1 Nutrition Basics Health, Wellness & Fitness Brenda Brown
2 Why do we eat? Building blocks to fuel our bodies Hunger Don t want to starve Socialization Emotional eating or not eating when upset, mad, anxious, worried, depressed or bored To maintain life and provide body with energy and necessary nutrients for our body to function optimally
3 Building Vocabulary Your Bodies Nutrient Needs Nutrients - Substances in food that your body needs to carry out its normal functions Nutrition - The process of taking in food and using it for energy, growth, and good health Carbohydrates - Sugars and starches contained in foods Fiber - Tough, stringy part of raw fruits, raw vegetables, whole wheat, and other whole grains
4 Building Vocabulary Your Bodies Nutrient Needs Protein - Nutrients that provide the building blocks your body needs for growth Fats - Nutrient found in fatty animal tissue and plant oils Saturated Fats - Fats that are usually solid at room temperature Unsaturated - Fats that are usually liquid at room temperature
5 Building Vocabulary Your Bodies Nutrient Needs Trans Fat - a kind of fat formed when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil during processing Cholesterol - The waxy, fat like substance that the body uses to build cells and make other substances Vitamins - Nutrients that help regulate body functions Minerals - Elements in foods that help your body work properly
6 Objectives In this lesson you will learn to... Identify the six main classes of nutrients Determine what foods you can eat to obtain the nutrients you need Recognize foods high in fiber
7 Nutrients / Nutrition Your Bodies Nutrient Needs The fuel your body uses comes from nutrients. Substances in food that your body needs to carry out its normal functions The question of what nutrients your body needs is the subject of nutrition. The process of taking in food and using it for energy, growth, and good health
8 Nutrients / Nutrition Your Bodies Nutrient Needs Six Categories of Nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Water Six Categories of Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins
9 Carbohydrates The first source of energy for your body comes from carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATES Sugars and starches contained in foods Simple Carbohydrates Sugars (fruits, milk, table sugar) Complex Carbohydrates Starches (bread, rice, pasta, beans, vegetables) Carbohydrates are broken down by a process called digestion
10 Carbohydrates Fiber is a complex carbohydrate that can not be digested. FIBER: Tough, stringy part of raw fruits, raw vegetables, whole wheat and other whole grains. Fiber helps carry waste out of your body!
11 Protein Proteins are made up of compounds called amino acids. PROTEIN: A nutrient group used to build and repair cells
12 Fats Fats carry certain vitamins in your blood stream and helps keep your skin healthy. Everybody must have some level of fat to survive. FATS: Nutrient found in fatty animal tissues and plant oils that promote normal growth, give you energy and keep your skin healthy. Eating too many saturated fats can contribute to heart disease and some kinds of cancers.
13 Fats UNSATURATED FATS We need in small amounts. Found in avocado, olive oil, nuts and seeds SATURATED FATS Found in meat, poultry, butter, and other dairy products. TRANS FAT A kind of fat formed when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil during processing CHOLESTEROL The waxy, fat like substance the body uses to build cells and make other substances HDL ( good ) LDL ( bad )
14 Project List the sources, benefits, and deficiency issues from the following groups: Fats Carbohydrates Proteins Present your findings to the class
15 Vitamins Vitamins helps your body use other nutrients and help fight disease. VITAMINS: Nutrients that help regulate body functions Foods rich in vitamins include fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and whole grain bread. These are the best sources, compared to supplements. Two types: Fat Soluble & Water Soluble Fat Soluble: stored in fat and organs Water Soluble: excreted through urine within hours or days
16 Minerals Like vitamins, minerals are needed in only small amounts. MINERALS: Substances the body uses to form healthy bones and teeth, keep blood healthy and keep heart and other organs working properly. For example, calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. Iron contributes to healthy blood.
18 Sources Mineral What It Does Where to Find It Iron Helps make red blood cells Meat, poultry, beans Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Chloride Helps build teeth and bones and keeps them strong Helps maintain the body s fluid balance Milk, cheese, and other dairy products Bananas, cantaloupe, fish, vegetables, meats such as chicken and turkey
19 Water 45 to 75 percent of the body is water Water carries other nutrients around your body Water helps with digestion Drink at least half of your body weight in ounces and with meals to help your body get enough water A person can only live for about a week without water.
20 Water Carries nutrients to your cells Helps your body remove waste Water Helps you digest food Helps regulate your body temperature
21 Water Most of the weight from these foods is from water.
22 Other Too much Sodium: *Can increase blood pressure Too much Sugar: *Fills you up and makes you less likely to eat healthy foods *Promotes tooth decay *Is stored as fat causing weight gain
23 Project List the sources, benefits, and deficiency issues from the following vitamins: Fat soluble vs Water soluble Fat Soluble: stored in fat and organs A, D, E, & K Water Soluble: excreted through urine within hours or days B s (B1, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12) & C Present your findings to the class
24 200 Calories You Tube
25 Reading Food Labels SERVING SIZE Standardized size based on amounts people actually eat. Similar food products have similar serving sizes making it easier to compare foods in the same category. Pay attention to the number of servings per recipe. Ask yourself, How many servings am I consuming?
