Urinary System. Urinary System Functions. Urinary System Anatomy. Chapter 26. Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration,

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Urinary System. Urinary System Functions. Urinary System Anatomy. Chapter 26. Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration,"

Transcription

1 Chapter 26 Urinary System 1 Urinary System Functions Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration, reabsorption, secretion. Regulation of Blood volume Concentration of blood solutes: Na +, Cl -, K +, Ca 2+, HPO 4-2 ph of extracellular fluid: secrete H + Blood cell synthesis Synthesis of vitamin D 2 Urinary System Anatomy 3 1

2 Internal Anatomy of Kidneys Cortex: outer area Renal columns: part of cortical tissue that extends into medulla Medulla: inner area Renal pyramids: coneshaped. Base is boundary between cortex and medulla. Apex of pyramid is renal papilla, points toward sinus. Calyces Minor: papillae extend into funnel of minor calyx Major: converge to form pelvis Pelvis: enlarged chamber formed by major calyces Ureter: exits at the hilum; connects to urinary bladder 4 The Nephron Functional and histological unit of the kidney Parts of the nephron: Bowman s capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle (nephronic loop), distal tubule Urine continues from the nephron to collecting ducts, papillary ducts, minor calyses, major calyses, and the renal pelvis (Note what is in the renal medulla & 2 types of nephrons) 5 Renal Corpuscle Bowman s capsule: outer parietal (simple squamous epithelium) and visceral (cells called podocytes) layers. Glomerulus: network of capillaries. Blood enters through afferent arteriole, exits through efferent arteriole. 6 2

3 Filtration Membrane Fenestrae: window-like openings in the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries. Filtrations slits: gaps between the cell processes of the podocytes. Filtration membrane: capillary endothelium, basement membrane and podocytes. First stage- occurs here when fluid from blood in capillaries moves across filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowman s capsule. 7 Circulation in the Glomerulus Afferent arteriole: supplies blood to glomerulus Efferent arteriole: drains glomerulus Both vessels have a layer of smooth muscle Juxtaglomerular apparatus: site of renin production Juxtaglomerular cells- Macula densa-. 8 Histology of the Nephron Proximal tubule: simple cuboidal epithelium with many microvilli WHY? Loops of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Distal tubule: shorter than proximal tubule. Simple cuboidal, but smaller cells and very few microvilli Collecting ducts: (form where many distal tubules come together. Larger in diameter, form rays and lead to papillary ducts 9 3

4 Circulation Through the Kidney Arterial supply: ((LAB)) 1. Renal arteries branch from abdominal aorta 2. Segmental arteries branch from renal 3. Interlobar arteries ascend within renal columns toward cortex 4. Arcuate arteries branch and arch over the base of the pyramids 5. Interlobular arteries project into cortex and give rise to afferent arterioles Afferent arterioles supply blood to glomerulus 7. Glomerulus 8. Efferent arterioles exit the renal corpuscle 9. Peritubular capillaries form a plexus around the proximal and distal tubules 10. Vasa recta: specialized parts of peritubular capillaries that course into medulla along with loops of Henle, then back toward cortex Circulation Through the Kidney 11 Circulation Through the Kidney Venous drainage (LAB) 11.Peritubular capillaries drain into interlobular veins and lead to 12. Arcuates 13. Interlobar veins 14. Renal veins 12 4

5 Anatomy and Histology of Ureters and Bladder Ureters: bring urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder. Lined by transitional epithelium Urinary bladder: hollow in pelvic cavity posterior to symphysis pubis. ( muscle part of wall is detrusor) Trigone: Triangular area between the entry of the two ureters and the exit of the urethra.( Area expands less than rest of bladder during filling) 13 Anatomy and Histology of Urethra Male: extends from the inferior part of the urinary bladder through the penis Female: shorter; opens into vestibule anterior to vaginal opening Internal urinary sphincter: in males, elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle keep semen from entering urinary bladder during ejaculation External urinary sphincter: skeletal muscle surrounds urethra as it extends through pelvic floor. Acts as a valve 14 Urine Formation Outline for LAB Nephrons considered functional units the kidney: smallest structural component capable of producing urine 15 5

6 Filtration Filtrate: water, small molecules, ions that can pass through membrane Pressure difference forces filtrate across filtration membrane Renal fraction: part of total cardiac output that passes through the kidneys.( Varies from 12-30%) averages 21% (Filtration fraction: part of plasma that is filtered into lumen of Bowman s capsules; average 19%) Glomerular filtration rate (GFR): amount of filtrate produced each minute. 180 L/day Average urine production/day: 1-2 L. Most of filtrate must be reabsorbed Filtration= # 1 Filtration membrane: filtration barrier. It prevents blood cells and proteins from entering lumen of Bowman s capsule, but is many times more permeable than a typical capillary Very little protein normally found in urine Filtration pressure: Forces that affect movement of fluid into or out of the lumen of Bowman s capsule Glomerular capillary pressure (GCP): blood pressure inside capillary tends to move fluid out of capillary into Bowman s capsule Capsule pressure (CP): pressure of filtrate already in the lumen Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP): osmotic pressure caused by proteins in blood. Favors fluid movement into the capillary from the lumen. BCOP greater at end of glomerular capillary than at beginning because of fluid leaving capillary and entering lumen Filtration pressure (10 mm Hg) = GCP (50 mm Hg) CP (10 mm Hg) BCOP (30 mm Hg) 18 6

