5 Formed in the renal cortex Travels thru the medullary pyramids Basic Pathway of Urine Flow Drips out of the pyramids into the minor calyces Flows thru major calyces Flows thru the renal pelvis Flows thru the ureter Flows thru and is stored in the urinary bladder Flows thru the urethra
8 Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption The movement of substances from the blood within the glomerulus into the capsular space Tubular secretion The movement of substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood The movement of substances from the blood into the tubular fluid Peritubular capillaries Efferent arteriole Nephron loop Afferent arteriole PCT DCT Collecting tubule Glomerulus Glomerular capsule Capsular space Ascending limb Descending limb Collecting duct Vasa recta
9 By regulating how much water we reabsorb, we regulate blood volume By regulating what chemicals we reabsorb and what we secrete, we regulate blood [electrolyte] and blood ph
10 Renal Math
11 Nephron - sites of urine formation 1 million per kidney. 5 parts Glomerulus Glomerular Capsule Proximal Convoluted Tubule Loop of Henle Distal Convoluted Tubule Empty into collecting ducts.
13 Glomerular Capsule Parietal layer Simple squamous Contains filtrate. Visceral layer Filters Made of podocytes.
15 Proximal Convoluted Tubule Primary site of R&S Receives filtrate from the GC Very twisty. Simple cuboidal. Lots of microvilli. Lots of mitochondria.
16 Loop of Henle Receives filtrate from the PCT Creates a conc. gradient in the renal medulla which allows for water reabsorption from the collecting duct
17 Distal Convoluted Tubule Receives filtrate from the loop of Henle Site of hormonal adjustment of water & salt secretion/reabsorption. Simple cuboidal Fewer microvilli and mitochondria.
18 Collecting Duct Receives urine from several nephrons Extends through the renal medulla and empties into a minor calyx Simple cuboidal and columnar. Site of hormonal adjustment of water reabsorption.
19 Glomerulus High BP Due to the size differential btwn the afferent and efferent arterioles This high BP is the driving force behind the filtration
20 Peritubular Capillaries Surround renal tubules Receive blood from the efferent arteriole Sites of R&S Low BP and high OP
21 Vasa Recta Receive blood from the efferent arteriole Work with the loops of Henle to facilitate water reabsorption in the collecting duct
22 3 Steps of Urine Formation Afferent arteriole Glomerular capillaries Efferent arteriole Interlobular artery Glomerular capsule Rest of renal tubule containing filtrate Peritubular capillary Three major renal processes: Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion To interlobular vein Urine
23 Filtration Membrane Visceral layer of glomerular capsule Pedicels Capillary lumen Glomerular capillary Filtration membrane Endothelium of fenestrated capillary Basement membrane of capillary Filtration slits of visceral layer Filtration slits Podocyte cell body
24 Filtration Membrane Endothelium (blocks formed elements) Small protein Basement membrane (blocks large proteins) Filtration slits of visceral layer (block small proteins) Leukocyte Large protein Platelet Filtrate includes water, glucose, amino acids, ions, urea, many hormones, vitamins B and C, ketones, and very small amounts of protein Erythrocyte Not filtered Capillary Filtered Capsular space
25 Filtration Pressure Glomerular capsule PCT HPg 60 out Efferent arteriole OPg 32 in Afferent arteriole NFP 10 out HPc 18 in Glomerulus Blood entering glomerulus Capsular space Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg) 60 mm Hg out Blood colloid osmotic pressure (OPg) 32 mm Hg in Capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc) 18 mm Hg in Net filtration pressure (NFP) = 10 mm Hg out
26 Glomerular Filtration Rate (ml/min) 125 ml/min Depends on glomerular BP
27 Myogenic Mechanism of Maintaining GFR Decrease in systemic blood pressure Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole vasodilates Widened arteriole lumen allows more blood into glomerulus to offset a decrease in systemic blood pressure
28 Myogenic Mechanism of Maintaining GFR Increase in systemic blood pressure Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole vasoconstricts Narrowed arteriole lumen allows less blood into glomerulus to offset an increase in systemic blood pressure
29 Tubuloglomerular Mechanism
30 Effect of the Sympathetic Nervous System on GFR Increased sympathetic activity NE and E cause afferent arteriole to constrict GBP and thus GFR fall What is an advantage of this process?
