Nutrition for Athletic Performance. Hannah Sheridan Lead Performance Nutritionist High Performance Centre, Birmingham

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1 Nutrition for Athletic Performance Hannah Sheridan Lead Performance Nutritionist High Performance Centre, Birmingham

2 Introduction The physiological demands of athletic events Getting the basics right Pre-training nutrition Fuelling (or not) during training Competition nutrition Recovery nutrition Supplements [Needs & Risks]

3 The Characteristics Endurance: High volume training Pressure to be light and lean Middle Distance / Sprints: Power-to-weight ratio = lean but muscular High muscle mass and strength important for sprinters Competitive season may not be particularly high mileage Jumps: Power-to-weight ratio = lean but muscular Excess muscle mass may have to be shed leading in to comp season Throws: Large body mass now not so advantageous Power to weight ratio: strength and power with efficient motion

4 The Basics CARBOHYDRATE Efficient energy source & immunity VITAMINS/MINERALS Health, metabolism, immunity, hormones, oxygen transport FATS Transports vitamins, hormone production, protection, energy, pro/anti inflammatory PROTEIN Repair, recovery & building of muscle mass

5 Carbohydrates - Main fuel source for any Olympic event! - 65% VO2 max+ = carbohydrate utilisation > fat - Most efficient energy source - Limited: depleted within 90mins of moderate intensity exercise

6 Why not maximise our ability to use fat and spare carbohydrate? Very slow to breakdown fat as a fuel source 1200 kcal/hour required for high level marathon runner High fat /low carb diets reduce an athletes ability to use carbohydrate High fat /low carb diets reduce an athletes ability to train at a high intensity

7 Carb Periodisation Tailoring your nutritional intake to match your training volume Double training day vs rest day Main carbohydrate meal post training - Fuel up for high intensity, priority sessions - Endurance athletes can train low for easy runs < 45mins

8 Protein Muscle damage and microdamage to bone - Rebuilding and repair of muscle proteins and bone - Adaptation to training

9 Protein High quality protein sources Optimal protein dose: 20-25g 25g 600ml = 20g 26g Regular protein intake: every 2-3 hrs

10 Vital vits / minerals IRON Transport oxygen and support Immune function CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Helps the repair, growth and strengthening of bones and also muscle fibre repair Iron sources: - Iron supplements (low iron status only) - Red meat / green leafy veg - Avoid caffeine within an hour of eating. Vitamin C / Zinc Can reduce the symptoms of colds and other illness Only required on restrictive diets or during illness Vitamin C sources: citrus fruits, peppers, berries and broccoli Zinc sources: beef, lamb, seeds, dairy Calcium sources : Vitamin D: - Fortified cereals - supplement - Milk - sunlight - Yogurt - eggs/fish/fortified - Oily fish foods - Tofu - Green vegetables - Beans/legumes

11 Pre-Training Nutrition 3-4 hours prior Toast with jam/honey and banana. Jacket potato with tuna and sweet corn Eggs and beans on toast. Porridge, honey, berries. Fruit bun with banana and yogurt. Avoid high fat foods 1-2 hours <1 hour Cereal bar Banana Rice cakes with honey Sports Drinks Small sandwich malt loaf Crumpets Dried fruits Bagel & Filling

12 Training Low What is this? A form of nutritional periodisation where carbohydrates are withheld either before, during and/or after training. It is NOT a chronically low carbohydrate / carbohydrate restricted diet Why? Main aim of endurance training = number of mitochondria (generate energy aerobically) Training low is an innovative nutritional strategy that stimulates the production of mitochondria without having to do extra training

13 Training Low How? Fasted training: Easy, fasted morning runs (caffeine) recovery meal after Double training days: high intensity session completed fully fuelled, carbohydrate withheld after session, low intensity session completed low carbohydrate. Sleep low: high intensity session completed fully fuelled, high protein low carb dinner and therefore sleep with low carbohydrate stores. 1-2 sessions per week max

14 Pre-Competition Nutrition Choose low fibre foods Choose fast-releasing white forms of carbohydrate Avoid high fat foods to prevent stomach discomfort.

15 Nutrition During Exercise Can increase motivation Replaces energy and electrolytes Nutrition during exercise Helps to maintain concentration and agility Prevents the onset of early fatigue Helps to maintain body temperature

16

17 Hydration Extreme individual variability No set recommendations one size does NOT fit all. Weigh in / Weigh out: Weigh in (pre-exercise) weigh out (post-exercise) = fluid loss Fluid loss (kg) x 1.5 = recommended fluid intake to rehydrate (L) Example: 60kg 59kg = 1kg fluid loss 1 x 1.5 = 1.5L Hypotonic/isotonic carbohydrate drinks plus sodium aid retention and rapid rehydration

18 Recovery Nutrition Refuel Carbohydrate Rehydrate - Fluid Repair Protein minute window very important after intense training sessions & for those with < 24h recovery

