International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 18

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1 International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 18

2 ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA AT KEARNEY General Psychology Department at Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Theoretical Psychology Department at Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Psychological Clinic at Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Department of Counseling and School Psychology at University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach Journal of Psychological Science 2016 / 18 Since 2008 Bi-annual 2016

3 EDITORIAL BOARD Co-Editors-In-Chief: Auksė Endriulaitienė Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Tammi Ohmstede Beckman University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Co-Associate Editors: Loreta Gustainienė Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Carmelo Callueng University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Consulting Editors: Juan Pablo Gamboa Navarro - University of Valencia, Spain David Hof - University of Nebraska at Kearney, United States Aistė Pranckevičienė - Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania Aleksandrs Kolesovs - University of Latvia, Latvia Bojan Musil - University of Maribor, Slovenia Natalija Minajeva - The Russian Prezidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Russian Federation Anna-Maija Lämsä - University of Jyväskylä, Finland Goda Perlavičiūtė - University of Groningen, Netherlands Gintautas Šilinskas - University of Jyväskylä, Finland Türker Özkan - Middle East Technical University, Turkey Sofia Marques da Silva - University of Porto, Portugal Elvira Cicognani - University of Bologna, Italy Christopher Roseman - The University of Toledo, United States Detlef H. Rost - South West University Chongqing (CN), P.R. China, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany Catarina Pinheiro Mota - University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Portugal Rita Žukauskienė - Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania Kamonwan Tangdhanakanond - Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Thomas J Sweeney - Ohio University, United States Laura Šeibokaitė - Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Loreta Bukšnytė-Marmienė - Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Saulė Raižienė - Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania Andrejs Ozolins - Linnaeus University, Sweden Rosita Lekavičienė - Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania Evaldas Kazlauskas - Vilnius University, Lithuania Aurelijus Veryga - Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania Douglas R Tillman - University of Nebraska at Kearney, United States Roy Kern - Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Jane E Myers - University of North Carolina at Greensboro, United States Lee Pearce - Black Hills State University, United States Ewa Gruszczyńska - University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland The ownership of International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach is shared equally between University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA, and Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania. It is published by VMU General Psychology Department, Theoretical Psychology Department, Psychological Clinic and UNK Department of Counseling and School Psychology. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach is a peer-reviewed journal publishing articles in English. It is published twice a year. The journal is freely accessed on the internet. Since 2008 the Journal is referred in the Ulrich s Periodicals Directory. Since 2008 the Journal is indexed in the Index Copernicus database and since 2009 in EBSCO Academic Search Complete and LITUANISTICA databases. Since 2010 the Journal is added to PsycINFO Journal Coverage List. Addresses: Psychology Department Department of Counseling and School Psychology Vytautas Magnus University University of Nebraska at Kearney, Jonavos str , College of Education Building, Rm B-148 LT Kaunas, Lithuania Kearney, NE Tel./fax: Tel.: (308) (office), fax: (308) Internet address: ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) University of Nebraska at Kearney, 2016 Vytautas Magnus University, 2016

4 CONTENTS SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Joana Butėnaitė, Jolanta Sondaitė, Antanas Mockus 9 27 COMPONENTS OF EXISTENTIAL CRISIS: A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS Stephen W. Jones, David D. Hof, Douglas R. Tillman ASSESSING GLOBAL SERVICE-LEARNING: A MIXED-METHODS APPROACH TO EVALUATING STUDENTS INTERCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Raimonda Petrolienė, Liuda Šinkariova, Loreta Zajančkauskaitė-Staskevičienė, Jurga Misiūnienė, Laura Alčiauskaitė PSYCHOMETRICS OF THE READINESS TO CHANGE QUESTIONNAIRE (RCQ): THE LITHUANIAN VERSION Kristina Paradnikė, Rita Bandzevičienė CAREER CONSTRUCTION IN ACADEMIC SETTING: LINKS BETWEEN CAREER ADAPTABILITY AND STUDY ENGAGEMENT Eric Davis SCHOOL COUNSELOR PREPAREDNESS FOR WORKING WITH STUDENTS & CHRONIC ILLNESS: INSIGHTS AND APPLICATIONS FROM A SERVICE LEARNING EXPERIENCE IN SOUTHERN AFRICA INFORMATION ABSTRACTS OF THE 16 TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN PSYCHOLOGY AT UNK & VMU, NOVEMBER 30 TH, CONTRIBUTORS INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

