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1 SELF-UNDERSTANDING AND PERSONALITY TYPOLOGY IN THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST PREGNANCY İLK GEBELİK DEVRİNDE KENDİSİNİ DERK VE ŞAHSİYETİN TİPOLOJİSİ ТИПОЛОГИЯ САМОСОЗНАНИЯ И ИДЕНТИЧНОСТИ ВО ВРЕМЯ ПЕРВОЙ БЕРЕМЕННОСТИ Məsturə SƏDAQƏT * Abstract The wish of being a mother originates from social and psychological experiences. In addition, every one has the meaning of self-concept and ability to understand. Also, human born as a individuals, in the society gain particular qualities and become into the personalities. Each mother on the basis of her own personality and her typology and Self-consciousness are reflected to factores which affect on pregnancy. Key words: women, pragnancy, self-concept, personality typology. Özet Anne olmak arzusu, yaşama tarzı ve psikolojik tecrübelerden kaynaklanır. Bundan başka insanın kendisinden ayrılarak içine kapanma duygusuna sebep oluyor. İnsan birey olarak doğuyor, cemiyette sosyal davranışlar kazanıyor ve bu edindikleri şahsiyete (kişiliğe) çevriliyor. Her anne bu oluşan şahsiyetlerin tipolojik ortamında kendisini içe kapatabiliyor. Anahtar kelimeler: kadın, gebelik dönemi, içe kapanmak, şahsiyet tipolojisi. * Bakü Devlet Üniversitesinin Doktora Öğrencisi/AZERBAYCAN 144

2 The wish of being a mother originates from social and psychological experiences. This wish is realized by semen from the vital standpoint. In the period of pregnancy not only embryo is changed in the process of pregnancy but also the organism of the pregnant woman changed from bodily and also psychological standpoint. Indeed, the woman has some feelings belonging to each stage in the period of pregnancy. These feelings include anxiety, doubling of character, restoring the previous contradictions in the mind, uneasiness for the health of embryo and the pains which the woman being struck in the period of pregnancy. (1,s ) The pregnancy brings the woman closer to the acts of nature. Then children serve not only to provide the continuation of the generation and also to create great richness. (3,s.168). Moreover the person has an ability to understand and evaluate itself. The ability of self-understanding is important for the person. Self concept has very difficult meaning and embraces two factors- sensitiveness and self-understanding. The factor of sensitiveness implements the function of reflecting self idea and creates the opportunity of defining any feelings of the individual during the selfevaluation and the level of the factor of understanding and self-confidence of the individual in this process. (2, s.59). According to V.S.Merlin self-understanding is difficult psychological structure and embraces some components: understanding of assimilation (sameness), understanding of its psychological feature and qualities, understanding its me, social-moral evaluation. The ideas of Merlin, Russian psychologist is very interesting and has great importance in investigating genesis of new selfunderstanding issue. But is not only position (2,s.16). A.G.Spirkin considers expedient to pay attention to the followings while investigating the essence of self-understanding. According to him selfunderstanding is self-understanding and evaluation of his/her acts, its result, wishes, feelings, position in the life, by the person. (2,s/15). Please note that, according to some psychologists the subject of selfunderstanding is consciousness. If the consciousness is the subjective condition of acquainting of the person with its reality, self-understanding is the acquaintance of the person with its personality and its internal life, in other word it is the understanding of knowledge and impressions about it. Due to only selfunderstanding the person understands itself as separate from the people and as an individual reality. The main content of self-understanding is represented in our reality and region of appointment range of our me. (2,s.15) According to us the self-understanding is the top of the development of higher mental functions. This phenomenon not only gives a chance to the person to represent environment in itself and also give a chance to the person to separate itself from the reflected environment, to recognize itself and understand itself. 145