19 Recovery Nutrition 1. Cool down with sports drink 4. Stay hydrated, rest and repeat 2. Appetising high carbohydrate/protein snack or drink (30 min) 3. A nutritious meal / larger snack

20 Recovery Nutrition Recovery Food/fluid CHO (g) Protein (g) 200g Total Greek yogurt with 30g of cereal ml skimmed milk and 4 tsp Nesquik powder turkey salad sandwich Tuna pasta in a tomato sauce Bagel with salmon and cream cheese Small chicken pasta salad Add some carbs CHO (g) Small piece of fruit Glass of fruit juice 20 Cereal bar Thin slice of bread 15

21 Supplements Under 18? NO! Always choose food first. Over 18? Assess the NEED Assess the RISK Assess the CONSEQUENCES

22 Assess the NEED Diet Training Physiotherapy Sleep Rest Advice Hydration Psychology Supplements

23 Assess the NEED Does the athlete have a micronutrient deficiency? Does the athlete have a loss of appetite after intense training/comp? Does the lifestyle of the athlete limit their ability to prepare/consume whole foods? Is the athlete travelling abroad where access to certain nutrients is limited?

24 Assess the RISKS Some supplements contain banned substances Sometimes the ingredients are listed differently to how they appear on the Prohibited List Contamination can occur during the manufacturing process Supplements may be sold as counterfeit products the risk of fake supplement products is greater when buying over the internet

25 Assess the RISKS No guarantee can be given that any supplement, including vitamins, minerals and herbal remedies are free from banned substances. - Health risks - Side effects (headaches, nausea etc.) - Reduce adaptation to training USE THE INFORMED SPORT WEBSITE TO MINIMISE RISKS

26 Assess the CONSEQUENCES Assess the CONSEQUENCES Loss of funding and sponsorship No access to any NGB facilities or competition Impact upon relationships with peers/family Damaged future career prospects Effects emotional and psychological well-being

27 Supplements Iron - Small amounts lost via sweat - Impact upon foot strike damages red blood cells - Restrictive diet Blood test supplementation. Serum ferritin <20-22 µg/l is too low for athletes. Aim for 30+ in females and 40+ in males. Whey Protein / Creatine muscle mass or sprint performance Vitamin D (November March) Multi-vitamin (only for those on a restricted diet) Beetroot juice

28 Questions Contact details: University of Birmingham, High Performance Centre

29 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Carbo-loading protocol: Why? To maximise muscle glycogen (energy) stores prior to endurance events > 90 mins. When? During a training taper, 1-4 days before an endurance event Not practical or necessary for intermittent team sports or short events - Not enough time in between sessions / matches - carbohydrate not limiting to performance e.g. 800m or 45 min football match when carbohydrate fluid/snacks can easily be consumed

30 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Carbo-loading protocol: How? Reduce training load and intensity (taper) and consume a high carbohydrate diet (8-12g/kg/day) Choose low fibre, low fat and high GI carbohydrate sources such as fruit, sugar, honey, white bread, jam and jelly. Excessive consumption of high fibre foods will cause stomach issues. Optimal carbohydrate stores can be achieved with 24h of rest and a high carbohydrate diet Be aware that glycogen is stored with water so body mass can increase by 2kg.

31 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Carbo-loading protocol: Example: 60kg athlete 9g/kg/day Breakfast: 3 cups of low fibre breakfast cereal with 250ml of milk. 1 banana. 250ml orange juice Snack: Lunch: Snack: Dinner: toasted fruit teacake with honey 2 sandwiches with lean meat/tuna filling. 200g low fat fruit yogurt. banana smoothie with honey and milk. 1 cup of pasta sauce with 2 cups of pasta, veg and meat. 2 slices of garlic bread. 1 glass of cordial Late snack: 2 x toast with jam

32 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Train low (carbohydrate restriction): What is this? A form of nutritional periodisation where carbohydrates are withheld either before, during and/or after training. It is NOT a chronically low carbohydrate / carbohydrate restricted diet Why? Main aim of endurance training = number of mitochondria (generate energy aerobic) Train, train, train until saturation? miles / week? Training low is an Innovative nutritional strategy that stimulates the production of mitochondria without having to do extra training

33 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Train low (carbohydrate restriction): Additional facts: Do your high intensity sessions in a high carbohydrate state. Caffeine/carb mouth rinses can overcome the potential negative effect of train low on performance Immunosuppression- athletes susceptible to illness should not train low Do not train low the week prior to competition

34 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Beetroot juice (Nitrates): Why? Reduces the oxygen cost of exercise (5-30 min duration), enhances exercise tolerance and performance When ingested acutely (on the day of exercise) it is beneficial for longer duration exercise (> 40min) How and when? 5-9mmol of nitrate per day ( ml beetroot juice or 2 x Beet It shot) Effective 3h after supplementation and for up to 15 days following.

35 Popular Nutrition Topics- Endurance Beetroot juice (Nitrates): How and when? Additional facts: There are responders and non-responders Supplementation lowers blood pressure = dizzyness, feeling faint etc.

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