5 International Journal of Psychology: Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 18 ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) EDITORIAL DEAR READERS, We invite you to spend some time reading the 18 th issue of the International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach. Publications in this issue present the latest results of research in the field of psychology in Lithuania and abroad as well as go deep into such important phenomena as Career Adaptability, Existential Crisis, Global Service Learning, School Counsellors Preparedness for Working with Students & Chronic Illness, and Readiness to Change. The variety of analysed phenomena once more sustains the truth that there are plenty of unanswered questions concerning human mental processes and behaviour. Publications in the journal follow the idea of studying such processes based on the viewpoint that both mind and behaviour originate, develop and function due to the close interaction between biological, psychological factors and social environment. Thereby, authors analyse psychological issues within the broader context, including biological, psychological, and social aspects. To sum up, the publications of this issue are aimed at analysis of factors improving personal adaptation in various activities and social environments. Authors of the publication School Counsellor Preparedness for Working with Students & Chronic Illness: Insights and Applications from a Service Learning Experience in Southern Africa bring up the problem that despite increasing rate of chronic illness among children, many school counsellors may not be prepared to handle such issues due to lack of training, professional development, or culturally diverse experiences. Author reviews the literature on chronic illness and school counsellor preparation, moreover, referring to his own participation in a service learning experience in Southern Africa, discusses opportunities for working with students and chronic illness in the United States. The theme analysing factors related with students adaptation in various activities and social environment is continued by Paradnike et al. in publication Career Construction in Academic Setting: Links between Career Adaptability and Study Engagement. This publication explores study engagement phenomena as an indicator of occupational well-being of students, and raise the presumption that study engagement might be one of many positive career-related outcomes linked to career adaptability. Along with college students, authors present research results analysing links between career adaptability of college students and study engagement. Two other publications (Jones et al. Assessing Global Service-Learning: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluating Students

6 Intercultural Development and Petrolienė et al. Psychometrics of the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ): the Lithuanian version ) analyse efficiency of methods intended to assess client s readiness for changes or counselling work with the client improving his development and environmental adaptation. Petrolienė and colleagues in the publication Psychometrics of the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ): the Lithuanian version claims that smoking, unhealthy diet, low physical activity, overweight and risky alcohol consumption persist as actual problems among Lithuanian adults nowadays. Authors relate these issues with heart related problems and state that it is important to have a valid, short, clear measure of readiness to change health behaviour in the native (Lithuanian) language as changing life style can be a problem in rehabilitation process of cardiac patients in Lithuania. Thus the article analyses psychometrics of Lithuanian version of the Readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ) among patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Jones et al., in Assessing Global Service-Learning: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluating Students Intercultural Development, discusses the Global Service-Learning (GSL) as an important contributor to student s intercultural development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of cultural immersion as a service-learning project and to use the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) to better understand the changes in student development as a result of this project. In their article The experience of an existential crisis: a theoretical analysis, Butėnaitė and colleagues examine phenomenon that reveals problems of environmental adaptation of a person, i.e. existential crisis phenomenon. Authors state that the results of this analysis will help us understand the experiences of an existential crisis and the peculiarities of people who are going through it. The editorial team invites you to read and analyse the articles in the International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach. We would like to encourage discussions between scientists and academic communities in Lithuania, USA and other countries, to strive for collaboration of scientists representing various scientific fields and branches. This would promote the development of Psychology and expand practical implementation possibilities enabling to find the most appropriate solution for problems faced both by the individual and the society within the rapidly changing social milieu. We invite the scientists to submit original empirical as well as theoretical articles with diverse methodology and methods of statistical analysis, which would expand the knowledge in the field of Psychology, and (or) have importance for practical psychologists. Prof. dr. Loreta Bukšnytė-Marmienė Consulting Editor

7 International Journal of Psychology: Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 18 ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) CONTRIBUTORS Laura Alčiauskaitė, PhD student, Social sciences, Psychology, Vytautas Magnus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Theoretical Psychology. Research interests: health behaviour change, motivational interviewing, rehabilitation, adjustment to disability. Address: Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Theoretical Psychology, Jonavos st , LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Rita Bandzevičienė, PhD, Professor in Mykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Welfare, Institute of Psychology. Research interests: stress and coping, social inclusion, well-being. Address: Mykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Welfare, Institute of Psychology, Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: ; Fax: Joana Butėnaitė, health psychologist, PhD student, lecturer at Mykolas Romeris University. Research interests: subjective and psychological well-being, health aging and spirituality. Address: Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Eric S. Davis, PhD, NCC, SB-RPT, Assistant Professor, University of South Florida, Counselor Education. Research interests: play therapy training and pedagogy, school counseling training and pedagogy, chronic illness and school counseling, creative supervision and teaching strategies, stay-at-home father understanding and interventions. Address: University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave. EDU105 Tampa, FL Phone: (813)

