INVESTIGATING DECISION MAKING STYLES AND THEIR RELATION WITH MANAGERS EFFECTIVENESS IN SPORT ASSOCIATION BOARDS OF MAZANDARAN PROVINCE

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1 SAUSSUEA (ISSN: ) Vol. 3(1), PP: , 2015 ESEACH ATICLE INVESTIGATING DECISION MAKING STYLES AND THEI ELATION WITH MANAGES EFFECTIVENESS IN SPOT ASSOCIATION BOADS OF MAZANDAAN POVINCE Alireza Mozhdeh 1 and Jamshid Sayyar Nezhad 2 1 MA of Sport Management, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran 2 Department of sport Management, Ghaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ghaemshahr, Iran Abstract The present study was carried out to identify and investigate decision making styles of managers of sport association boards of Mazandaran province and their relation with. In this study, decision making styles (rational, intuitive, dependent, spontaneous, and avoidant) and were measured. egarding the objective, the present study is of applied nature and regarding data collection method, this is a descriptive survey with correlation method. egarding data collection method, this is a field study in which data were collected by questionnaire. al population includes all managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. Sample size including people was determined by census. The questionnaire was organized in three parts. The first part dealt with personal properties. The second part included Bruce and Scott 25-item questionnaire on decision making styles and the third section was composed of the author-synthesized 25-item questionnaire. Validity of the questionnaire was assessed by content validity method. eliability of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach s alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed using both descriptive statistics such as center tendency measures and inferential statistics including t-test, correlation and regression analysis. Data analysis was performed by statistical software SPSS 18. esults indicated that rational decision making style has influence on of the sport association boards; however the other styles have no influence. Introduction Environmental changes have make organizations to consider their managers as important factors for circumventing over the environmental changes, demands and challenges. Under this condition, managers need numerous skills and abilities. Management is the science of organization actions and includes various activities for accurate management of the organization (micro level) and society (macro level); activities such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling and coordinating, recording and reporting the tasks and budgeting and credits. The central part of managerial activities is decision making which is an indispensable part of management and is manifested in every management duty such as organizational policy making, adoption, measurement and all other managerial practices and activities. In the other words, there is a mutual relationship between managerial activities and managers decision making (Gholipour, 2008). Among various management duties, decision making has special importance. Managers always face conditions requiring decision making. In addition to organizational and environmental factors affecting managers decision making, their own personal properties have also influence on their attitude to decision making conditions and styles.

2 According to Barnard, decision making constitutes the basis of manager s duties; and manager s skill in decision making is manifested in duty efficiency and quality of the services he/she provides. Newman believes that management quality depends on decision making quality, because and quality of strategies and quality of the outcomes resulting from their activities all are determined by the quality of decisions made by the manager. Konter maintained that decision making is the basis of planning because it is obvious that plan, program, policy and direction can t exist unless someone makes a decision. Thus, decision making is a framework by which all other organizational duties are measured and execution of each managerial duty depends on making an important decision (Gholipour, 2008). Effectiveness is defined as an extent of the observed social behavior which is in accordance with the role assigned for it (Lee Fam vehoe, translated by naeli, 2002). Considering the importance of identification and evaluation of managerial styles used in organizations especially important ones such as sport and youth organization and sport association boards, the present study was carried out. The main question of the present study is that is there any relation between decision making styles of managers of Mazandaran sport association board and? Methodology The present study was conducted to identify and evaluate decision making styles of managers of Mazandaran sport association boards and their relation with. egarding the objective, the present study is of applied nature and regarding data collection method, this is a descriptive survey with correlation method. egarding data collection method, this is a field study in which data were collected by questionnaire. al population includes all managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. Since the population is limited (number of sport association boards managers), a sample including persons was adopted by census method. Each variable was measured by the questionnaire. To assess decision making styles, the questionnaire proposed by Bruce and Scott and translated by Hadizadeh and Tehrani was applied. The questionnaire includes 5 questions on rational style (4, 7, 11, 13, 25), 5 questions on intuitive style (1, 3, 12, 16, 17), 5 questions on dependent style (2, 5, 10, 18, 22), 5 questions on spontaneous style (8, 9, 15, 20, 24), and 5 questions on avoidant style (6, 14, 19, 21, 23). Moreover, an author-based questionnaire with 25 items was prepared by literature review and also by use of the similar questionnaires proposed by other authors. Likert five-point scale was used in the questionnaire. Validity of the questionnaire was assessed by content validity method. eliability of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach s alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed using both descriptive statistics such as center tendency measures (mean, median, mode, percentage, frequency, table and related graphs) and inferential statistics including t-test, correlation and regression analysis. Data analysis was performed by statistical software SPSS 18. esults Demographic properties include gender, age, education level, marriage status, job position, and work experience. Twenty seven of the respondents were male and three were female. Thirteen persons were years old; 13 persons were above 45 years and only 4 persons were years old which constitute the smallest portion of the sample. 23 persons were married and 74 persons were single. 39 persons had bachelor degree which had the highest frequency, 6 persons had associate s degree and six persons had MSc or PhD degree. Individuals with 1-10 year work experience (14 persons) had the highest frequency, followed by year experience (10 persons). People with work experience as 21 years upward constitute 20% of sample size. - Inferential findings After description of demographic properties of the population, we go on with investigation findings.

