: Bhandari N, Bahl R, Mazumdar S, Martines J,Black RE, Bhan MK. Infant Feeding Study Group. Effect of community-based promotion of exclusive breastfeeding on diarrhoeal illness and growth: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361: Bhandari N, Mazumder S, Bahl R, Martines J, Black RE, Bahn MK et al. An educational intervention to promote appropriate complementary feeding improves child feeding practices and physical growth in infants and young children in rural Haryana, India. Journal of Nutrition 2004; 13: Bhandari N, Mazumder S, Bahl R, Martines J, Black RE, Bahn MK. Use of multiple opportunities for improving feeding practices in under-twos within child health programmes. Health Policy Plan 2005; 20:

4 Bhanderi D, Chowdhary SK. An epidemiological study of health and nutritional status of under five children in semi-urban community of Gujarat. Indian J Pub Health 2006; 50 (4): Bharati P, Bharati S, Pal M, Chakrabarty S, Som S, Gupta R. Growth and nutritional status of preschool children in India: Rural-urban and gender differences. Coll. Antropol 2009; 33 (1):7-21. Bhargava SK, Sachdev HS. Fall CD, Osmond C, Lakshmy R, Barker DJ, et al. Relation of serial changes in childhood body mass index to impaired glucose tolerance in young adulthood. N Engl J Med 2004; 350 : Bhutta ZA. Ahmed T, Black RE, Cousens C, Dewey K, Giugliani E, Haider BA, Kirkwood B, Morris S, Sachdev HPS, Shekar M, for the mathernal and child undernutrition study group. What works? Interventions for maternal and childundernutrition and survival. Lancet 2008; 371: Bisai S, Bose K, Dikshit S. Under-nutrition among slum children aged 3-6 years in Midnapore town, India. The Internet J Biol Antropol 2009; 2 (2). From Internethttp:// y/volume_2_number_2_60/article/under_nutrition_among_slum_children_aged_3_6 _years_in_midnapore_town_india-4.html. Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008; 371: Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, Lawn JE, Rudan I, Bassani DG et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2010; 375: Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet 2003; 361: Bobby J, Rebello A, Kullu P, Raj VD. Prevalence of malnutrition in rural Karnataka, South India: a comparison of anthropometric indicators. J Health Popul Nutr 2002: 20:

5 Brown KH. Diarrhea and Malnutrition. J Nutr 2003;133: 328S 332. Brown LV, Zeitlin MF, Petersen KE, Chowdhury AMR, Rogers BL, Weld LH, et al. Evaluation of the impact of weaning food messages on infant feeding practices and child growth in rural Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56: Calder CP, Jackson AA. Undernutrition, infection and immune function. Nutr Res Rev 2000; 13: Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Blossner M, Black RE. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80: Chakarbarty S, Ghosh R, Bharati P. Breastfeeding practices and nutritional status of preschool children among the shabar tribal community in Orissa, India. Proceedings of National Symposium on tribal Health: Tribal health in Retrospect 2008; 5 (1). From Internethttp:// 6_29.S.Chakraborty.pdf Chatterjee S, Saha S. A study on knowledge and practice of mothers regarding infant feeding and nutritional status of under-five children attending immunisation clinic of a medical college. The Internet J Nutr Wellness. 2008; 5 (1). From Internethttp:// _5_number_1_25/article/a_study_on_knowledge_and_practice_of_mothers_regardi ng_infant_feeding_and_nutritional_status_of_under_five_children_attending_immuni sation_clinic_of_a_medical_college.html Chhabra P, Grover VL, Aggarwal OP, Dubey KK. Breastfeeding patterns in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Indian J Pediatr 1998; 65: Chinn S. Mixed longitudinal studies: their efficiency of estimation for trends over time. Annal Hum Biol 1988; 15 (6): Cogill, B. Anthropometric Indicators Measurement Guide. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, D.C., 2003.

6 Corvalan C, Gregory CO, Ramirez-Zea M. Size at birth, infant, early and later childhood growth and adult body composition: a prospective study in a stunted population. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: Corvalan C, Kain J, Weisstaub G, Uauy R.Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries. Proc Nutr Society 2009; 68: Das S, Bose K. Anthropometric Characteristics and Nutritional Status of Bauri Pre- School Children of Nituria Block, Purulia, West Bengal. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology 2009; 3 (2). From internethttp:// y/volume_3_number_2_59/article/anthropometric-characteristics-and-nutritionalstatus-of-bauri-pre-school-children-of-nituria-block-purulia-west-bengal.html. Dhingra P, Sazawa S, Menon VP, Dhingra U, Black RE. Validation of visual estimation of portion size consumed as a method for estimating food intake by young Indian children. J Health Popul Nutr, 2007; 25 (1): de Onis et al, WHO child growth standards : growth velocity based on weight, length and head circumference : methods and development de Onis M and WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group.: WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Pædiatrica, Suppl 450: 76, de Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Borghi E. Comparison of the WHO child growth standards and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts. J Nutr 2007; 137 : de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Garza C, Yang H, for the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Comparison of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth reference: implications for child health programmes. Public Health Nutr 2006; 9 :