7 Filtration Pressure 19 Tubular Reabsorption: Overview Tubular reabsorption: occurs as filtrate flows through the lumens of proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting ducts Results because of Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Active transport Cotransport Osmosis Substances transported to interstitial fluid and reabsorbed into peritubular capillaries: inorganic salts, organic molecules, 99% of filtrate volume. /return to general circulation through veins 20 Substances pass through cells of tubule wall. Each cell has Apical surface: surface that faces filtrate. Apical membrane Basal surface: faces interstitial fluid. Basal membrane Lateral surfaces: surfaces between cells Reabsorption in Proximal Tubule Active transport of Na + across the basal membrane from cytoplasm to interstitial fluid linked to reabsorption of most solutes 21 7

8 Reabsorption in Proximal Tubule Number of carrier molecules limits rate of transport In diabetes mellitus Concentration of glucose in filtrate exceeds rate of transport High concentration of glucose in plasma (and thus in filtrate) reflected in glucose in the urine Diffusion between cells: from lumen of nephron into interstitial fluid Depends on rate of transport of same solutes through the cells of the tubule K +, Ca 2+, and Mg 2+ Filtrate volume reduced by 65% due to osmosis of water 22 Reabsorption in Loop of Henle Loop of Henle descends into medulla; interstitial fluid is high in solutes. Descending thin segment is highly permeable to water and moderately permeable to urea, sodium, most other ions (passive). Water moves out of nephron, solutes in. Volume of filtrate reduced by another 15%. Ascending thin segment is not permeable to water, but is permeable to solutes. Solutes diffuse out of the tubule and into the more dilute interstitial fluid as the ascending limb projects toward the cortex. Solutes diffuse into the descending vasa recta. 23 Tubular Secretion Moves metabolic by-products, drugs, molecules not normally produced by the body into tubule of nephron Active or passive Ammonia: produced by epithelial cells of nephron. Diffuses into lumen H +, K +, penicillin, and substances such as para-aminohippuric acid (PAH): actively secreted into nephron 24 8

9 Secretion of Hydrogen and Potassium A. H+ in at PCT (by countertransport) B. H + and K + secreted into filtrate(future urine)by countertransport in DCT Na + and K + move by active transport C. Na + and HCO 3 - cotransported into interstitial fluid, then diffuse into peritubular capillaries & away 25 Urine Production In Proximal tubules Na + and other substances removed Water follows passively Filtrate volume reduced In descending limb of loop of Henle Water exits passively, solute enters Filtrate volume reduced 15% In ascending limb of loop of Henle Na +, Cl -, K + transported out of filtrate Water remains In distal tubules and collecting ducts Water movement out regulated by ADH If absent, water not reabsorbed and dilute urine produced If ADH present, water moves out, results in concentrated urine 26 Urine Concentration Mechanism When large volume of water consumed Eliminate excess without losing large amounts of electrolytes Response is that kidneys produce large volume of dilute urine When drinking water not available Kidneys produce small volume of concentrated urine Removes waste and prevents rapid dehydration Mechanisms that create urine of variable concentration Maintenance of high concentration of solutes in medulla Countercurrent functions of loops of Henle Control of permeability of distal nephron to water 27 9

10 Medullary Concentration Gradient In order to concentrate urine (and prevent a large volume of water from being lost), the kidney must maintain a high concentration of solutes in the medulla Interstitial fluid concentration (mosm/kg) is 300 in the cortical region and gradually increases to 1200 at the tip of the pyramids in the medulla Maintenance of this gradient depends upon Functions of loops of Henle Vasa recta flowing countercurrent to filtrate in loops of Henle Distribution and recycling of urea 28 Loops of Henle and vasa recta function together to maintain a high concentration of solutes in the interstitial fluids of the medulla and to carry away the water and solutes that enter the medulla from the loops of Henle and collecting ducts Water moves out of descending limb and enters vasa recta Solutes diffuse out of ascending thin segment and enter vasa recta, but water does not Solutes transported out of thick segment of ascending enter the vasa recta Excess water and solutes carried away from medulla without reducing high concentration of solutes Concentration of filtrate reduced to 100 mosm/kg by the time it reaches distal tubule 29 Water and solutes move out of the collecting duct into the vasa recta 30 10