3 Descriptive statistics regarding decision making styles and These include mean and standard deviation of and decision making components. The highest mean was observed for intuitive decision making (3.87) and the lowest mean was obtained for rational decision making (2.80). Descriptive statistics regarding Based on the results, mean and standard deviation of were 3.81 and 0.564; respectively. Data distribution normality test As can be seen from the results, distribution of all components was abnormal, thus Spearman correlation test was used. Hypothesis test In this section, all the investigation hypotheses are tested. All the hypotheses were tested at significance level of α=0.05 and the results are presented in the related tables. Hypothesis 1 Null hypothesis (H 0 ) = There is no significant relation between and intuitive decision Alternative hypothesis (H 1 ) = There is significant relation between and intuitive decision Table1. s of coefficient of Spearman correlation between intuitive decision making and Intuitive decision making/ Table 1 shows the correlation between intuitive decision making and of managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. egarding Spearman test and the results, it is observed that sig= and r= Thus, null hypothesis is approved and therefore, there is no significant relation between and intuitive decision making style of managers of sport association boards of Hypothesis 2 Null hypothesis H 0 = There is no significant relation between and dependent decision Alternative hypothesis H 1 = There is significant relation between and dependent decision Table2. s of coefficient of Spearman correlation between dependent decision making and Dependent decision making/ Table 2 shows the correlation between dependent decision making and of managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. egarding Spearman test and the results, it is observed that sig= and r= Thus, null hypothesis is approved and therefore, there is no significant relation between and dependent decision making style of managers of sport association boards of Hypothesis 3

4 Null hypothesis H 0 = There is no significant relation between and rational decision Alternative hypothesis H 1 = There is significant relation between and rational decision Table3. s of coefficient of Spearman correlation between rational decision making and * r ational decision making/ Table 3 shows the correlation between rational decision making and of managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. egarding Spearman test and the results, it is observed that sig= and r= So, null hypothesis is rejected and therefore, there is a negative and significant relation between and rational decision making style of managers of sport association boards of Hypothesis 4 Null hypothesis H 0 = There is no significant relation between and avoidant decision Alternative hypothesis H 1 = There is significant relation between and avoidant decision Table4. s of coefficient of Spearman correlation between avoidant decision making and Avoidant decision making/ Table 4 shows the correlation between avoidant decision making and of managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. egarding Spearman test and the results, it is observed that sig= and r= Thus, null hypothesis is approved and therefore, there is no significant relation between and avoidant decision making style of managers of sport association boards of Hypothesis 5 Null hypothesis H 0 = There is no significant relation between and spontaneous decision Alternative hypothesis H 1 = There is significant relation between and spontaneous decision Table5. s of coefficient of Spearman correlation between spontaneous decision making and Significance level r Spontaneous decision making/

5 Table 5 shows the correlation between spontaneous decision making and of managers of Mazandaran sport association boards. egarding Spearman test and the results, it is observed that sig= and r= Thus, null hypothesis is approved and therefore, there is no significant relation between and spontaneous decision making style of managers of sport association boards of Hypothesis 6 Decision making styles are significant predictors for in sport association boards of Mazandaran. Null hypothesis (H0): Decision making styles are significant predictors for in sport association boards of Mazandaran. Alternative hypothesis (H1): Decision making styles are not significant predictors for in sport association boards of Mazandaran. A multiple regression in simultaneous mode was performed between decision making styles (rational, intuitive, dependent, spontaneous, avoidant) as independent variables (predictors) and as dependent variable. In simultaneous regression, all the independent variables are simultaneously analyzed with dependent variable. Below, involvement of decision making styles in prediction of sport association boards is discussed. Table6. esults of multiple-regression between components of decision making styles and Durbin Watson 1.82 Sig 0.02 Std. Error of the Estimate 0.47 Adjusted square Model egression (simultaneous) The results presented in table 6 indicate that correlation coefficient () is showing that there is a significant and direct correlation between dependent and independent variables (p<0.05, r= 0.591). Moreover, adjusted coefficient of determination (2), expressing the portion of dependent variable s changes caused by independent variable, indicates that 34% of total variation in of sport association boards managers is caused by decision making styles and the remaining 66% is due to factors beyond the model. Considering significance of the test, it can be concluded that the regression model including 5 independent variables (decision making styles) and one dependent variable () is a good model and the independent variable set can explain variation. esults of multipleregression show that only rational style is able to predict the of managers of sport association boards in Mazandaran. - Standardized coefficient indicates regression effect of each independent variable on dependent variable. egression coefficients are interpreted based on Beta coefficient. The importance of rational decision making style (0.591) can be revealed when compared to the other styles. It can be concluded that by addition of one standard deviation in rational decision making, will be reduced by 0.59 of standard deviation. Discussion and conclusion In general, decision making has been always a challenge for managers because they meet problems and conditions which require decision making. Decisions made by managers during their organizational missions influence employees performance and life and also affect organizational. Therefore, they should be familiar with their duties and consider themselves accountable for behaviors,