8 Contributors David D. Hof, Ed.D., Professor at the University of Nebraska Kearney, Department of Counseling and School Psychology. Research interests: mental health stigma, social justice, high-risk youth, sex off ending behaviors. Address: University of Nebraska Kearney, College of Education (B135), Kearney, NE Phone: (308) Stephen W. Jones, MA, Assistant Professor at Crown College, International Studies. Research interests: intercultural competence, service-learning, international development, international relations. Address: Crown College, Bonifacius st., MN Phone: (952) Jurga Misiūnienė, PhD, researcher and lecturer at Vytautas Magnus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Theoretical Psychology; school psychologist at Vytautas Magnus University Rasa gymnasium. Research interests: creativity and intelligence, the importance of personal and environmental factors on the achievements in academic activity. Address: Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Theoretical Psychology, Jonavos st , LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Antanas Mockus, clinical psychologist, PhD student and lecturer at Mykolas Romeris University, Institute of Psychology. Research interests: successful aging, life satisfaction in old age. Address: Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Kristina Paradnikė, PhD student of Psychology in Mykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Welfare, Institute of Psychology. Research interests: career, developmental and educational psychology, well-being. Address: Mykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Welfare, Institute of Psychology, Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: ; Fax: (8 5)

9 International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, 18, p. Raimonda Petrolienė, PhD student, Social Sciences, Psychology, Vytautas Magnus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Theoretical Psychology. Research interests: health behaviour change, motivational interviewing, rehabilitation. Address: Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Theoretical Psychology, Jonavos st , LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Jolanta Sondaitė, Doctor of Social Sciences (Psychology), Mykolas Romeris University, Institute of Psychology, Associate Professor. Research interests: subjective well-being, relationships, conflict resolution. Address: Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: Liuda Šinkariova, PhD, Professor, Social Sciences, Psychology, Vytautas Magnus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Theoretical Psychology. Research interests: health behaviour change, rehabilitation. Address: Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Theoretical Psychology, Jonavos st , LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Douglas R. Tillman, PhD, Assistant Professor at the University of Nebraska Kearney, Department of Counseling and School Psychology. Research interests: spirituality, mental health stigma, title IX, Social Media. Address: University of Nebraska Kearney, College of Education (B138), Kearney, NE Phone: (308) Loreta Zajančkauskaitė-Staskevičienė, PhD, lecturer at Vytautas Magnus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Theoretical Psychology, clinical psychologist in primary care. Research interests: health and illness behavior, illness perception. Address: Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Theoretical Psychology, Jonavos st , LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone/Fax:

10 International Journal of Psychology: Biopsychosocial Approach ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS OF THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY: A BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH MISSION STATEMENT AND OBJECTIVES The scope of the International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach is to study the phenomena of human mental processes and behaviour, based on the viewpoint that both mind and behaviour originate, develop and function due to close interaction of biological and psychological factors with social environment. Such holistic understanding of mental phenomena as well as human behaviour stresses the necessity of integration of different branches of science. Therefore, the priority will be given to the topics, analysing psychological issues within the broader context, including biological, psychological, and social aspects. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach encourages discussions among scientists and academic communities of Lithuania, USA and other countries, strives for collaboration of scientists, representing various scientific fields and branches, in order to promote the development of Psychology, and to expand practical implementation possibilities enabling to find the most appropriate solution of problems faced both by the individual and the community within the rapidly changing social milieu. The authors are encouraged to submit original empirical as well as theoretical articles, with diverse methodology and methods of statistical analysis, which would expand the knowledge in the field of Psychology, and (or) have importance for practical psychologists. 1. Manuscripts have to be prepared according to general international standards for publications in social sciences (recommended Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Washington DC, current edition). 2. Manuscripts are submitted in English language. Writing should be concise and correct. 3. Manuscript should cover: title (as brief as possible, but informative); first names and surnames of all authors, educational degrees of the authors, institution(s) to which the authors are affiliated, position, scientific interests, address, phone number, fax, address; corresponding author; abstract (not exceeding words) should reflect the structure of the manuscript (background, purpose, material and methods, results, conclusions); 3 5 key words (they should not repeat the title of the manuscript, but be informative; e. g., they may be selected from MeSH catalogue). Different terms in keywords and title increase the probability for publication to be easier found within the databases. Keywords, in comparison with the title, might represent the term in broader or more narrow understanding (if you title your manuscript as The role of personality in risky driving of young drivers, you provide extraversion, neuroticism, impulsiveness, driving errors, traffic rule violations as keywords). If authors consider cultural context or geographical reference as the important factors to understand the presented data, related keywords could be introduced (e.g. young drivers, Lithuania ). 115