11 Urea Responsible for large part of high osmolality in medulla Descending limbs of loops of Henle permeable to urea; urea diffuses into interstitial fluid Ascending limbs and distal tubules impermeable to urea Collecting ducts permeable to urea; some diffuses out into interstitial fluid Urea flows in a cycle maintaining high urea concentration in medulla 31 Urine Concentrating Mechanisms 32 ADH and the Nephron 33 11

12 Renin/Angiotensin/Aldosterone 34 Other Hormones Atrial natriuretic hormone Produced by right atrium of heart when blood volume increases stretching cells Inhibits Na + reabsorption Inhibits ADH production Increases volume of urine produced Venous return is lowered, volume in right atrium decreases Prostaglandins and kinins: produced in kidney. Role unclear 35 Autoregulation and Sympathetic Stimulation Autoregulation Involves changes in degree of constriction in afferent arterioles As systemic BP increases, afferent arterioles constrict and prevent increase in renal blood flow Increased rate of blood flow of filtrate past cells of macula densa: signal sent to juxtaglomerular apparatus, afferent arteriole constricts Sympathetic stimulation: norepinephrine Constricts small arteries and afferent arterioles Decreases renal blood flow and thus filtrate formation 36 12

13 Clearance and Tubular Load Plasma clearance: calculated using substances like inulin Volume of plasma cleared of a specific substance each minute Used to estimate GFR Tubular load Total amount of substance that passes through filtration membrane into nephrons each minute 37 Tubular Maximum Maximum rate at which a substance can be actively absorbed Each substance has its own tubular maximum Normally, glucose concentration in the plasma (and thus filtrate) is lower than the tubular maximum and all of it is reabsorbed; none of it is found in the urine In diabetes mellitus tubular load exceeds tubular maximum and glucose appears in urine. Urine volume increases because glucose in filtrate increases osmolality of filtrate reducing the 38 Urine Movement Hydrostatic pressure forces urine through nephron Peristalsis moves urine through ureters from region of renal pelvis to urinary bladder. Occur from once every few seconds to once every 2-3 minutes Parasympathetic stimulation: increase frequency Sympathetic stimulation: decrease frequency Ureters enter bladder obliquely through trigone. Pressure in bladder compresses ureter and prevents backflow 39 13

14 Micturition Reflex 40 Effects of Aging Gradual decrease in size of kidneys, but only one-third of one kidney necessary for homeostasis Amount of blood flowing through gradually decreases Number of glomeruli decrease and ability to secrete and reabsorb decreases Ability to concentrate urine declines and kidney becomes less responsive to ADH and aldosterone Reduced ability to participate in vitamin D synthesis contributing to Ca 2+ deficiency, osteoporosis, and bone fractures 41 14

BIOL2030 Human A & P II -- Exam 6

BIOL2030 Human A & P II -- Exam 6 BIOL2030 Human A & P II -- Exam 6 Name: 1. The kidney functions in A. preventing blood loss. C. synthesis of vitamin E. E. making ADH. B. white blood cell production. D. excretion of metabolic wastes.

More information

Chapter 25: Urinary System

Chapter 25: Urinary System Chapter 25: Urinary System I. Kidney anatomy: retroperitoneal from 12 th thoracic to 3 rd lumbar area A. External anatomy: hilus is the indentation 1. Adrenal gland: in the fat at the superior end of each

More information

CHAPTER 25 URINARY. Urinary system. Kidneys 2 Ureters 2 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra 1. functions

CHAPTER 25 URINARY. Urinary system. Kidneys 2 Ureters 2 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra 1. functions CHAPTER 25 URINARY Kidneys 2 Ureters 2 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra 1 fluid waste elimination secretion of wastes control blood volume and BP control blood ph electrolyte levels RBC levels hormone production

More information

Urinary System Organization. Urinary System Organization. The Kidneys. The Components of the Urinary System

Urinary System Organization. Urinary System Organization. The Kidneys. The Components of the Urinary System Urinary System Organization The Golden Rule: The Job of The Urinary System is to Maintain the Composition and Volume of ECF remember this & all else will fall in place! Functions of the Urinary System

More information

Chapter 23. The Nephron. (functional unit of the kidney

Chapter 23. The Nephron. (functional unit of the kidney Chapter 23 The Nephron (functional unit of the kidney Renal capsule The Nephron Renal cortex Nephron Collecting duct Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole (a) Renal corpuscle: Glomerular capsule Glomerulus

More information

Urinary Physiology. Chapter 17 Outline. Kidney Function. Chapter 17

Urinary Physiology. Chapter 17 Outline. Kidney Function. Chapter 17 Urinary Physiology Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Outline Structure and Function of the Kidney Glomerular Filtration Reabsorption of Salt and Water Renal Plasma Clearance Renal Control of Electrolyte and Acid-Base

More information

Figure 26.1 An Introduction to the Urinary System

Figure 26.1 An Introduction to the Urinary System Chapter 26 Figure 26.1 An Introduction to the Urinary System Components of the Urinary System Kidney Produces urine Ureter Transports urine toward the urinary bladder Urinary Bladder Temporarily stores

More information

Kidney Functions Removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood Regulation of blood volume, chemical composition, and ph

Kidney Functions Removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood Regulation of blood volume, chemical composition, and ph The Urinary System Urinary System Organs Kidneys are major excretory organs Urinary bladder is the temporary storage reservoir for urine Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Urethra

More information

Urinary system. Urinary system

Urinary system. Urinary system INTRODUCTION. Several organs system Produce urine and excrete it from the body Maintenance of homeostasis. Components. two kidneys, produce urine; two ureters, carry urine to single urinary bladder for

More information

Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion.

Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion. The Kidney Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion. The kidney has 6 roles in the maintenance of homeostasis. 6 Main Functions 1. Ion Balance

More information

Urinary System. 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra

Urinary System. 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra Urinary System 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra Kidney Functions Primary functions: Filter and remove waste from plasma, Secondary functions: Produce renin, Produce EPO, Regulate blood

More information

The Urinary System Pearson Education, Inc.

The Urinary System Pearson Education, Inc. 26 The Urinary System Introduction The urinary system does more than just get rid of liquid waste. It also: Regulates plasma ion concentrations Regulates blood volume and blood pressure Stabilizes blood

More information

URINARY SYSTEM. These organs lie posterior or inferior to the. (membrane).

URINARY SYSTEM. These organs lie posterior or inferior to the. (membrane). URINARY SYSTEM I. INTRODUCTION Each kidney is made up of about a million tiny tubules called nephrons. Each nephron individually filters the blood and makes urine and it does the job completely, from start

More information

Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra

Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra Kidney Function Filters blood removes waste products conserves salts, glucose, proteins, nutrients and water Produces urine Endocrine functions regulates

More information

Chapter 26: Urinary System By: Eddie Tribiana and Piers Frieden

Chapter 26: Urinary System By: Eddie Tribiana and Piers Frieden Chapter 26: Urinary System By: Eddie Tribiana and Piers Frieden The urinary system is important because it performs vital excretory functions Takes blood from renal arteries into the kidney to filtrate

More information

Collin College. BIOL Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 12. Urinary System INTRODUCTION. Main functions of the kidneys are

Collin College. BIOL Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 12. Urinary System INTRODUCTION. Main functions of the kidneys are Collin College BIOL. 2402 Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 12 Urinary System 1 INTRODUCTION Main functions of the kidneys are regulate blood volume, water content regulate blood composition e..g. Na, Cl, K, ph

More information

A. Incorrect! The urinary system is involved in the regulation of blood ph. B. Correct! The urinary system is involved in the synthesis of vitamin D.

A. Incorrect! The urinary system is involved in the regulation of blood ph. B. Correct! The urinary system is involved in the synthesis of vitamin D. Human Anatomy - Problem Drill 22: The Urinary System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which of the following statements about the functions of the urinary system is not correct? Question #01 (A) The urinary system

More information

Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra

Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra Filters blood removes waste products conserves salts, glucose, proteins, nutrients and water Produces urine Kidney Function Endocrine functions regulates

More information

Kidney Structure. Renal Lobe = renal pyramid & overlying cortex. Renal Lobule = medullary ray & surrounding cortical labryinth.

Kidney Structure. Renal Lobe = renal pyramid & overlying cortex. Renal Lobule = medullary ray & surrounding cortical labryinth. Kidney Structure Capsule Hilum ureter renal pelvis major and minor calyxes renal and vein segmental arteries interlobar arteries arcuate arteries interlobular arteries Medulla renal pyramids cortical/renal

More information

Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in. Cortex Medulla. Kidney: Hilus. Kidney. Pelvis. Calyces (calyx) Urinary System Anatomy:

Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in. Cortex Medulla. Kidney: Hilus. Kidney. Pelvis. Calyces (calyx) Urinary System Anatomy: Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in Major Functions of Urinary System: 1) Removal of organic waste products from fluids (excretion) 2) Discharge of waste products into the environment (elimination)

More information

Chapter 26. The Urinary System. Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 26. The Urinary System. Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 26 The Urinary System Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Introduction The urinary system does more than just get rid of liquid waste. It also: Regulates plasma ion

More information

Urinary System and Excretion. Bio105 Chapter 16

Urinary System and Excretion. Bio105 Chapter 16 Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system Urinary System

More information

BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2

BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2 BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2 Session 16 Urinary System 1 The Kidneys Bioscience Department Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au Session Plan o Functions of Urinary system o The Kidneys:

More information

Urinary System Organs

Urinary System Organs Learning Objectives Renal System Figure 26.4 Major sources of water intake and output. Blood filtration through the glomerulus How Glomerular filtration rate is regulated Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

More information

Chapter 25 The Urinary System

Chapter 25 The Urinary System Chapter 25 The Urinary System 10/30/2013 MDufilho 1 Kidney Functions Removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood Regulation of blood volume, chemical composition, and ph Gluconeogenesis