7 de Onis M, Onyango AW, Van den Broeck J, Chumlea WC, Martorell R.: Measurement and standardization protocols for anthropometry used in the construction of a new international growth reference. Food Nutr Bull, 25 Suppl 1:S de Onis M, Yip R. The WHO growth chart: Historical considerations and current scientific issues. Nutr Preg Growth 1996; 53: de Souza AC, Peterson KE, Cufino E, Gardner J, Craveiro MVA, Ascherio A. Relationship between health services, socioeconomic variables and inadequate weight gain among Brazilian children. Bull World Health Org 1999; 77: Devi YS, Geervani P. Determinants of nutrition status of rural preschool children in Andhra Pradesh, India. Food Nutr Bull 1994; 115 (4). DLHS. District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), 2010, Mumbai Accessed from Dubowitz T, Levinson D, Peterman JN, Verma G, Jacob S, Schultink W. Intensifying efforts to reduce child malnutrition in India: an evaluation of the Dular program in Jharkhand, India. Fod Nutr Bull 2007; 28 (3): Edmond KM, Zandoh C, Quigley MA, Amenga-Etego S, Owusu-Agyei S, Kirkwood BR. Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics 2006; 117: e What-works-Interventions-for-maternal-and-child-undernutrition-andsurvival.pdf. Eleventh Five Year Plan. Nutrition and Food safety Net Planning Comission. Government of India; Volt 2 p Fall CH, Sachdev HPS, Osmond C, Lakshmy R, Biswas SD, Prabhakaran D, Tandon N, Ramji S, Reddy S, Barker DJP, Bhargava SK. Adult metabolic syndrome

8 and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with different patterns of BMI gain during infancy. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Speigelman Amin Ael, Nestel P, Mohamed KA. A prospective study of malnutrition in relation to child mortality in the Sudan. AM J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: Flegal KM, Wei R, Ogden C. Weight-for-stature compared with body mass index-forage growth charts for the United States from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75 (4): Garner P, Panpanich R, Logan S. Is routine growth monitoring effective? A systematic review of trials. Arch Dis Child 2000; 82: Garza C, de Onis M.: Rationale for developing a new international growth reference. Food Nutr Bull; 25 Suppl 1:S George SM, Latham MC, Abel R, Ethirajan N, Frongillo EA. Evaluation of effectiveness of good growth monitoring in south Indian villages. Lancet 1993; 342: Ghosh S, Arokiasamy P. Morbidity in India: Trends, Patterns and Differentials. J Health stud 2009; 2: Ghosh S, Shah D. Nutrition problems in Urban Slums in India. Indian Pediatr 2004; 41: Gibson RS, Ferguson EL. An interactive 24-hour recall for assessing the adequacy of iron and zinc intakes in developing countries. Harvest Plus Technical Monograph 8.Washington DC Gibson RS. Anthropometric assessment. In Principles of nutrition assessment second edition. Oxford University Press Gladstone BP, Das AR, Rehman AM, Jaffar S, Estes MK, Muliyil J, Kang G, Bose A. Burden of illness in the first three years of life in an Indian slum. J Trop Pediatr 2010; 56 (4):

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10 Gupta R. Yadav KK. Gupta A. & Gupta M. Insulin levels in low birth weight neonates. Indian J Med Res 2003; 118: Gwatkin DR,Wilcox JR, Wray JD. Can Health and Nutrition Interventions Make a Difference? Overseas Development Council:Washington DC. Monograph no (original not seen) Hamill PVV. Drizd TA, Johnson CL, Reed RB, Rouche AF, Moore WM: Physical growth: National Center for Health Statistics percentiles. Am J Clin Nutr 1979; 32: Horta BL, Rajiv B, Martines JC. Evidence on the Long-term Effects of Breastfeeding. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses. Geneva: WHO Available athttp://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/ _eng.pdf ICMR, Indian Council of Medical Research, Dietary Guidelines for Indians-A manual. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, ICMR, Indian Council of Medical Research, Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances for Indians. A report of the expert group of the Indian Council of Medical Research National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Infant and Young Child Feeding Guidelines Infant and Young Child Feeding Chapter, Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Indian Pediatr 2010; 47: INP. India Nutrition Profile. Department of Women and Child Development, Government of India Jelliffe BD, Jelliffe EFP. Direct Assessment of nutritional status. In: Community Nutritional Assessment, Oxford University Press1989; Jelliffe DB. The assessment of the nutritional status of the community. WHO Monograph No. 53. World Health Organization. Geneva Jesmin A, Yamamoto SS, Malik AA, Haque MA. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Malnutrition among Preschool Children: A Cross-sectional Study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Health Popul Nutr 2011; 29 (5):