31 Renin-Angiotensin System BP Falls Increased sympathetic activity JG cells release renin into the plasma Renin converts the plasma protein Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I Angiotensin I is converted into Angiotensin II by ACE the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
32 Ag II causes Vasoconstriction Adrenal cortex to release Aldosterone Pituitary gland to release ADH Increased sodium reabsorption in DCT Increased TPR Increased water reabsorption Increased BV Thirstiness Increased BP
33 PCT Reabsorption What kind of stuff needs to be reabsorbed? Reabsorbed molecules travel from the PCT to the PTC.
34 PCT Reabsorption Filtrate in tubule lumen H2 O Luminal membrane Tubule cell Interstitial fluid Peritubular capillary Capillary Endothelial cell Paracellular Transcellular Transcellular Solutes Paracellular Basolateral membranes Active transport Passive transport
35 PCT Reabsorption Nucleus Filtrate in tubule lumen Na Tubule cell Peritubular capillary 2 + Glucose Amino acids Some ions Vitamin s H2O Interstitial fluid 3Na 3Na K 2K + + K + 4 Lipid-soluble 5 substances Cl, Ca2+, K+ and other ions, urea 6 Tight junction Primary active transport Secondary active transport Passive transport (diffusion) Transport protein Ion channel or aquaporin Cl Paracellular route Obligatory reabsorption
36 Transport Maximum
37 DCT Reabsorption Hormone dependent Fine tuning Aldosterone Parathyroid hormone
39 Collecting Duct Reabsorption Water Depends on body s hydration levels Antidiuretic hormone
40 Tubular Secretion
41 Regulating Blood Concentration Plasma osmolarity is constantly measured by neurons in the hypothalamus. In response to changes in plasma osmolarity, hypothalamic neurons adjust their release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary.
42 Regulating Blood Concentration ADH increases the reabsorption of water from the collecting duct.
43 High Blood Osmolarity Sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus Posterior pituitary gland increases ADH release ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water Blood osmolarity falls Increased water reabsorption Facultative reabsorption
44 What will increased ADH do to: Water reabsorption Urine output Urine color Blood volume Blood pressure
47 Medullary Osmotic Gradient Osmolality of interstitial fluid (mosm) Active transport H2 O NaCI H2 O NaCI H2 O NaCI H2 O NaCI Cortex Passive transport Water impermeable H2 O Outer medulla NaCI H2 O H2 O Loop of Henle Inner medulla
48 Aldosterone Produced by the adrenal cortex. Produced when: Plasma Na+ is too low. Plasma K+ is too high. Stimulated by angiotensin II. Aldosterone acts on the DCT to increase the secretion of K+ and the reabsorption of Na+ and water.
49 How would excess aldosterone affect Plasma sodium levels Plasma potassium levels Urine output Blood volume Blood pressure
Chapter 25: Urinary System I. Kidney anatomy: retroperitoneal from 12 th thoracic to 3 rd lumbar area A. External anatomy: hilus is the indentation 1. Adrenal gland: in the fat at the superior end of each
Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in Major Functions of Urinary System: 1) Removal of organic waste products from fluids (excretion) 2) Discharge of waste products into the environment (elimination)
Chapter 26 Figure 26.1 An Introduction to the Urinary System Components of the Urinary System Kidney Produces urine Ureter Transports urine toward the urinary bladder Urinary Bladder Temporarily stores
Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Figure 25.1 Using Figure 25.1, match the following: 1) Glomerulus. 2) Afferent arteriole. 3)
Learning Objectives Renal System Figure 26.4 Major sources of water intake and output. Blood filtration through the glomerulus How Glomerular filtration rate is regulated Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms
Urinary System Functions Major excretory pathway for wastes transported by blood Filtration, secretion, and reabsorption by the kidney s microscopic tubules Includes wastes from metabolism, excess water
Chapter 26 Urinary System 1 Urinary System Functions Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration, reabsorption, secretion. Regulation of Blood volume Concentration of blood solutes: Na +, Cl
26 The Urinary System Introduction The urinary system does more than just get rid of liquid waste. It also: Regulates plasma ion concentrations Regulates blood volume and blood pressure Stabilizes blood
Chapter 26 The Urinary System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra Urine flows from each kidney, down its ureter to the bladder and to the outside via the urethra Filter the blood and return most
Urinary System BSC 2086 A & P 2 Professor Tcherina Duncombe Palm Beach State College Filter plasma, separate and eliminate wastes Functions Regulate blood volume and pressure Regulate osmolarity of body
Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system Urinary System
Waste Products & Kidney Function urinary system principal means of metabolic waste removal urinary system is closely associated with reproductive system urogenital system share embryonic development share
Waste Urinary System Anatomy Urinary Section pages 5-8 Metabolism produces waste products What is the primary waste product of cellular respiration? How does the body dispose of it? Urinary System Urinary
1 Bio 236 Lab: Osmoregulation and Renal Function Fig. 1: Kidney Anatomy Fig. 2: Renal Nephron The kidneys are paired structures that lie within the posterior abdominal cavity close to the spine. Each kidney
Chapter 26 The Urinary System Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Introduction The urinary system does more than just get rid of liquid waste. It also: Regulates plasma ion
The Kidney Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion. The kidney has 6 roles in the maintenance of homeostasis. 6 Main Functions 1. Ion Balance
LEARNING OUTCOME C13 Analyse the functional interrelationships of the structures of the urinary system Learning Outcome C13 URINARY SYSTEM STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS Students who have fully met this
Collin College BIOL. 2402 Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 12 Urinary System 1 INTRODUCTION Main functions of the kidneys are regulate blood volume, water content regulate blood composition e..g. Na, Cl, K, ph
Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure Fluid pressure exerted by blood within glomerular capillaries Depends on Contraction of the heart Resistance to blood flow offered by afferent and efferent arterioles
URINARY SYSTEM Primary functions Excretion of metabolic wastes Regulation of water and ion balances Regulation of blood pressure Vitamin D activation Regulation of rbc s (erythropoietin) Gluconeogenesis
URINARY SYSTEM I. INTRODUCTION Each kidney is made up of about a million tiny tubules called nephrons. Each nephron individually filters the blood and makes urine and it does the job completely, from start
Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture Packet 20 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure B. Urine formation 1. Hormonal regulation
INTRODUCTION. Several organs system Produce urine and excrete it from the body Maintenance of homeostasis. Components. two kidneys, produce urine; two ureters, carry urine to single urinary bladder for
7/19/11 Chapter 17 Urinary System Introduction A. The urinary system consists of two kidneys that filter the blood, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra to convey waste substances to the outside.
Human Anatomy Unit 3 URINARY SYSTEM In Anatomy Today Components Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra Functions Storage of urine Bladder stores up to 1 L of urine Excretion of urine Transport of urine
Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- renal cortex - X- renal medulla Y- renal pelvis collecting center of urine and then
BIOLOGY 12 - EXCRETION: CHAPTER NOTES Chemical reactions produce wastes that must be removed from cells and from your body. Many of these wastes are small, water-soluble molecules that become dissolved
URINARY SYSTEM URINARY SYSTEM Let s take a look at the anatomy first! KIDNEYS: are complex reprocessing centers where blood is filtered through and waste products are removed. Wastes and extra water become
URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) OVERVIEW Metabolism of nutrients by the body produces wastes that must be removed from the body. Although excretory
The Urinary System Regulate chemical composition of body fluids Eliminates waste Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph] Help regulate blood
Other Factors Affecting GFR Chapter 25 Part 2. Renal Physiology Nitric oxide vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium Adenosine vasoconstrictor of renal vasculature Endothelin a powerful vasoconstrictor
Student Name CHAPTER 28 URINARY SYSTEM L iving produces wastes. Wherever people live or work or play, wastes accumulate. To keep these areas healthy, there must be a method of disposing of these wastes
15 The Urinary System PART A PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION ELAINE N. MARIEB Functions of the Urinary
Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- X- Y- Z- b) Which of the following is not a function of the organ shown? A. to produce
Ionic & Osmotic Homeostasis osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys extracellular intracellular 22 23 Salt Secretion: recycle Figure in Box 26.2 Hill et al. 2004 active Down electrochemical
Lecture 16: The Nephron Reading: OpenStax A&P Text Chapter 25 Primary functions of the kidneys 1. Regulating osmolarity (blood concentration!) A. Regulating blood pressure B. Maintaining ion balance C.
BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2 Session 16 Urinary System 1 The Kidneys Bioscience Department Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au Session Plan o Functions of Urinary system o The Kidneys:
Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001 1. The molecular weight of calcium is 40 and chloride is 36. How many milligrams of CaCl 2 is required to give 2 meq of calcium? a) 40 b) 72 c) 112 d) 224 2. The extracellular
EXCRETORY SYSTEM Excretory System How does the excretory system maintain homeostasis? It regulates heat, water, salt, acid-base concentrations and metabolite concentrations 1 ORGANS OF EXCRETION Skin and
& URINE FORMATION REVIEW! Urinary/Renal System 200 litres of blood are filtered daily by the kidneys Usable material: reabsorbed back into blood Waste: drained into the bladder away from the heart to the
P215 Spring 2018: Renal Physiology Chapter 18: pp. 504-520, 525-527 Chapter 19: pp. 532-548, 553-560 I. Main Components of the Renal System 1. kidneys 2. ureters 3. urinary bladder 4. urethra 4 Major Functions
The urinary System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of the Urinary System Excretion removal of waste material from the blood plasma and the disposal of this waste in the urine. Elimination removal of waste
Human Anatomy - Problem Drill 22: The Urinary System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which of the following statements about the functions of the urinary system is not correct? Question #01 (A) The urinary system
Urinary System (Chapter 26) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content: Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology
Uro question 1.While reading a blood test I notice a high level of creatinine, I could assume from this that A) There is a possibility of a UTI B) There is a possibility of diabetes C) There is a possibility
Biology 12 Name: Urinary System Per: Date: Chapter 13 The Urinary System Complete using BC Biology 12, page 408-435 13.1 The Urinary System pages 412-413 1. As the kidneys produce urine, they carry out
Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 1. The separation and ejection of metabolic wastes, usually in aqueous solution, is: a. reabsorption b. secretion c. filtration d. excretion e. endocrinology 2. Besides
BIPN100 F15 Human Physiology (Kristan) Problem Set #8 Solutions p. 1 1. a. Proximal tubule. b. Proximal tubule. c. Glomerular endothelial fenestrae, filtration slits between podocytes of Bowman's capsule.
Physiology 12 Kidney and Fluid regulation Guyton Ch 20, 21,22,23 Roles of the Kidney Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolytes Regulation of acid-base balance (ph) Excretion of natural wastes
M58_MARI0000_00_SE_EX09.qxd 7/18/11 2:37 PM Page 399 E X E R C I S E 9 Renal System Physiology Advance Preparation/Comments 1. Prior to the lab, suggest to the students that they become familiar with the
The Urinary System PowerPoint presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson 30-2 Learning Outcomes 30.1 Describe the structure, location, and functions
Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1 Excretory System Introduction 1. Terrestrial organisms must deal with the problems of: a. obtaining and conserving water b. Removing excess salts c. Eliminating products
Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Chapter Outline The Concept of Balance Water Balance Sodium Balance Potassium Balance Calcium Balance Interactions between Fluid and Electrolyte
1 THE RENAL / URINARY SYSTEM Definition/Description: The Renal/Urinary system is the body system, which plays a vital role in the maintenance of homeostasis by the following processes: 1. Production of
BIOL 221 Chapter 25 The Urinary System 84 slides 1 Intro to the Urinary System The kidneys are the major excretory organ filter about 200 liters of fluid daily. skin and lungs also participate in excretion.
Ch 19: The Kidneys Homeostatic regulation of ECF volume and BP Osmolarity 290 mosm Ion balance Na+ and K+, etc. ph (acid-base balance Excretion of wastes & foreign substances Hormone production EPO Renin
BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology Homework #10: Chs. 26-28 DUE: (see course schedule) Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class will be accepted. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that
Ch 19: The Kidneys Functional unit of kidneys:?? 4 basic processes of urinary system: Filtration Reabsorption Secretion Excretion Functions of Kidneys Homeostatic regulation of H 2 O & solute concentration
Urinary System Multiple Choice Practice Test 1. Which of the following is a function of the urinary system? a. Regulates water b. Regulates balance of acids, bases, and electrolytes c. Filters waste from
Excretory and Endocrine functions of the kidney The kidneys are the main excretory organs which eliminate in the urine, most metabolites primarily those containing nitrogen such as ammonia, urea and creatinine.
