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1 Lab-1

2 Introduction The human skeleton is composed of 300 bones at birth and by the time adulthood is reached, some bones have fused together to give a total of 206 bones in the body. The human skeleton serves many functions: Provides support for soft organs Protection of many organs Joints provide flexible movement of many parts of the body Mineral (calcium, phosphorus) storage Bone marrow: synthesis of blood cells

3 Bone Structure Bone: hard inorganic matrix of calcium salts Compact bone: forms shaft and ends, contains marrow space Yellow bone marrow (mostly fat) in marrow space Spongy bone: trabeculae form lattice-like support Spaces may contain red bone marrow Cells: osteoblast, osteocytes, osteoclasts **** Examine types of bone under microscope.

4

5 Spongy bone -trabecula compact bone (arow)

6

7 Human skeleton The human skeleton can be divided into : the axial skeleton the appendicular skeleton. **** Examine the skeleton parts on a model.

8 The human skeletal system Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Skull Girdles limbs Hyoid bone Pectoral Upper lower Vertebral column Pelvic Thoracic cage

9 Axial skeleton Cranium (skull) Maxilla Mandible Sternum Ribs Vertebrae Appendicular skeleton Clavicle Scapula Humerus Ulna Radius Carpals Metacarpals Sacrum Phalanges Coxal bone Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

10 The axial skeletal system 1-The Vertebral column it consists of 33 vertebrae. classified into 5 groups. Name Cervical Thoracic Lumber Location Neck region Chest region Abdominal region No. of vertebrae Sacral Below lumber (5) coccyx Below sacral (4)

11 The Vertebral column Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (4 fused)

12 The Skull Cranial bones Facial bones Frontal bone Parietal bones (paired) Occipital bone Temporal bones (paired) Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Mandible Maxillae Zygomatic bones Nasal bones

13 The Skull Temporal bone Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Parietal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Maxilla Zygomatic bone Palatine bone Sphenoid bone Vomer bone Foramen magnum styloid Occipital bone External auditory meatus Occipital bone

14 3. Hyoid bone site for the attachement of muscles associated with swallowing Larynx Hyoid bone

15 4-Rib cage Thoracic cage Thoracic vertebra 1 Sternum (breastbone) Ribs 5 6 Cartilage T 11 7 Vertebral column T 12 L Floating ribs L 2 11

16 The Appendicular Skeleton 1-The Pectoral gridle and upper Limb. 2- The Pelvic gridle and lower Limb.

17 Clavicle (collar bone) 1-The Pectoral gridle Pectoral girdle Humerus (upper arm) Scapula (shoulder blade) Ulna Radius Forearm 8 Carpals (wrist) 5 Metacarpals (hand) 14 Phalanges (finger bones)

18 Humerus (Upper Arm Bone) Carpals ( wrist bones)

19 Metacarpals (Top of Hands) Phalanges (Little Fingers)

20 Coxal bones and sacrum (pelvis) 2-The Pelvic gridle Femur (upper leg) Patella (knee cap) Lower leg Tibia Fibula 7 Tarsals (ankle) 5 Metatarsals (foot) 14 Phalanges (toe bones)

21 Pelvic girdle Femur (longest bone in the body.

22 Pelvic girdle in women is: -Broader -Shallower -Wider opening Male Female

23 The Tibia and Fibula Tarsals

24 Metatarsals Phalanges

25 Calcaneous

26 Exercise 1. Fill in the table with the names of bones involved in each movement (activity): Activity Bones Involved Lift a cup Put down a cup Twist your arm Turn your palm upward Bend your head way back Move a leg to the side Move a leg to the center Turn your palm downward

27 Exercise 2. a) What are the bones that form the jaw?? b) Open your mouth. Did you elevate the maxilla or depress the mandible

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