More information

Waste Products & Kidney Function

Waste Products & Kidney Function Waste Products & Kidney Function urinary system principal means of metabolic waste removal urinary system is closely associated with reproductive system urogenital system share embryonic development share

More information

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Figure 25.1 Using Figure 25.1, match the following: 1) Glomerulus. 2) Afferent arteriole. 3)

More information

Chapter 26 The Urinary System

Chapter 26 The Urinary System Chapter 26 The Urinary System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra Urine flows from each kidney, down its ureter to the bladder and to the outside via the urethra Filter the blood and return most

More information

Waste. Urinary System Anatomy Urinary Section pages 5-8. Urinary System. Urinary System. Nitrogenous Wastes. Nitrogenous Wastes 4/22/2016

Waste. Urinary System Anatomy Urinary Section pages 5-8. Urinary System. Urinary System. Nitrogenous Wastes. Nitrogenous Wastes 4/22/2016 Waste Urinary System Anatomy Urinary Section pages 5-8 Metabolism produces waste products What is the primary waste product of cellular respiration? How does the body dispose of it? Urinary System Urinary

More information

28/04/2013 LEARNING OUTCOME C13 URINARY SYSTEM STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS URINARY SYSTEM & EXCRETION

28/04/2013 LEARNING OUTCOME C13 URINARY SYSTEM STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS URINARY SYSTEM & EXCRETION LEARNING OUTCOME C13 Analyse the functional interrelationships of the structures of the urinary system Learning Outcome C13 URINARY SYSTEM STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS Students who have fully met this

More information

Questions? Homework due in lab 6. PreLab #6 HW 15 & 16 (follow directions, 6 points!)

Questions? Homework due in lab 6. PreLab #6 HW 15 & 16 (follow directions, 6 points!) Questions? Homework due in lab 6 PreLab #6 HW 15 & 16 (follow directions, 6 points!) Part 3 Variations in Urine Formation Composition varies Fluid volume Solute concentration Variations in Urine Formation

More information

P215 Spring 2018: Renal Physiology Chapter 18: pp , Chapter 19: pp ,

P215 Spring 2018: Renal Physiology Chapter 18: pp , Chapter 19: pp , P215 Spring 2018: Renal Physiology Chapter 18: pp. 504-520, 525-527 Chapter 19: pp. 532-548, 553-560 I. Main Components of the Renal System 1. kidneys 2. ureters 3. urinary bladder 4. urethra 4 Major Functions

More information

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) OVERVIEW Metabolism of nutrients by the body produces wastes that must be removed from the body. Although excretory

More information

November 30, 2016 & URINE FORMATION

November 30, 2016 & URINE FORMATION & URINE FORMATION REVIEW! Urinary/Renal System 200 litres of blood are filtered daily by the kidneys Usable material: reabsorbed back into blood Waste: drained into the bladder away from the heart to the

More information

URINARY SYSTEM CHAPTER 28 I ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM. Student Name

URINARY SYSTEM CHAPTER 28 I ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM. Student Name Student Name CHAPTER 28 URINARY SYSTEM L iving produces wastes. Wherever people live or work or play, wastes accumulate. To keep these areas healthy, there must be a method of disposing of these wastes

More information

Urinary System. Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal

Urinary System. Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal Urinary System Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal Presentation Map Kidney (cortex & medulla). Nephron. Duct system. Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Ureter, bladder & urethra. Definition & General Structure The

More information

Urinary System. BSC 2086 A & P 2 Professor Tcherina Duncombe Palm Beach State College

Urinary System. BSC 2086 A & P 2 Professor Tcherina Duncombe Palm Beach State College Urinary System BSC 2086 A & P 2 Professor Tcherina Duncombe Palm Beach State College Filter plasma, separate and eliminate wastes Functions Regulate blood volume and pressure Regulate osmolarity of body

More information

Outline Urinary System

Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture Packet 20 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure B. Urine formation 1. Hormonal regulation

More information

Urinary System. Chapter 17 7/19/11. Introduction

Urinary System. Chapter 17 7/19/11. Introduction 7/19/11 Chapter 17 Urinary System Introduction A. The urinary system consists of two kidneys that filter the blood, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra to convey waste substances to the outside.

More information

URINARY SYSTEM. Primary functions. Major organs & structures

URINARY SYSTEM. Primary functions. Major organs & structures URINARY SYSTEM Primary functions Excretion of metabolic wastes Regulation of water and ion balances Regulation of blood pressure Vitamin D activation Regulation of rbc s (erythropoietin) Gluconeogenesis

More information

5.Which part of the nephron removes water, ions and nutrients from the blood?

