Anxiety Disorders. Fear & Anxiety. Anxiety Disorder? 26/5/2014. J. H. Atkinson, M.D. Fear. Anxiety. An anxiety disorder is present when

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1 Anxiety s J. H. Atkinson, M.D. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center University of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry & Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego Materials courtesy of Dr. Murray Stein, UCSD Fear & Anxiety Fear apprehension about a known commodity or event rational Anxiety apprehension about an unknown commodity or event has an irrational or excessive component Anxiety? An anxiety disorder is present when severity of anxiety is markedly in excess of that normally associated with the stimulus or, anxiety is present in the absence of a recognizable stimulus and, anxiety or worry is uncontrollable or interfering or severely distressing 1

2 Generalized Anxiety Phobic s PTSD OCD Differential Diagnosis Medical s thyroid problems TSH cardiac problems other Substance Use stimulants Caffeine Methamphetamine Cocaine sedative withdrawal Generalized Anxiety WORRY Excessive anxiety and worry 6 months or more about a number of events or activities Difficult to control the worry ANXIETY SYMPTOMS Three or more of the following restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge easy fatigability trouble concentrating irritability muscle tension sleep disturbance 2

3 Generalized Anxiety National Comorbidity Survey 2% currrent prevalence in general population 5% lifetime prevalence» female:male 2:1 Primary Care Studies 5-10% of patients comorbid almost always with a mood disorder Generalized Anxiety Rx: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Buspirone Benzodiazepines Newer agents Venlafaxine Nefazodone Psychological Therapies Relaxation Training; Worry Control Training Panic Recurrent unexpected panic attacks Panic attacks: acute paroxysms of anxiety occur out of the blue somatic symptoms» e.g., shortness of breath, tachycardia, sweating cognitive symptoms» e.g., fear, desire to flee, heart attack 3

4 Panic Prevalence 1% Female > Male Onset late teens through twenties Often complicated by agoraphobia major depression suicide risk substance abuse emotional and financial dependence Cognitive Behavioral Model of Panic Physical Symptoms Confirmation of Beliefs Increased Anxiety Misinterpretation Increased scrutiny Treatment of Panic Rx Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Benzodiazepines Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Anticonvulsants valproate [Depakote]; gabapentin [Neurontin] Non-Rx Education and Self-Help Cognitive Behavioral Therapies Other Approaches 4

5 Phobic s Irrational fears of objects, places, activities usually accompanied by avoidance Specific phobias animals heights flying Social phobias public speaking more generalized social fears Treatment of Phobias Behavior Therapy systematic desensitization in-vivo, if possible Pharmacotherapy p.r.n. benzodiazepines e.g., 1 mg lorazepam 30 mg pre-exposure p.r.n. beta-blockers only useful for performance anxiety Social Phobia or Social Anxiety Excessive concern about being in situations where scrutiny is possible results in overwhelming anxiety and/or avoidance interferes with functioning One-year prevalence 5-10% 5

6 Social Phobia Subtypes Generalized most social situations (DSM-IV) performance & interactional overlaps with Avoidant Personality 80-90% Nongeneralized 1 or 2 social situations usually performance public speaking other performance writing in front of others eating in front of others Paroxetine Treatment of Generalized Social Anxiety Stein et al., JAMA, 1998 Double-Blind, P-C 187 DSM-IV patients 12 weeks mean dose 37 mg/day 55% responders to paroxetine 24% responders to placebo Posttraumatic Stress (1) Traumatic Exposure experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others the person s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror 6

7 Posttraumatic Stress (2) Reexperiencing intrusive thoughts, nightmares, flashbacks Avoidance or Numbing avoids relationships, reminders of event feels emotionally numbed or cut off Hyperarousal startle, trouble concentrating, insomnia Posttraumatic Stress (3) Treatment Rx: symptomatic depression with antidepressants hyperarousal and insomnia with benzodiazepines or (newer) major tranquilizers Psychotherapy cognitive-behavioral reintegrate the trauma exposure to feared mental images and memories Obsessive Compulsive (OCD) Obsessions irrational, intrusive thoughts or mental images Compulsions irrational, unwanted actions or behaviors OCD obsessions or compulsions (usually both) cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or significantly interfere with daily activities 7

8 Obsessions & Compulsions in OCD Obsession concern over dirt or germs fear of harm to others fear of losing things need for symmetry or exactness uncertainty about having done something Compulsions cleaning or washing rituals avoidance, checking, or undoing rituals hoarding arranging, repeating checking, asking questions Epidemiology of OCD Women = Men Lifetime prevalence 2-3% one-year prevalence % Seen across all socioeconomic strata Seen across all nations and cultures Median onset in early twenties but can have onset in childhood poorer prognosis Treatment of OCD Pharmacotherapy SSRIs Clomipramine Behavior Therapy Exposure Response Prevention Combined Treatment: Rx + Behavior Therapy? More effective More long-lasting 8

9 Duration of Treatment Little long-term data Clinical experience suggests 1-year continuous treatment then consider gradual dose reduction 25% per month supplement with cognitive behavioral therapy relapse prevention benefit? Anxiety s J. H. Atkinson, M.D. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center University of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry & Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego Materials courtesy of Dr. Murray Stein, UCSD 9

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