26 Reading Food Labels CALORIES Calories provide a measure of how much energy you get from a serving of this food. Many Americans consume more calories than they need without meeting recommended intakes for a number of nutrients. The calorie section of the label can help you manage your weight (i.e., gain, lose, or maintain.) Remember: the number of servings you consume determines the number of calories you actually eat (your portion amount).
27 Reading Food Labels Indicates how food fits within a 2,000 calorie diet. Nutrients are based on dietary recommendations for most healthy people. This helps you to understand if the food has "a lot" or "a little" of the most important nutrients. 5% or less is low 20% or more is high % DAILY VALUE
28 Reading Food Labels MIDDLE SECTION The nutrients listed in the middle section are the ones most important to good health. This helps you to calculate your daily limits for fat, fiber, sodium and other nutrients. Limit: Fats, Cholesterol & Sodium Get enough of Protein, Dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium & Iron
29 Reading Food Labels VITAMINS & MINERALS The Percent Daily Value is the same as the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance for vitamins and minerals (same levels). Only these vitamins and minerals are required on labels although the manufacturer has the option to include others too.
30 Reading Food Labels Look at your label... Identify serving size... Total fats... What kind are they? Total protein... Total fiber... Total sodium... Vitamins & Minerals...
31 Daily Values Based on 2000 Calorie Diet Nutrient DV Goal Total Fat 65 gm Less Than Saturated Fat 20 gm Less Than Cholesterol 300 mg Less Than Sodium 2400 mg Less Than Total Carbohydrates 300 gm In Moderation Dietary Fiber 25 gm At Least
32 Daily Values Nutrients with a % DV but no weight listed Calcium: Look at the %DV for calcium on food packages so you know how much one serving contributes to the total amount you need per day. Remember, a food with 20%DV or more contributes a lot of calcium to your daily total, while one with 5%DV or less contributes a little. For certain populations, they advise that adolescents, especially girls, consume 1,300mg (130%DV) and post-menopausal women consume 1,200mg (120%DV) of calcium daily. The DV for calcium on food labels is 1,000mg. Don't be fooled -- always check the label for calcium because you can't make assumptions about the amount of calcium in specific food categories. Example: the amount of calcium in milk, whether skim or whole, is generally the same per serving, whereas the amount of calcium in the same size yogurt container (8oz) can vary from %DV.
33 Daily Values Nutrients Without a %DV: Trans Fats, Protein, and Sugars: Note that Trans fat, Sugars and, Protein do not list a %DV on the Nutrition Facts label. Trans Fat: Experts could not provide a reference value for trans fat nor any other information that FDA believes is sufficient to establish a Daily Value or %DV. Scientific reports link trans fat (and saturated fat) with raising blood LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels, both of which increase your risk of coronary heart disease, a leading cause of death in the US. Important: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet. Protein: A %DV is required to be listed if a claim is made for protein, such as "high in protein". Otherwise, unless the food is meant for use by infants and children under 4 years old, none is needed. Current scientific evidence indicates that protein intake is not a public health concern for adults and children over 4 years of age. Sugars: No daily reference value has been established for sugars because no recommendations have been made for the total amount to eat in a day. Keep in mind, the sugars listed on the Nutrition Facts label include naturally occurring sugars (like those in fruit and milk) as well as those added to a food or drink. Check the ingredient list for specifics on added sugars.
34 PORTIONS Interesting facts about portions sizes: Average dinner plate in 1956 was 8 Average dinner plate now is 10.5 Large drink at McDonald s in 1961 was 12 oz Large drink at McDonald s is now 21 oz Average restaurant spaghetti serving in 1969 was 11 oz Average restaurant spaghetti serving now is 21 oz A pound of potato chips costs Americans 200 times more than a pound of potatoes.
35 PORTIONS Why do we SUPERSIZE? Our eyes are bigger than our stomachs Speed eating Social butterflies standing next to the table of food We want our money s worth. Boredom Emotions Habit
36 PORTIONS Mindfulness of Eating Patterns Get in touch with the inner voice of childhood Recognize when we are no longer hungry Stop before you go too far Look forward to more of the same good food later Know how to fill up without filling out
37 PORTIONS Strategies to Eat Appropriate Portions Read the label for portion size Ask for single portion sizes instead of double Use salad plate for main meal What food colors are on your plate? Protein serving is usually the size of your palm or a deck of cards. Vegetable serving is two times the size of your palm. Carbohydrate serving is 1 cup or about the size of your fist or a baseball.
38 PROJECT Create a Healthy Meal What protein will we have? What grains? What fruit? What vegetable? What dairy? What will the portions sizes be? Find Healthy recipes Must be home-made Create a food label Take a photo or create a picture of the meal
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Date: CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates provide an important source of energy for our bodies. There are two types of carbohydrates: Sugars are found in foods which taste sweet like candies, jams and desserts.
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