5.Which part of the nephron removes water, ions and nutrients from the blood? Uro question 1.While reading a blood test I notice a high level of creatinine, I could assume from this that A) There is a possibility of a UTI B) There is a possibility of diabetes C) There is a possibility

More information

Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1

Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 1. The separation and ejection of metabolic wastes, usually in aqueous solution, is: a. reabsorption b. secretion c. filtration d. excretion e. endocrinology 2. Besides

More information

Sunday, July 17, 2011 URINARY SYSTEM

Sunday, July 17, 2011 URINARY SYSTEM URINARY SYSTEM URINARY SYSTEM Let s take a look at the anatomy first! KIDNEYS: are complex reprocessing centers where blood is filtered through and waste products are removed. Wastes and extra water become

More information

Human Anatomy Unit 3 URINARY SYSTEM

Human Anatomy Unit 3 URINARY SYSTEM Human Anatomy Unit 3 URINARY SYSTEM In Anatomy Today Components Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra Functions Storage of urine Bladder stores up to 1 L of urine Excretion of urine Transport of urine

More information

osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys

osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys Ionic & Osmotic Homeostasis osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys extracellular intracellular 22 23 Salt Secretion: recycle Figure in Box 26.2 Hill et al. 2004 active Down electrochemical

More information

1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z

1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- renal cortex - X- renal medulla Y- renal pelvis collecting center of urine and then

More information

BIPN100 F15 Human Physiology (Kristan) Problem Set #8 Solutions p. 1

BIPN100 F15 Human Physiology (Kristan) Problem Set #8 Solutions p. 1 BIPN100 F15 Human Physiology (Kristan) Problem Set #8 Solutions p. 1 1. a. Proximal tubule. b. Proximal tubule. c. Glomerular endothelial fenestrae, filtration slits between podocytes of Bowman's capsule.

More information

Other Factors Affecting GFR. Chapter 25. After Filtration. Reabsorption and Secretion. 5 Functions of the PCT

Other Factors Affecting GFR. Chapter 25. After Filtration. Reabsorption and Secretion. 5 Functions of the PCT Other Factors Affecting GFR Chapter 25 Part 2. Renal Physiology Nitric oxide vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium Adenosine vasoconstrictor of renal vasculature Endothelin a powerful vasoconstrictor

More information

11/8/2017. Urinary System Functions. Organs and Vessels of the Urinary System Hepatic veins (cut)

11/8/2017. Urinary System Functions. Organs and Vessels of the Urinary System Hepatic veins (cut) Urinary System Functions Major excretory pathway for wastes transported by blood Filtration, secretion, and reabsorption by the kidney s microscopic tubules Includes wastes from metabolism, excess water

More information

Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure

Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure Fluid pressure exerted by blood within glomerular capillaries Depends on Contraction of the heart Resistance to blood flow offered by afferent and efferent arterioles

More information

Urine Formation. Urinary Physiology Urinary Section pages Urine Formation. Glomerular Filtration 4/24/2016

Urine Formation. Urinary Physiology Urinary Section pages Urine Formation. Glomerular Filtration 4/24/2016 Urine Formation Urinary Physiology Urinary Section pages 9-17 Filtrate Blood plasma minus most proteins Urine

More information

Osmoregulation and Renal Function

Osmoregulation and Renal Function 1 Bio 236 Lab: Osmoregulation and Renal Function Fig. 1: Kidney Anatomy Fig. 2: Renal Nephron The kidneys are paired structures that lie within the posterior abdominal cavity close to the spine. Each kidney

More information

Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001

Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001 Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001 1. The molecular weight of calcium is 40 and chloride is 36. How many milligrams of CaCl 2 is required to give 2 meq of calcium? a) 40 b) 72 c) 112 d) 224 2. The extracellular

More information

PARTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM

PARTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM EXCRETORY SYSTEM Excretory System How does the excretory system maintain homeostasis? It regulates heat, water, salt, acid-base concentrations and metabolite concentrations 1 ORGANS OF EXCRETION Skin and

More information

The Urinary System. Medical Assisting Third Edition. Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

The Urinary System. Medical Assisting Third Edition. Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Urinary System PowerPoint presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson 30-2 Learning Outcomes 30.1 Describe the structure, location, and functions

More information

QUIZ/TEST REVIEW NOTES SECTION 1 RENAL PHYSIOLOGY FILTRATION [THE KIDNEYS/URINARY SYSTEM] CHAPTER 19 CHAPTER 19

QUIZ/TEST REVIEW NOTES SECTION 1 RENAL PHYSIOLOGY FILTRATION [THE KIDNEYS/URINARY SYSTEM] CHAPTER 19 CHAPTER 19 QUIZ/TEST REVIEW NOTES SECTION 1 RENAL PHYSIOLOGY FILTRATION [THE KIDNEYS/URINARY SYSTEM] CHAPTER 19 CHAPTER 19 Learning Objectives: Differentiate the following processes: filtration, reabsorption, secretion,

More information

CHAPTER 26 LECTURE OUTLINE

CHAPTER 26 LECTURE OUTLINE CHAPTER 26 LECTURE OUTLINE I. INTRODUCTION A. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra (Figure 26.1). B. Urine is excreted from each kidney through