3 146 Russian scientist A.N.Leontyev characterized the problem of selfunderstanding as having great vital importance, and the psychological top of the personality and evaluated the present phenomenon as a problem not subjected to psychological critique and as an unsolvable problem (2,s.15). It is known that Me constitutes the central element of self-understanding and its core. The concept of Me was formulated firstly by U. James in psychology. U.James stated that global Me is consist of two elements Me understanding (1) and Me object (2,s.15). Raymi used the norms of self-understanding in his observations. He stated that the medicines of nerve are one of the factors changed the criteria for itself. Up today the most useful of psychological norms is belonging to the name Karl Racriz in According to Racriz, self constitutes the base of individual personality of each person. Racriz stated the self as the most valuable product of the society spread among the personal relations. Arven and Sevan (1988) confirmed that the individuals having negative selfunderstanding are not confident in narration and self-evaluation. That s why selfrecognition, decisiveness in references and belief create and strengths selfgovernment senses for future. The very sense increases positive self-understanding in a convincing level. Clearness of self-understanding allows the individual s confident and independent development in similar reality (4, page 32). Some of investigators consider self-understanding and self-respect consciousness as not-differentiated, similar content and synonymous notions. The human s self-understanding is closely related to the development and establishment self-respect consciousness and self-evaluation. We cannot define their partition from each other from the very conceptions principally or criteria differing them (5, page 180). Generally, the human is born as an individual, attains proper social qualities in society and becomes personality. The person appears as system of ideas about himself/ herself (my image, my conception) for an individual. The conception about a person is expressed in the evaluation the person gives himself/ herself, in self-respect, pretension level, etc. (5, Page 131). The idea of character is made directly from the idea of person that s to say mask. There were very little roles in ancient theatres, every role was known from its mask and every mask required special behavior and reality was an example of it. According to it we may characterize the character as the total of manners or total of person s structure. Purpose in selection of personality segmentation and in classification of different type of personalities is to explain emotional and corporal characteristics of persons, especially their relations in reading objects. Introductory point of these classifications is strong in observation of ill persons as the classification of Kerchmer in some objects and other objects or in

4 observations of healthy persons as the classification of Shelden. Many classifications about personality have been got which we mention its several objects up to now. Typology of E.Krechmer draws attention more in modern psychology. (5, page 487). According to Krechmer body structure is determined with three variants: Picnic level: Person who belongs to this level is corporal fat and their height is short and growth in their breast and stomach is more in comparison with other parts of their body. Their face is wide, their neck is short and thick and skin of their body is inclined to redness. They are polite, spending good time, humorous and gluttonous seemingly, they look everything with tender look and their exterior and interior are same. They rapid pour out theirs heart to others and rapid grow cold to them. Asthenic level: Such persons have long and narrow body, growth of their body is vertical contrary to their picnic type. Their chest is plane and narrow. Their bones are salient, their ribs are seemed from the bottom of skin and from concave stomach and they have additional faces, long hands and feet. They are unsociable and dreamer person seemingly, they use ironical and scalpel words. They pay an attention to environment. Athletic level: These levels of persons have strong skeleton and very hard muscle corporally, their height is longer. They are inclined to body activities, example sport and alpinism and to participate in sport consents, especially to success. These persons is not afraid of danger, they are pugnacious, oppressor and careerist, they don t show sensitiveness against different issues in comparison with asthenic type, joke few and try to be more serious (7, page 457). In 1950 two specialists emphasized importance of heart vessel disease in classification of these behaviors. They called these behaviors exemplary collection of A and B type behaviours (7, page 256) Generally A typed persons are competitive, extremely sloping to development, impatient, always with sense of time needing, it is difficult for them to be silent, to sit still, they will impatient and nervous when meet with unfaithfulness, though they seem as self-reliance, in reality doubt themselves, they do hard works for achieve important progress. In defiance of A typed persons, B typed persons can sit still and rest or do work not becoming nervous. They are patient and don t feel sense of needing time. They haven t got sense of constrain naturally, it is not easy to make angry them. In one research, A and B typed persons are waited causelessly and that happened: A typed persons made a noise, set up a clamour, became nervous and get into discussion and heated argument when interviewer not listening them. They pressed their lips each other and explained the accident tragically. B typed persons sat calmly, spoke gentle and silent, we may interrupt their words and they mostly smiled. (7, page 256) Grounding on the concept of self-knowledge and typology of person, we may say that mother expose influence of both factors during her initial pregnancy period. Both factors are important for growing up children not only within pregnancy period but also after pregnancy. 147

5 İSTİFADƏ EDİLMİŞ ƏDƏBİYYAT 1.Lif, P. Self-consistency: A theory of personality. New York: Island Press., 1991, s Branden, C. Self esteem and clarity of self concept. J.of.Personal. Soc. Psychol, 1991, s Cabbarov R. Yeniyetmələrdə özünüdərketmə prosesinin psixoloji təhlili, Namzədlik disertasiyası, Bakı, 2004, s Arven.F & Sevan.M. The content specificity of relations between academic self-concept and achievement: An extension of the Marsh/Shavelson model. ERIC NO: ED349315, Bayramov Ə.S. Əlizade Ə.Ə.psixologiya, Bakı, 1989, s Şultz. D. Şəxsiyyət nəzəriyyələri, Tehran, 2002, s Kaplan, M. Mother,s images of motherhood. Routledge