URINARY SYSTEM I. Kidneys A. Location and Structure 1. Retroperitoneal 2. Between T12 and L3 3. Rt. kidney slightly lower 4. Two bean shaped organs 5. Adrenal gland 6. Internal construction a. Renal cortex
I. Body fluids - Must remain constant - Intake = output Body Fluid Dynamics Metabolic H 2 0 Preformed Free H 2 0 in Urine Feces Sweat H 2 0 Food - Body fluid distribution: Insensible H 2 0 loss Capillary
10.1 Urinary system The Urinary S. (Chp. 10) & Excretion 10.1 Urinary system What are the functions of the urinary system? 1. Excretion of metabolic wastes (urea, uric acid & creatinine) 1. Maintenance
Urinary Anatomy Lab 40. Urinary Anatomy and Kidney Dissection Kidneys: filters blood, produces urine Ureters: convey urine to bladder Bladder: holding tank Urethra: carries urine to the outside for elimination
URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY PART 1 DANIL HAMMOUDI.MD Urinary System Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and ph
WELCOME University of Baghdad College of Nursing Department of Basic Medical Sciences Overview of Anatomy and Physioloy II Second Year Students Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D. Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
Chapter 16 Urinary System 16.1. Introduction The urinary system includes the: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys regulate the composition and volume of body fluids by constantly
16 The Urinary System The Urinary System OUTLINE: Eliminating Waste Components of the Urinary System Kidneys and Homeostasis Urination Urinary Tract Infections Eliminating Waste Excretion Elimination of
Making Water! OR is it really Just Water Just Ask the Nephron!! Author: Patricia L. Ostlund email@example.com (910) 678-9892 Fayetteville Technical Community College Fayetteville, NC 28303 Its just
Urinary System Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal Presentation Map Kidney (cortex & medulla). Nephron. Duct system. Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Ureter, bladder & urethra. Definition & General Structure The
EXCRETION Types of Excretory Products in Animals Human Excretory System Urine Formation Disorders of Excretory System Excretion: Animals accumulate ammonia, urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, water and ions
Kidney and urine formation Renal structure & function Urine formation Urinary y concentration and dilution Regulation of urine formation 1 Kidney and urine formation 1.Renal structure & function 1)General
Biology 12 ame: KY Urinary System Per: Date: Chapter 13 The Urinary System Complete using BC Biology 12, page 408-435 13.1 The Urinary System pages 412-413 1. s the kidneys produce urine, they carry out
183 Chapter 9 Urinary System Components of the Urinary System -The urinary system consists of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, and 1 urethra (Figure 26.1, Tortora). 1. kidneys - The kidneys are
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 15 The Urinary System Short Answer Figure 15.1 Using Figure 15.1, identify the following: 1) The ureter is indicated by letter. Answer: B Diff:
Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Excretion and the Interaction of Systems 9.1 The Structures and Function of the Excretory System 9.2 Urine Formation in the Nephron 9.3 Excretory
EXCRETION QUESTIONS Use the following information to answer the next two questions. 1. Filtration occurs at the area labeled A. V B. X C. Y D. Z 2. The antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) acts on the area
Removing wastes Respiration and urination The circulatory system transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. alveolus Gas Exchange in Alveoli pulmonary HCO3 H+ + HCO3- Hb H+ C Respiratory
LEVEL 3 DIPLOMA IN AROMATHERAPY MODULE 18 KNOWLEDGE OF ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOLOGY FOR COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES THE URINARY SYSTEM COURSE MANUAL CHRISTINA LYNE firstname.lastname@example.org THE URINARY SYSTEM
M15 Urinary System Wednesday, April 24, 2013 4:09 PM VoiceThread swf http://justabitmoore.weebly.com/urinary-system.html Captivate Slide Notes Script: The urinary system does more than you might think.