5 Formed in the renal cortex Travels thru the medullary pyramids Basic Pathway of Urine Flow Drips out of the pyramids into the minor calyces Flows thru major calyces Flows thru the renal pelvis Flows thru the ureter Flows thru and is stored in the urinary bladder Flows thru the urethra
8 Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption The movement of substances from the blood within the glomerulus into the capsular space Tubular secretion The movement of substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood The movement of substances from the blood into the tubular fluid Peritubular capillaries Efferent arteriole Nephron loop Afferent arteriole PCT DCT Collecting tubule Glomerulus Glomerular capsule Capsular space Ascending limb Descending limb Collecting duct Vasa recta
9 By regulating how much water we reabsorb, we regulate blood volume By regulating what chemicals we reabsorb and what we secrete, we regulate blood [electrolyte] and blood ph
10 Renal Math
11 Nephron - sites of urine formation 1 million per kidney. 5 parts Glomerulus Glomerular Capsule Proximal Convoluted Tubule Loop of Henle Distal Convoluted Tubule Empty into collecting ducts.
13 Glomerular Capsule Parietal layer Simple squamous Contains filtrate. Visceral layer Filters Made of podocytes.
15 Proximal Convoluted Tubule Primary site of R&S Receives filtrate from the GC Very twisty. Simple cuboidal. Lots of microvilli. Lots of mitochondria.
16 Loop of Henle Receives filtrate from the PCT Creates a conc. gradient in the renal medulla which allows for water reabsorption from the collecting duct
17 Distal Convoluted Tubule Receives filtrate from the loop of Henle Site of hormonal adjustment of water & salt secretion/reabsorption. Simple cuboidal Fewer microvilli and mitochondria.
18 Collecting Duct Receives urine from several nephrons Extends through the renal medulla and empties into a minor calyx Simple cuboidal and columnar. Site of hormonal adjustment of water reabsorption.
19 Glomerulus High BP Due to the size differential btwn the afferent and efferent arterioles This high BP is the driving force behind the filtration
20 Peritubular Capillaries Surround renal tubules Receive blood from the efferent arteriole Sites of R&S Low BP and high OP
21 Vasa Recta Receive blood from the efferent arteriole Work with the loops of Henle to facilitate water reabsorption in the collecting duct
22 3 Steps of Urine Formation Afferent arteriole Glomerular capillaries Efferent arteriole Interlobular artery Glomerular capsule Rest of renal tubule containing filtrate Peritubular capillary Three major renal processes: Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion To interlobular vein Urine
23 Filtration Membrane Visceral layer of glomerular capsule Pedicels Capillary lumen Glomerular capillary Filtration membrane Endothelium of fenestrated capillary Basement membrane of capillary Filtration slits of visceral layer Filtration slits Podocyte cell body
24 Filtration Membrane Endothelium (blocks formed elements) Small protein Basement membrane (blocks large proteins) Filtration slits of visceral layer (block small proteins) Leukocyte Large protein Platelet Filtrate includes water, glucose, amino acids, ions, urea, many hormones, vitamins B and C, ketones, and very small amounts of protein Erythrocyte Not filtered Capillary Filtered Capsular space
25 Filtration Pressure Glomerular capsule PCT HPg 60 out Efferent arteriole OPg 32 in Afferent arteriole NFP 10 out HPc 18 in Glomerulus Blood entering glomerulus Capsular space Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg) 60 mm Hg out Blood colloid osmotic pressure (OPg) 32 mm Hg in Capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc) 18 mm Hg in Net filtration pressure (NFP) = 10 mm Hg out
26 Glomerular Filtration Rate (ml/min) 125 ml/min Depends on glomerular BP
27 Myogenic Mechanism of Maintaining GFR Decrease in systemic blood pressure Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole vasodilates Widened arteriole lumen allows more blood into glomerulus to offset a decrease in systemic blood pressure
28 Myogenic Mechanism of Maintaining GFR Increase in systemic blood pressure Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole vasoconstricts Narrowed arteriole lumen allows less blood into glomerulus to offset an increase in systemic blood pressure
29 Tubuloglomerular Mechanism
30 Effect of the Sympathetic Nervous System on GFR Increased sympathetic activity NE and E cause afferent arteriole to constrict GBP and thus GFR fall What is an advantage of this process?
31 Renin-Angiotensin System BP Falls Increased sympathetic activity JG cells release renin into the plasma Renin converts the plasma protein Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I Angiotensin I is converted into Angiotensin II by ACE the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
32 Ag II causes Vasoconstriction Adrenal cortex to release Aldosterone Pituitary gland to release ADH Increased sodium reabsorption in DCT Increased TPR Increased water reabsorption Increased BV Thirstiness Increased BP
33 PCT Reabsorption What kind of stuff needs to be reabsorbed? Reabsorbed molecules travel from the PCT to the PTC.
34 PCT Reabsorption Filtrate in tubule lumen H2 O Luminal membrane Tubule cell Interstitial fluid Peritubular capillary Capillary Endothelial cell Paracellular Transcellular Transcellular Solutes Paracellular Basolateral membranes Active transport Passive transport
35 PCT Reabsorption Nucleus Filtrate in tubule lumen Na Tubule cell Peritubular capillary 2 + Glucose Amino acids Some ions Vitamin s H2O Interstitial fluid 3Na 3Na K 2K + + K + 4 Lipid-soluble 5 substances Cl, Ca2+, K+ and other ions, urea 6 Tight junction Primary active transport Secondary active transport Passive transport (diffusion) Transport protein Ion channel or aquaporin Cl Paracellular route Obligatory reabsorption
36 Transport Maximum
37 DCT Reabsorption Hormone dependent Fine tuning Aldosterone Parathyroid hormone
39 Collecting Duct Reabsorption Water Depends on body s hydration levels Antidiuretic hormone
40 Tubular Secretion
41 Regulating Blood Concentration Plasma osmolarity is constantly measured by neurons in the hypothalamus. In response to changes in plasma osmolarity, hypothalamic neurons adjust their release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary.
42 Regulating Blood Concentration ADH increases the reabsorption of water from the collecting duct.
43 High Blood Osmolarity Sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus Posterior pituitary gland increases ADH release ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water Blood osmolarity falls Increased water reabsorption Facultative reabsorption
44 What will increased ADH do to: Water reabsorption Urine output Urine color Blood volume Blood pressure
47 Medullary Osmotic Gradient Osmolality of interstitial fluid (mosm) Active transport H2 O NaCI H2 O NaCI H2 O NaCI H2 O NaCI Cortex Passive transport Water impermeable H2 O Outer medulla NaCI H2 O H2 O Loop of Henle Inner medulla
48 Aldosterone Produced by the adrenal cortex. Produced when: Plasma Na+ is too low. Plasma K+ is too high. Stimulated by angiotensin II. Aldosterone acts on the DCT to increase the secretion of K+ and the reabsorption of Na+ and water.
49 How would excess aldosterone affect Plasma sodium levels Plasma potassium levels Urine output Blood volume Blood pressure
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