NUTRITION for the ATHLETE

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1 NUTRITION for the ATHLETE Quick Facts... Athletes achieve peak performance by training and eating a variety of foods. They gain most from the amount of carbohydrates stored in the body. That s why it s very crucial all athletes are needed to eat great dinner the night before game s day. Water is a critical nutrient for athletes. Dehydration can cause muscle cramping and fatigue. Carbohydrates In the early stages of moderate exercise, carbohydrates provide 40 to 50 percent of the energy requirement. Carbohydrates yield more energy per unit of oxygen consumed than fats. Complex carbohydrates foods Spaghetti, potatoes, lasagna, cereals and other grain products. Simple carbohydrates Fruits, milk, honey and natural sugar during digestion, the body breaks down carbohydrates to glucose and stores it in the muscles as glycogen. During exercise, the glycogen is converted back to glucose and is used for energy. The ability to sustain prolonged vigorous exercise is directly related to initial levels of muscle glycogen. For events that require heavy work for more than 90 minutes, a highcarbohydrate diet eaten for two to three days before the event allows glycogen storage spaces to be filled. Long distance runners, cyclists, cross-country skiers, canoe racers, swimmers and soccer players report benefits from a competition diet where 70 percent of the calories comes from carbohydrates.

2 Table 1: Sample menu of a high carbohydrate diet. Food item Calories Grams carbohydrate Breakfast 8 ounces orange juice cup oatmeal medium banana ounces low-fat milk slice whole wheat toast 1 tablespoon jelly Lunch 2-ounce slice ham ounce Swiss cheese slices whole wheat bread 1 leaf lettuce slice tomato ounces apple juice ounces skim milk cookies Dinner 3 cups spaghetti cup tomato sauce Mushrooms tablespoons 45 0 Parmesan cheese 4 slices French bread slice angel food cake /4 cup sliced 13 3 strawberries 1/2 cup ice cream Snack 16 ounces grape juice fig cookies TOTAL (75% of total calories)

3 Water Water is an important nutrient for the athlete. Athletes should start any event hydrated and replace as much lost fluid as possible by drinking chilled liquids at frequent intervals during the event. Chilled fluids are absorbed faster and help lower body temperature. (See Table 2.) Table 2: Recommendations for hydration. Day before Drink fluids frequently Pre-event meal 2-3 cups water 2 hours before 2-2 1/2 cups water 1/2 hour before 2 cups water Every /2 cup cool (45-55 degrees) water minutes during the event After event 2 cups fluid for each pound lost Next day Drink fluids frequently (it may take 36 hours to rehydrate completely). Make your own sport drinks You can make an excellent home-brewed 7.6 percent sports drink with reasonable sodium amounts. Add 6 tablespoons sugar and 1/3-teaspoon salt to each quart of water. Dissolve sugar and cool. The salt translates into a sodium concentration of 650 mg/liter. This small amount is good for marathon runners. Electrolyte beverages can be used if the athlete tolerates them, but other electrolytes are not essential until after the event. Experiment during training to find the best beverage for you. Vitamin before game. However, plenty of these vitamins will be obtained from eating a variety of foods. Carbohydrate and protein foods are excellent sources of these vitamins. Furthermore, the B vitamins are water-soluble and are not stored in the body, so toxicity if not an issue. Some female athletes may lack riboflavin, so ensuring adequate consumption of riboflavin-rich food is important, like milk. Milk products not only increase the riboflavin level but also provide protein and calcium. The body stores excess fat-soluble vitamins A; D, E and K. Excessive amounts of fatsoluble vitamins may have toxic effects.

4 Minerals are Very Important and Needed Before Game Minerals play an important role in performance. Heavy exercise affects the body's supply of sodium, potassium, iron and calcium. Sweating during exercise increases the concentration of salt in the body. Consuming salt tablets after competition and workouts is not advised, as this will remove water from your cells, causing weak muscles. Good sodium guidelines are to: 1) avoid excessive amounts of sodium in the diet and 2) beverages containing sodium after endurance events may be helpful. Eating potassium-rich foods such as oranges, bananas and potatoes, fish throughout training and after competition supplies necessary potassium Iron carries oxygen via blood to all cells in the body and is another important mineral for athletes. The Post-Game Meal Regardless of age, gender or sport, the post-game. Competition meal recommendations are the same. (See Table 3.) Table 3: Two pre-event meal plans. Pre-Event Meal Plan 2-3 hours prior (Approximately 500 calories) Lean meat or protein equivalent 2 ounces Fruit Bread or easily digestible carbohydrate 2 servings Pre-Event Meal Plan II, 3 1/2-4 hours prior (Approximately 900 calories) or less Cooked lean meat or protein equivalent 2 ounces Fruit Pasta or baked potato/ rice / pudding 1 cup or 1 medium Bread or carbohydrate substitute 2 servings Low-fiber vegetable Fat spread 1 teaspoon Dessert: Angel food cake or plain 1 piece 2 cookies cookies PROTEIN Although high protein food is great for the body and recovery process, it is very important athletes need to stay away from high proteins food two hour before game, but protein also take longer time to digest.

5 #1: Turkey Breast (and Chicken Breast) Protein in 100g Half-Breast (306g) Protein to Calorie Ratio 30g 92g 1g protein per 4.5 calories Chicken: Chicken Breast (58g) provides 17g protein. Chicken Leg (69g) provides 18g protein. Chicken Thigh (37g) provides 9g proteins. #2: Fish (Tuna, Salmon, Halibut) Protein in 100g 3oz Fillet (85g) Protein to Calorie Ratio 26g 22g 1g protein per 4.5 calories Other fish high in protein per fillet (3oz or 85g): Tuna (22g), Salmon (22g), Halibut (22g), Snapper (22g), Perch (21g), Flounder and Sole (21g), Cod (20g), Tilapia (17g). #3: Cheese (Non-fat Mozzarella) Protein in 100g 1oz Slice (28g) Protein to Calorie Ratio 32g 9g 1g protein per 4.7 calories Other cheese high in protein per ounce (28g): Low-fat Cottage Cheese (5g), Low-fat Swiss Cheese (8g), Low-fat Cheddar (6g), Parmesan (10g), Romano (9g). #4: Pork Loin (Chops) Protein in 100g 1 Chop (134g, ~5oz) Protein to Calorie Ratio 25g 33g 1g protein per 5.2 calories

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