11 Kapil U, Saxena N, Nayar D, Gnanasekaran N. Status of growth monitoring activities in selected ICDS projects of Rajasthan. Indian Pediatr 1996; 33: Kapil U. & Pradhan R. Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) and its impact on nutritional status of children in India and recent initiatives. Indian J Public Health1999; 43: Kapur D, Sharma S, Agarwal K.N. Dietary intake and growth pattern of children 9-36 months of age in an urban slum in Delhi. Indian Pediatr 2005; 42: Karim F, Huq N, Brown L, Chowdhury AMR. Growth monitoring in the context of a primary healthcare programme. Food Nutr Bul1994; 15: Kaur G, Kang HS, Singal P, Singh SP. Nutritional status: Anthropometric perspective of pre-school children. Anthropologist 2005; 7(2): Keller W. The epidemiology of stunting. In: Waterlow JC, ed. Linear growth retardation in less developed countries. New York, Raven Press, 1988: Khor GL, Safiza NMN, Jamalludin AB, Jamaiyah H, Geeta A, Kee CC et al. Nutritional Status of Children below Five Years in Malaysia: Anthropometric Analyses from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS, 2006). Mal J Nutr 2009; 15 (2): Khadilkar VV, Khadilkar AV, Choudhary P, Agarwal KN, Ugra D, Shah NK. IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Years. Indian Pediatr 2007;44: Kielmann AA, Taylor CE, Parker RL. The Narangwal Nutrition Study: a summary review. AJCN 1978; 31: Kowalski CJ, Anderson BP, Heydenderal PHJM. A mixed longitudinal interdisciplinary study of growth and development. New York. Academic Press Krueger R. Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. 2 nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif Sage Publications, Inc, 1994.

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13 arm-circumference-among-pre-school-children-of-arambag-hooghly-district-westbengal-india-an-observational-study-2.html Mangasarian N. Growth monitoring and promotion: Intervention or Platform for action. 35th SCN Session WG Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding. UNICEF, Manu, Khetarpaul N. Gender differences in food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of indian pre-school children (3-4 years) in Haryana State. Nutr Health 2006; 18 (1): Margaret AM, Cheryl DF, Ogden CL, Flegal KM. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, National Health Statistics Report Number 10; Accessed from ( Martin RM, Gunnell D, Smith GD. Breastfeeding in infancy and blood pressure in later life: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161: Mathur R, Reddy V, Naidu AN, Ravikumar, Krishnamachari KA. Nutritional status and diarrhoeal morbidity: a longitudinal study in rural Indian preschool children. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1985; 39 (6): (original not seen). Meredith HV. A physical growth record for use in elementary and high schools. Am J Pub Health 1949; 39: Meshram II, Laxmiah A, Gal Reddy Ch, ravindernath M, Venkaiah K, Brahmam GN. Prevalence of undernutrition and its correlates among under 3 years old children in rural areas of Medak, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ann Hum Biol 2011: 38 (1): Ministry of Family Welfare. National Rural Health Mission Ministry of Women and Child Development. National response to nutrition problems. utrition%20problems.pdf. Ministry of Women and Child Development: Report of the Sub group on ICDS and nutrition accessed on

14 Mishra BK, Mishra S. Nutritional anthropometry and preschool child feeding practices in working mothers of Central Orissa. Stud. Home. Comm. Sci 2007; 1(2): Mihrshahi S, Oddy WH, Peat JK, Kabir I. Association between infant feeding patterns and diarrhoeal and respiratory illness: A cohort study in Chittagong, Bangladesh. International Breastfeeding J 2008; 3: 28. Available fromhttp:// Moestue H. Can anthropometry measure gender discrimination? An analysis using WHO standards to assess the growth of Bangladeshi children. Public Health Nutr 2008; 12 (8): Morley D. A medical service for children under five years of age in West Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1962; 57: Murray CJL, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, Cambridge, MA, Harvard School of Public Health, Myatt M, Khara T, Collins S. A review of methods to detect cases of severely malnourished children in the community for their admission into community-based therapeutic care programs. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2006; 27(3 suppl):s7-s23 NAHNES III. Body measurements (Anthropometry)- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, Rockville, Accessed fromhttp:// f Nash A, Secker D, Corey M, Dunn M, O Connor DL. Field testing of the 2006 World Health Organization growth charts from birth to 2 years: assessment of hospital undernutrition and overnutrition rates and the usefulness of BMI. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008; 32 (2):