More information

THE RENAL / URINARY SYSTEM

THE RENAL / URINARY SYSTEM 1 THE RENAL / URINARY SYSTEM Definition/Description: The Renal/Urinary system is the body system, which plays a vital role in the maintenance of homeostasis by the following processes: 1. Production of

More information

Physio 12 -Summer 02 - Renal Physiology - Page 1

Physio 12 -Summer 02 - Renal Physiology - Page 1 Physiology 12 Kidney and Fluid regulation Guyton Ch 20, 21,22,23 Roles of the Kidney Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolytes Regulation of acid-base balance (ph) Excretion of natural wastes

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology Homework #10: Chs. 26-28 DUE: (see course schedule) Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class will be accepted. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that

More information

Regulate chemical composition of body fluids. Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration. Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph]

Regulate chemical composition of body fluids. Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration. Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph] The Urinary System Regulate chemical composition of body fluids Eliminates waste Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph] Help regulate blood

More information

The Urinary System PART A

The Urinary System PART A 15 The Urinary System PART A PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION ELAINE N. MARIEB Functions of the Urinary

More information

Urinary System (Chapter 26) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus

Urinary System (Chapter 26) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Urinary System (Chapter 26) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content: Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology

More information

Excretion Chapter 29. The Mammalian Excretory System consists of. The Kidney. The Nephron: the basic unit of the kidney.

Excretion Chapter 29. The Mammalian Excretory System consists of. The Kidney. The Nephron: the basic unit of the kidney. Excretion Chapter 29 The Mammalian Excretory System consists of The Kidney 1. Vertebrate kidneys perform A. Ion balance B. Osmotic balance C. Blood pressure D. ph balance E. Excretion F. Hormone production

More information

Urinary System VASTACCESS, INC.

Urinary System VASTACCESS, INC. Urinary System www.vastaccess.com 2 Urinary Tract Kidney Ureter Urinary Bladder Urethra Prostate (male) Membranous (male) Spongy (male) 3 Kidney Relations Suprarenal (Adrenal) Glands Liver Duodenum Transverse

More information

Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Chapter Outline The Concept of Balance Water Balance Sodium Balance Potassium Balance Calcium Balance Interactions between Fluid and Electrolyte

More information

Urinary Anatomy. Lab 40. Kidneys. Nephrons. Renal Corpuscle

Urinary Anatomy. Lab 40. Kidneys. Nephrons. Renal Corpuscle Urinary Anatomy Lab 40. Urinary Anatomy and Kidney Dissection Kidneys: filters blood, produces urine Ureters: convey urine to bladder Bladder: holding tank Urethra: carries urine to the outside for elimination

More information

Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9

Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9 Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Excretion and the Interaction of Systems 9.1 The Structures and Function of the Excretory System 9.2 Urine Formation in the Nephron 9.3 Excretory

More information

Kidney and urine formation

Kidney and urine formation Kidney and urine formation Renal structure & function Urine formation Urinary y concentration and dilution Regulation of urine formation 1 Kidney and urine formation 1.Renal structure & function 1)General

More information

Renal System Physiology

Renal System Physiology M58_MARI0000_00_SE_EX09.qxd 7/18/11 2:37 PM Page 399 E X E R C I S E 9 Renal System Physiology Advance Preparation/Comments 1. Prior to the lab, suggest to the students that they become familiar with the

More information

EXCRETION IN HUMANS 31 JULY 2013

EXCRETION IN HUMANS 31 JULY 2013 EXCRETION IN HUMANS 31 JULY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Discuss organs of excretion Look at the structure of the urinary system Look at the structure and functioning of the kidney Discuss

More information

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY PART

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY PART URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY PART 1 DANIL HAMMOUDI.MD Urinary System Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and ph

More information

Running head: NEPHRON 1. The nephron the functional unit of the kidney. [Student Name] [Name of Institute] Author Note

Running head: NEPHRON 1. The nephron the functional unit of the kidney. [Student Name] [Name of Institute] Author Note Running head: NEPHRON 1 The nephron the functional unit of the kidney [Student Name] [Name of Institute] Author Note NEPHRON 2 The nephron the functional unit of the kidney The kidney is an important excretory

More information

Excretory System 1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z

Excretory System 1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- X- Y- Z- b) Which of the following is not a function of the organ shown? A. to produce

More information

Urinary system. Lab-7

Urinary system. Lab-7 Urinary system Lab-7 Excretion: processes that remove wastes and excess materials from the body Urinary system (kidneys): excretes nitrogenous wastes, excess solutes, and water The Kidneys Regulate Water

More information

2. Ureters Composed of smooth muscle tissue ~25cm long Connects kidneys to bladder Undergoes peristaltic contraction to move urine to bladder

2. Ureters Composed of smooth muscle tissue ~25cm long Connects kidneys to bladder Undergoes peristaltic contraction to move urine to bladder Section 6: The Urinary System A) Organs of the Urinary system 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Bladder 4. Urethra 1. Kidneys Paired organs located on either side of vertebral column in upper part of abdominal

