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1 BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology Homework #10: Chs DUE: (see course schedule) Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class will be accepted. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) is almost impermeable to water, but reabsorbs sodium, potassium, and chloride ions from the filtrate). A) The first statement is true but the second statement is false. B) The first statement is false but the second statement is true. C) Both statements are true. D) Both statements are false. E) Both are true and relate to production of a dilute urine. 2) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)? A) relies on countercurrent multiplication B) enables production of hypertonic urine C) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration D) A, B, and C E) B and C only 3) The process of filtration occurs at A) the distal convoluted tubule. B) the glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule. C) the nephron loop (loop of Henle). D) the proximal convoluted tubule. E) the collecting duct. 4) Secretion of hydrogen ion by the PCT is by the process of A) cotransport. B) facilitated diffusion. C) active transport. D) countertransport. E) diffusion. 5) Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties? A) depends on changes in the afferent arteriole B) depends on changes in the efferent arteriole C) maintains glomerular filtration over a wide range of blood pressures D) all of the above E) A and C only 6) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla? A) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration B) releases renin C) initial filtrate enters here D) tip of the medullary pyramid E) final urine enters here 1

2 7) The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers: A) podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus. B) filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores. C) fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes. D) dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule. E) endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits. 8) The kidneys are retroperitoneal, and the renal arteries branch directly off the abdominal aorta. A) The first part of the statement is true but the second part is false. B) The first part of the statement is false but the second part is true. C) Both parts of the statement are true. D) Both parts of the statement are false. 9) Approximately liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day. A) 18 B) 1.8 C) 125 D) 180 E) ) If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur? A) loss of protein in urine B) permanent kidney injury C) presence of blood D) A, B, and C E) A and C only 11) Urine is eliminated through the A) kidney. B) liver. C) ureter. D) urethra. E) urinary bladder. 12) The renal sinus is A) a renal corpuscle. B) part of a renal pyramid. C) a large branch of the renal pelvis. D) an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule. E) the innermost layer of kidney tissue. 13) Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by A) blood vessels. B) lymphatics. C) the calyces. D) the urethra. E) the ureters. 14) Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called A) calyces. B) renal pelvises. C) nephrons. D) pyramids. E) renal columns. 2

3 15) Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the A) afferent arteriole. B) efferent arteriole. C) interlobular arteriole. D) vasa recta. E) renal vein. 16) Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree, except the system. A) digestive B) urinary C) integumentary D) endocrine E) respiratory 17) A chemical that minimizes changes in the ph of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n) A) compensation. B) buffer. C) alkali. D) electrolyte. E) acid. 18) Aldosterone A) promotes sodium retention in the kidneys. B) is secreted in response to elevated levels of potassium in the blood. C) helps decrease blood volume and lower blood pressure. D) A, B, and C E) A and B only 19) In an adult female, the body consists of about percent water. A) 80 B) 40 C) 50 D) 70 E) 60 20) Antidiuretic hormone A) is secreted by the adenohypophysis. B) stimulates water intake. C) stimulates water conservation by the kidneys. D) A, B, and C E) B and C only 21) Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood? A) PTH B) ANP C) ADH D) angiotensin II E) epinephrine 22) About two-thirds of the body fluid is within cells and is termed fluid. A) interstitial B) intercellular C) vital D) extracellular E) intracellular 3

4 23) The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to A) conserve sodium ions. B) decrease ECF. C) excrete sodium ions. D) both A and B E) both B and C 24) The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are A) sodium, potassium, and phosphate. B) sodium, hydrogen, and chloride. C) sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate. D) sodium, potassium, and calcium. E) sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. 25) When pure water is consumed, A) the volume of the ECF decreases. B) osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall. C) the ECF becomes hypertonic to the ICF. D) a fluid shift occurs and the volume of the ICF decreases. E) the volume of the ICF decreases. 26) A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing from his body. A) sodium B) bicarbonate ion C) hydrogen ion D) water E) all of the above 27) To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties can this substance not have in order to be effective? A) soluble in water B) nontoxic to neurons C) permeable to capillary endothelium D) impermeable to brain plasma membranes E) permeable to brain plasma membranes 28) Nurse cells A) form the blood-testis barrier B) coordinate spermatogenesis C) are found in the seminiferous tubules D) A and C only E) A, B, and C 29) The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the A) corpus spongiosum. B) penis. C) corpus cavernosum. D) urethra. E) ejaculatory duct. 4