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16 NSSO. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Government of India. Household consumer expenditure in India Available fromhttp://mospi.nic.in/mospi_nsso_rept_pubn.htm. Ogden CL, Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 200 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statisticsversion. Pediatr 2002; 109: Ong KKL, Ahmed ML, Emmett P M, Preece MA, Dunger DB. Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study. BMJ, 2000, 320: Oommen A, Vatsa m, Paul VK, Aggarwal R. Breastfeeding practices of urban and rural mothers. Indian Pediatr 2009;46: Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH. Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84: Owen CG, Whincup PH, Gilg JA. Effect of breast feeding in infancy on blood pressure in late life: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2003; 327: Owen CG, Whincup PH, Kaye SJ. Does initial breastfeeding lead to lower blood cholesterol in adult life? A quantitative review of the evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: Owen CG, Whincup PH, Odoki K. Infant feeding and blood cholesterol: a study in adolescents and a systematic review. Pediatrics 2002; 110: Palit A, Handa s, Bhalla A, Kumar B. A mixed-longitudinal study of physical growth in children with atopic dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2007; 73 (3): Pan H, Cole TJ. LMSchartmaker, a program to construct growth references using the LMS method.version

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18 Rao S, Joshi SB, Kelkar RS. Changes in nutritional status and morbidity over time among pre-school children from slums in Pune, India. Indian Pediatr 2000; 37: Rao S, Kanade AN. Comparison of Gomez and Waterlow classification in a follow - up study among pre-school children. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 42: Rao MN, Rao CR. Linked cross-sectional study for determining norms and growth rates- A pilot survey on Indian school-going boys. Sankhya: The Indian J Stats B 1966; 28: Rasania SK, Singh SK, Pathi S, Bhalla S, sachdev TR. Breast-feeding practices in a maternal and child health centre in Delhi. Health and Population-perspective and Issues 2003: 26(3): Robert RC, Gittelsohn J, Creed-Kanashiro HM, Penny ME, Caulfield LE, Narro MR. et al. Implementation examined in a health center-delivered, educational intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru: successes and challenges. Health Edu Res 2007; 22: Rowland MG, Rowland SG, Cole TJ. Impact of infection on the growth of children from 0 to 2 years in an urban West African community. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47: Quandt SA. Methods for determining intake. In. Nutritional Anthropology. Alan R Liss Inc Sachdev HPS, Fall HD, Osmond C, Lakshmy R, Dey KS, Leary SD, Reddy KS, Barker DJP, Bhargava SK. Anthropometric indicators of body composition in young adults:relation to size at birth and serial measurements of body mass index in childhood in the New Delhi birth cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: Sachdev HPS. Assessing Child Malnutrition: Some Basic Issues. NFI Bulletin, October Sachdev HPS. Assessing Child Malnutrition: Some Basic Issues. NFI Bulletin, October 1995.

19 Sachdev HPS. Overcoming challenges to accelerating linear growth in Indian children. India Health Beat 2011: 5(2). Santos I, Victora CG, Martines J, Gonçalves H, Gigante DP, Valle NJ et al. Nutrition counselling increases weight gain among Brazilian children. J Nutr 2001; 131: Sapkota VP, Gurung CK. Prevalence and predictors of underweight, stunting and wasting in under-five children, Nepal Health Res Counc 2009; 7(15): Sarría A, García LA, Moreno LA, Fleta J, Morellón MP, Bueno M. Skinfold thickness measurements are better predictors of body fat percentage than body mass index in male Spanish children and adolescents". Eur J Clin Nutr1998; 52 (8): Sawadago SP, Prevel YM, Capon G, Traore A, Delpeuch UFR. Nutritional status and common infections in infants in Burkina Faso: interest of an overall morbidity score. Trop Med Intl Health 2008; 13 (3): Saxena N, Nayar D, Kapil U. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting. Indian Pediatr 1997; 34: Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE, Gordon JE.Interaction of nutrition and Infection. Technical Monograph Series No. 57. Geneva: World Health Organization.1968 Shekar M, Latham MC. Growth monitoring can and does work! An example from the Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Project in rural south India. J Pediatr 1992; 59: Shekar M, Latham MC. Growth monitoring can and does work! An example from the Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Project in rural south India. Indian J Pediatr 1992; 59: Shrimpton R, Victora CG, de Onis M, Lima RC, Blössner M, Clugston G.: Worldwide timing of growth faltering: implications for nutrition interventions. Pediatrics, 107:1, Singhal A, Lucas A. Early origins of cardiovascular disease: is there a unifying hypothesis? Lancet 2004; 363:

20 Solomons NW. Malnutrition and infection: an update. British J Nutr 2007; 98 (S): S5 S10. Stewart DW, Shamdasani PN. Focus group: Theory and practice. Newbury Park, Calif Sage Publications Taneja DK, Saha Renuka, dabas P, Gautam VP, Tripathy Y, Mehra M. A study of infant feeding practices and the underlying factors in a rural area of Delhi. Indian J Community Med 2003: 28(3); Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Takaishi M. Standards from birth to maturity for height, weight, height velocity and weight velocity: British Children Arch Dis Child 1966; 41: Tanner JM. Some notes on the reporting of growth data. Hum Biol 1951; 23: Tarozzi A, Growth reference charts and the nutritional status of Indian children. Eco Hum Biol 2008; 6: Tenth Five year Plan. Food and Nutrition Security: Nutrition Planning Commission, Government of India; Vol 2 p Tripathy R. Das RN, Das MM, Parija AC. Growth in the first year in children following IAP policy on infant feeding. Indian Pediatr 2000; 37 (10): Uljaszek JL, Deborak AK. Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status. Br J Nutr 1999; 82: UHRC Nutrition and Health of Urban Poor Women in India (fact Sheet): Key findings from analysis of NFHS-3. Available from: give link UNICEF. State of the World s Children Report UNICEF. Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press; UNICEF. The situation of children in India- A profile. 2011

21 UNICEF. Tracking progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition Verma R, Khanna P, Gaur DR, Meena, Prinja S. Assessment Of Nutritional Status And Dietary Intake Of Pre-School Children In An Urban Pocket. The Internet J Nutr Wellness. 2008; 6 (1). Vesel L, Bahl R, Martines J, Penny M, Bhandari N, Kirkwood BR, WHO Immunization-linked Vitamin A Supplementation Study Group. Use of new World Health Organization child growth standards to assess how infant malnutrition relates to breastfeeding and mortality. Bull World Health Organ 2010; 88 : Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet 2008; 71: Wang X, Hojer B, Guo S, Luo S, Zhou W, Wang Y. Stunting and 'overweight' in the WHO Child Growth Standards - malnutrition among children in a poor area of China. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12 (11): Warmani H, Astrom AN, Peterson S, tumwine JK, Tylleskar T. Predictors of poor anthropometric status among children under 2 years of age in rural Uganda. Pub Health Nutr 2006; 9 (3): Waterlow JC. Classification and definition of protein calorie malnutrition. BMJ 1972; 3: Waterlow, JR., Buzina R, Keller W, Lane J, Nichaman M, Tanner J.: The presentation and use of height and weight data for comparing the nutritional status of groups of children under the age of five years. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55: Weisz A, Meuli G, Thakwalakwa C, Trehan I, Maleta K, Manary M. The duration of diarrhea and fever is associated with growth faltering in rural Malawian children aged 6-18 months. Nutr J 2011; 10:25. WHO WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Paediatr, (Suppl.) 450:76-85, 2006.

22 WHO Anthro for personal computers, version 3.1, 2010: Software for assessing growth and development of the world s children. Geneva: WHO, ( WHO working group. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. Bull World Health org. 1986, 64 (6): WHO. Measuring change in nutritional status. Geneva: World Health Organization, WHO. Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Tech Rep Ser 1995; 854: WHO. Waist circumference and waist hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8 1, December WHO. Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis WHO Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding on the Prevention of Child Mortality. Lancet 355, WHO and UNICEF. WHO child growth standards and identification of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children. A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children s Fund. WHO Press. Geneva Woolson RF, Leeper JD. Growth curve analysis of complete and incomplete longitudinal data. Communications in Statistics 1980; A9 (14): Woolson RF, Leeper JD, Clark WR. Analysis of incomplete data from longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 1978; 14: Yajnik CS. Obesity epidemic in India: intrauterine origins? Proc Nutr Soc 2004;63: 1 10.

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