More information

Chapter 13 The Urinary System

Chapter 13 The Urinary System Biology 12 Name: Urinary System Per: Date: Chapter 13 The Urinary System Complete using BC Biology 12, page 408-435 13.1 The Urinary System pages 412-413 1. As the kidneys produce urine, they carry out

More information

Ch 19: The Kidneys. Functional unit of kidneys:?? Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM

Ch 19: The Kidneys. Functional unit of kidneys:?? Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM Ch 19: The Kidneys Homeostatic regulation of ECF volume and BP Osmolarity 290 mosm Ion balance Na+ and K+, etc. ph (acid-base balance Excretion of wastes & foreign substances Hormone production EPO Renin

More information

Urinary System. Genitourinary System (Part A-1) Module 10 -Chapter 11. Overview 1/4/2013

Urinary System. Genitourinary System (Part A-1) Module 10 -Chapter 11. Overview 1/4/2013 Genitourinary System (Part A-1) Module 10 -Chapter 11 Overview Urinary system Kidneys Ureter Bladder Nephron Male reproductive system Testes Accessory Structures Susie Turner, M.D. 71/3/13 Major homeostatic

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 36

Biology Slide 1 of 36 Biology 1 of 36 38 3 The Excretory System 2 of 36 Functions of the Excretory System 1.Function: process which eliminates metabolic wastes 3 of 36 Functions of the Excretory System (The skin excretes excess

More information

RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, HOMEOSTASIS OF FLUID COMPARTMENTS (1)

RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, HOMEOSTASIS OF FLUID COMPARTMENTS (1) RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, HOMEOSTASIS OF FLUID COMPARTMENTS (1) Dr. Attila Nagy 2017 Functional role of the kidney 1.Homeostasis of fluid compartments (isosmia, isovolemia, isoionia, isohydria,) 2. Elimination

More information

Renal physiology D.HAMMOUDI.MD

Renal physiology D.HAMMOUDI.MD Renal physiology D.HAMMOUDI.MD Functions Regulating blood ionic composition Regulating blood ph Regulating blood volume Regulating blood pressure Produce calcitrol and erythropoietin Regulating blood glucose

More information

Kidneys and Homeostasis

Kidneys and Homeostasis 16 The Urinary System The Urinary System OUTLINE: Eliminating Waste Components of the Urinary System Kidneys and Homeostasis Urination Urinary Tract Infections Eliminating Waste Excretion Elimination of

More information

LECTURE ON THE URINARY SYSTEM

LECTURE ON THE URINARY SYSTEM LECTURE ON THE URINARY SYSTEM (Uropoetic System) AN OVERVIEW Dr HAMIADJI THE URINARY SYSTEM URINARY SYSTEM The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance

More information

cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland

cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland Which of the following is found in the spermatic cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland a) ductus deferns What structure is superior to the urogenital

More information

RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, HOMEOSTASIS OF FLUID COMPARTMENTS (1)

RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, HOMEOSTASIS OF FLUID COMPARTMENTS (1) RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, HOMEOSTASIS OF FLUID COMPARTMENTS (1) Dr. Attila Nagy 2017 Functional roles of the kidney 1.Homeostasis of fluid compartments (isosmia, isovolemia, isoionia, isohydria,) 2. Elimination

More information

Lecture 16: The Nephron

Lecture 16: The Nephron Lecture 16: The Nephron Reading: OpenStax A&P Text Chapter 25 Primary functions of the kidneys 1. Regulating osmolarity (blood concentration!) A. Regulating blood pressure B. Maintaining ion balance C.

More information

convoluted tubule. The proximal straight tubule is located in the medulla and dives down towards the pelvis.. [3] The Distal Straight Tubule receive

convoluted tubule. The proximal straight tubule is located in the medulla and dives down towards the pelvis.. [3] The Distal Straight Tubule receive Chapter 16 Urinary System 16.1. Introduction The urinary system includes the: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys regulate the composition and volume of body fluids by constantly

More information

Normal Renal Function

Normal Renal Function Normal Renal Function Functions of the Kidney: balances solute and water transport excretes metabolic waste products conserves nutrient regulates acid-base balance secretes hormones that help regulate

More information

Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1

Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1 Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1 Excretory System Introduction 1. Terrestrial organisms must deal with the problems of: a. obtaining and conserving water b. Removing excess salts c. Eliminating products

More information

Chapter 13 The Urinary System

Chapter 13 The Urinary System Biology 12 ame: KY Urinary System Per: Date: Chapter 13 The Urinary System Complete using BC Biology 12, page 408-435 13.1 The Urinary System pages 412-413 1. s the kidneys produce urine, they carry out

More information

Ch 17 Physiology of the Kidneys

Ch 17 Physiology of the Kidneys Ch 17 Physiology of the Kidneys Review Anatomy on your own SLOs List and describe the 4 major functions of the kidneys. List and explain the 4 processes of the urinary system. Diagram the filtration barriers

More information