5 30) The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called A) maturation. B) capacitation. C) mitosis. D) meiosis. E) fertilization. Use Figure 28-2 to answer the following questions: Figure 28-2 The Female Reproductive System 31) Which structure is lined by a ciliated epithelium? A) 12 B) 11 C) 1 D) 2 E) 9 32) The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the A) ductus deferens. B) seminal gland (seminal vesicle). C) rete testis. D) epididymis. E) prostate gland. 33) The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the A) peripapilla. B) zona reticularis. C) areola. D) zona pellucida. E) fornix. 5

6 34) Which is the function of the ovaries? A) formation of immature gametes B) production of oocytes C) secretion of inhibin D) secretion of hormones E) all of the above 35) Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except A) cotransport. B) active transport. C) stem cell movements. D) facilitated diffusion. E) countertransport. 36) Renal blood flow is about A) 1 liter/min. B) 2 liter/min. C) 3 liter/min. D) 4 liter/min. E) 5 liter/min. 37) The renal threshold for glucose is approximately mg/dl. A) 75 B) 90 C) 100 D) 140 E) ) Functions of the urinary system include A) helping to stabilize blood ph. B) regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions. C) regulation of blood volume and blood pressure. D) conservation of valuable nutrients. E) all of the above 39) When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases, A) more urine is produced. B) less urine is produced. C) the osmolarity of the urine decreases. D) both A and C E) both B and C 40) When the ph of the extracellular fluid drops, the A) kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions. B) kidneys excrete more bicarbonate ions. C) kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions. D) A and B only E) A and C only 41) Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called A) electrons. B) buffers. C) electrolytes. D) nonelectrolytes. E) osmoregulators. 6

7 42) Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism? A) ANP B) aldosterone C) ADH D) BNP E) epinephrine 43) The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the A) infundibulum. B) isthmus. C) distal segment. D) proximal segment. E) ampulla. 44) Which of the following can be found inside the spermatic cord? A) lymphatic vessels B) ductus deferens C) nerves D) blood vessels E) all of the above 45) is an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys. A) Kidney stones B) Pyelonephrosis C) Floating kidney D) Polycystic kidney disease E) Glomerulonephritis 46) Substances larger than are normally not allowed to pass through the filtration membrane. A) albumin B) urea C) amino acids D) sodium ions E) glucose 47) Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion? A) ADH B) aldosterone C) ANP D) epinephrine E) BNP 48) The ductus deferens is approximately cm long. A) 12 B) C) D) E) ) An inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is A) polycystic kidney disease. B) calculi. C) renal failure. D) hematuria. E) glomerulonephritis. 7

8 50) A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate (ʺbaking sodaʺ) to settle an upset stomach risks A) respiratory acidosis. B) metabolic acidosis. C) respiratory alkalosis. D) metabolic alkalosis. 8

9 Answer Key Testname: HOMEWORK 10 1) E 2) D 3) B 4) D 5) D 6) D 7) E 8) C 9) D 10) D 11) D 12) D 13) E 14) D 15) B 16) D 17) B 18) E 19) C 20) E 21) C 22) E 23) E 24) E 25) B 26) E 27) E 28) E 29) B 30) D 31) D 32) D 33) C 34) E 35) C 36) A 37) E 38) E 39) D 40) E 41) C 42) C 43) A 44) E 45) E 46) A 47) B 48) D 49) C 50) D 9

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