11 Instructions for authors introduction (operationalization of problem and relevance of publication, object and aim of manuscript, hypotheses or research questions, if necessary); methods (if manuscript covers report of empirical data, research methods, procedures, and subjects have to be described precisely, if a manuscript presents theoretical article or overview of literature, logics of the analysis has to be presented); analysis of the results or scientific problem (tables and pictures have to be clear, using comfortably readable text font; data in the tables and pictures only complements the text, but not duplicates); tables and (or) pictures should be placed in the appropriate place in the text (not at the end of the manuscript, and not in a separate file); discussion of the results (results in relation with the hypotheses, the interpretation and implication of results, results in relation with findings of previous studies, study limitations, if applicable); reference list in an alphabetical order, not numbered, DOI included. 4. Articles, which present empirical data, should not exceed words. Theoretical articles or literature reviews may reach words. 5. One electronic copy of the manuscript in Microsoft Windows Word format (text body 12 font size, Times New Roman font, double-spaced, margins: 2 cm top, bottom, and right, 3 cm left) has to be submitted to the Editorial Board using the online submission system. Author should store one copy and all required documents to guard against loss. 6. Use only black and white pictures and tables, grey scale colors have to contrast clearly. Scanned pictures are undesirable; exceptionally, upon agreement with the editors, pictures should be in.tiff format with resolution not less than 300 inch/dpi. When submitting the article, archive all files into a single ZIP archive. 7. If necessary, acknowledge people or institutions contributed to preparation of the manuscript. People, who consulted the authors, but have not been assigned as authors, might be acknowledged with their functions or level of contribution, e.g., scientific consultant, data collectors, participation in research, etc. 8. Authors are required to include the following in their submission letter (scanned): a statement that the aim and the content of the article correspond to the scope of the journal; a statement that the empirical data, description of the sample, and methods used in the article are compliant with ethical standards of psychological research (e. g., WMA Declaration of Helsinki; permission of bioethical committee, etc.); a statement disclosing conflicts of interest between the author and Editorial Board of the Journal, between the author and research sponsor, between the author and the publisher, etc.; a statement that all listed authors have contributed significantly to the manuscript and consent to their names on the manuscript; a statement that the manuscript or the data have not been published previously and they are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The whole document is signed by all authors. 9. Manuscripts go through a blind review procedure. After receiving a manuscript at least two reviewers qualified scientists with expertise in relevant scientific areas and 116

12 International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, 18 branches are assigned by the editors. Reviewing process is based on the principles of objectiveness, professionalism and originality. Editorial Board does not take responsibility about precision and fairness of data, text, illustrations, etc. Position of the authors expressed in a publication might not be shared by the editors or publishers. 10. Manuscripts, which do not meet requirements, are returned to a corresponding author without any evaluation. 11. Copyright belongs to publishers. 12. Manuscript should be submitted electronically in: index.php?n=en.submitarticle. 13. CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach uses the ithenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more about CrossCheck visit crosscheck.html. 117

13 International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach = Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris / General Psychology Departament at Vytautas Magnus University, Theoretical Psychology Department at Vytautas Magnus University, Psychological Clinic at Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Counseling and School Psychology at University of Nebraska at Kearney. T. 1 (2008)-. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, [Vol.] 18. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas ; Vilnius : Versus aureus, p. ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) This journal provides a good example of collaboration between the two universities as well as support to the biopsychosocial model. The papers explore the importance of new issues in diverse fields of psychology. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris 2016 / 18 English language editor Elena Gytautė Lithuanian language editor Aistė Koženiauskienė Cover designers Aistė Pranckevičienė, Aras Pranckevičius Graphic designer Zita Petrauskienė A run of 15 copies. 9,25 printing sheets. Order No. K Published by Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaičio g. 58, LT Kaunas Versus aureus Publishers, Rūdninkų g. 18, LT-Vilnius