6 actions and decisions and have rational reason for each action and decision. Since youth and sport system is an important social system and plays critical role in knowledge creation and training of skillful force, decision quality in this system is of great importance. This quality can be influenced by a number of factors including decision making styles. Obviously, any defect in this field can result in making poor decisions which has numerous negative consequences for Mazandaran sport association boards and athletic society of this province. It has been reported that there is positive and significant relation between intuitive style and managers in sport association boards of Mazandaran. The results obtained in the present study is in contrast to those reported by Moghaddam and Tehrani (2008), Heidari et al (2013), Krusli and Haghouse (2005); but is in agreement with those reported by Parker et al (2007) and Tanhelm (2008). Moreover, results indicate that there is no significant relation between dependent decision making style and managers in sport association boards of Mazandaran. This finding is in accordance with those reported by Tompson (2010), Sechumaker (2010) and Heidari et al (2013) but is in contrary to the results reported by Hadizadeh Moghaddam et al (2011). Furthermore, results indicate that there is a negative and significant relation between rational decision making style and managers in sport association boards of Mazandaran. This result is in contrast to those reported by Tompson (2010), Sechumaker (2010) and Heidari et al (2013). Our findings indicate that there is no significant relation between avoidant decision making style and managers in sport association boards of Mazandaran. This finding is in agreement with those found by Krusli and haghouse (2005). In addition, it was revealed that there is no significant relation between spontaneous decision making style and managers in sport association boards of Mazandaran. This is in contrast to the findings reported by Parker et al (2007) and Sechumaker (2010), but is in agreement with those reported by Tanhelm (2004) and Heidari et al (2013). esults of regression test revealed that the regression model including five independent variables (decision making styles) and one dependent variable () is a good model and independent variables set can explain changes. esults of multiple-regression show that only rational style is able to predict the of managers of sport association boards in Mazandaran. Standardized coefficient indicates regression effect of each independent variable on dependent variable. egression coefficients are interpreted based on Beta coefficient. The importance of rational decision making style can be revealed when compared to the other styles. It can be concluded that by addition of one standard deviation in rational decision making, will be reduced by 0.59 of standard deviation. In general, results show that regarding variation and wideness of organizational activities in Iran and their internal and environmental properties, no certain method can be proposed as a general decision making method for all organizations; however a suitable method compatible with total conditions of organizations can be proposed. Success of organizations with limited resources and failure of organizations with high level of resources suggest existence of correct or wrong decision making styles. Difference in decision making styles is due to different managerial skills and individual creativity of managers. The important issue is of the decisions and their positive influence on sustainability of effective and productive organizational actions within the changing environment of Iran sport. Moghaddam end tehrani (2008) found out that there is a negative and significant relation between rational and intuitive decision making style and there is positive and significant relation between rational and avoidant styles and also between intuitive and spontaneous styles. Moreover, avoidant style has a

7 negative and significant relation with dependent and spontaneous styles. The authors reported that there was no significant relation between each decision making style and two demographic properties including managers work experience and education level. Mousavi (2005) conducted an investigation entitled a theoretical framework for decision making in Iran organizations. The notable finding was of decisions and their positive effects on continuity of effective and productive organizational activities in Iran changing environment. Moreover, the findings of this study are in agreement with those reported by Izadi and Karimi (2007), Heidari et al (2013), Smith (2011) and Tompson (2010). eferences Izadi, Samad., Karimi, Soleiman A survey on influence on IT training courses on improved performance of the employees (case study; higher education and research institute of management and planning), journal of management human and social science. 4(31):13-38 Heidari, Elham., Marzoughi, ahmatollah Evaluating general styles of decision making among university managers. Case study: University of Shiraz. Journal of ahiaft Now, Marvdasht Azad University, 4:67-84 Gholipour, ahmatollah Organizational decision making and general policy making, Tehran, SAMT publication Lee Fan Vehoe, translated by Naeli, 2002, pp: 83 Mousavi, Saeid A theoretical framework for decision making in Iran organizations, the third international conference of management Hadizadeh Moghaddam, Akram., Tehrani, Maryam I nvestiagting the relation between general decision making styles of managers in public organizations, 1(1): Crossley, C. D., & Highhouse, S. (2005). elation of job search and choice process with subsequent satisfaction. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26(2), Parker, Andrew M, Bruine de Bruin,, Wändi, Fischhoff, Baruch 2007, Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes, Journal of Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 2, no. 6, December., p 344 Schoemaker, A. F. (2010). The elationship between Decision-Making Style and Negative Affect in College Students: Drexel University. Smith, E. (2011). The intuitive style: elationships with local/global and verbal/visual styles, gender, and superstitious reasoning. Journal of Learning and Individual Differences Vol 21, PP Thompson, T. S. (2010). The impact of locus of control on decision making styles of mid-level managers: Capella University. Thunholm, P. (2004), Decision Making Style: habit, style or both?, Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, pp

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