Cellular Respiration. How our body makes ATP, ENERGY!!

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1 Cellular Respiration How our body makes ATP, ENERGY!!

2 Useable Energy Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) Adenosine Ribose Sugar 3 Phosphates November 27, 2017

3 November 27, 2017

4 Where do our cells get energy? 6-C sugars are the MAJOR source of energy for cell What type of macromolecule are 6-C sugars? Carbohydrates Cells break down glucose, a 6-C sugar, to make ATP energy November 27, 2017

5 Overall Chemical Process C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + usable energy (ATP) November 27, 2017

6 Cellular Respiration (3-stages) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport November 27, 2017 Fermentation (without oxygen) Alcohol or lactic acid

7 Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose (C 6 H ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O) + ATP

8 Glycolysis: Figure 9 3 Glycolysis Step 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

9 Figure 9 3 Glycolysis Section 9-1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

10 Figure 9 3 Glycolysis Section 9-1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

11 Where Cytoplasm NO O 2 required Energy Yield net gain of 2 ATP 6-C glucose TWO 3-C pyruvates Free e - and H + combine with organic ion carriers called NAD + NADH + H + (nicotinamide dinucleotide) November 27, 2017

12 Summary In Glucose (6-C) Out 2 pyruvate; 2(3-C) 2NADH 2 ATP November 27, 2017

13 Questions Where does glycolysis take place? Glycolysis energy yield? Breaks glucose into TWO. November 27, 2017

14 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

15 Figure 9 6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

16 Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid Where mitochondria Pyruvate (3-C) Acetic acid (2-C) 3rd C forms CO 2 Acetic acid combines with Coenzyme A to form ACETYL-CoA November 27, 2017

17 Summary In Pyruvate NAD CoA Out CO 2 (as waste) NADH Acetyl-CoA November 27, 2017

18 What is releasing Energy with O 2? Aerobic respiration Where In mitochondria November 27, 2017

19 Second Step: Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) Where Mitochondrial matrix Energy Yield 2 ATP and more e - Acetyl-CoA (2-C) combines with 4-C to form 6-C CITRIC ACID Citric Acid (6-C) changed to 5-C then to a 4-C Gives off a CO 2 molecule NAD+ and FAD pick up the released e - FAD becomes FADH 2 NAD + becomes NADH + H + Cycle ALWAYS reforming a 4-C molecule November 27, 2017

20 Krebs Cycle November 27, 2017

21 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

22 Figure 9 6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

23 ETC Where inner membrane of mitochondria Energy Yield Total of 32 ATP O 2 combines with TWO H + to form H 2 O Exhale - CO 2, H 2 O comes from cellular respiration November 27, 2017

24 Electron Transport Chain Section 9-2 Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Mitochondrion Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production

25 Summary Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

26 Total ENERGY Yield Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs Cycle 2 ATP ETC 32 ATP Total 36 ATP November 27, 2017

27 What happens if NO O 2? Cellular respiration process STOPS November 27, 2017

28 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Anaerobic DOES NOT require oxygen Simple fast produces smaller amounts of energy 2 ATP Aerobic requires oxygen Yields large amounts of energy 36 ATP November 27, 2017

29 November 27, 2017

30 Releasing Energy w/out Oxygen Anaerobic Respiration No Additional ATP is Formed No O 2 leads to Fermentation Two Types Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation November 27, 2017

31 Lactic Acid Fermentation Bacteria and most animals After glycolysis 2 pyruvic acid changed to lactic acid Sometimes happens in your muscles, cramps-----exercise November 27, 2017

32 November 27, 2017

33 Alcoholic Fermentation Bacteria and fungi (yeast) Ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide are the end products Process used to form beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages Also used to raise dough, bread November 27, 2017

34 November 27, 2017

35 Cellular Respiration Review Three Main Stages Glycolysis (2 ATP) Kreb s Cycle (2 ATP) Electron Transport Chain (32 ATP) November 27, 2017

36 Figure 9 3 Glycolysis Glycolysis: Step 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

37 Figure 9 3 Glycolysis Section 9-1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

38 Figure 9 3 Glycolysis Section 9-1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

39 The Krebs Cycle: Step 2 Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

40 Figure 9 6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

41 Electron Transport Chain: Step 3 Section 9-2 Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Mitochondrion Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production