1 Repositioning the Field of Parks and Recreation SUMA Convention Regina, SK John L. Crompton University Distinguished Professor and Regents Professor Presidential Professor for Teaching Excellence Texas A&M University
3 Content The essence of a customer oriented approach as opposed to a city centered approach What business are we in? Volunteerism as recreation Maximizing use of existing facilities Benefits to the wider community
4 The view that an industry is a customersatisfying process, not a goodsproducing process, is vital for all businessmen to understand Given the customers needs, the industry develops backward creating the things by which customer satisfactions are achieved.
5 What business are we in?
9 MOVIES 1950s
10 What Business Are We In? Charles Revson: In the factory we make cosmetics. In the store we sell hope.
13 3 Client Group Wants 1 Program or Service Development SELLING CONCEPT starts with program or service developed by agency personnel; promotional effort seeks to convince client groups to participate; client groups fail to participate because it does not meet their wants 2 Promotional Effort
14 1 Client Group Wants MARKETING CONCEPT starts with identifying client group wants; develops program or service in response to those wants; promotional effort to communicate the program is rewarded by client groups participating in the program 3 Promotional Effort 2 Program or Service Development
15 Promotion/selling focuses on the needs of the seller. Marketing focuses on the needs of the buyer.
16 To sell Jack Jones what Jack Jones buys, you have to see Jack Jones through Jack Jones s eyes.
18 3 Key Questions 1. How much market research do we do?
19 3 Key Questions 1. How much market research do we do? 2. Why do we do what we do today?
20 3 Key Questions 1. How much market research do we do? 2. Why do we do what we do today? 3. What are we doing different from 5 years ago?
21 Marketing Enhancing User Satisfaction
23 Marketing is two things: A set of activities
24 Iceberg Promotion Fish Pyramid Pricing Services Locating & Scheduling Services Developing Services Selecting Market Targets Finding Out Client Wants
25 The Set of Marketing Activities Marketing Objectives Marketing Intelligence Selection of Target Markets and Allocation of Resources Marketing Mix Product Distribution location scheduling Price Promotion Marketing Environment Social Demographic Technological Financial Resources Political Legal Evaluation
26 The Marketing Activities are not as important as establishing a Marketing Mindset throughout the organization.
27 Gray and Greben, 1974 Professional perspectives of parks and recreation are activity centered. Definition in terms of activities is unsatisfactory. We should have discovered long ago the nature of the business we are in, but we have not The critical questions are not, How many were there? Or Who won? The critical question is, What happened to Jose, Mary, Sam and Joan in this experience.
28 Marketing is two things: A set of activities A facilitator of benefits
31 Social interaction with friends and family kin. Social interaction with previously unknown others. Ethnic and cultural identity A gain in prestige; social recognition; status. The mastery of particular skills may be regarded as a form of conspicuous consumption, which brings forth peer group recognition. Excitement; an adrenaline rush; exhilaration. Ego-satisfaction of achievement and accomplishment; a desire to be successful.
32 Security; to be part of a group that gives a sense of belonging, connectedness to others, and sense of affection. The feeling of being important and having responsibility; growth of self-worth and selfconfidence. Fantasy; illusion; offering temporary escape from the realities and routines of everyday life. Relaxation and alleviation of stress and tension, which may be obtained from hard or no physical effort. Catharsis from flow to alleviate negative tensions, anxiety, anger and unwanted adrenaline.
33 Acquisition of knowledge; satisfaction of curiosity. Feeling of well-being and vitality that derive both from exercise and physical fitness, and from mental alertness. Regression; the desire to let your hair down and act in a puerile, adolescent way. Aesthetic enhancement derived from being in an attractive natural environment. Challenge and risk, which lead to selfexploration, self-discovery, and selfdevelopment and may be obtained from sailing or skydiving, or from acting, dancing, or fly fishing.
35 Why am I doing this?
36 Why Do People Go Fishing? To: Experience the outdoors Develop skills Pit wits with the fish Be with friends Share skills with others especially children Mental change and relaxation Escape from pressures of everyday life Take a trophy Get food
38 Why am I doing this?
39 Physiological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity Improved circulation in the cardiac muscle Lower arterial blood pressure Increased number of capillaries in the skeletal muscle Increased levels of enzymes, important in metabolism
40 Why Do People Exercise To become more attractive and self-assured To have more energy throughout the day Better mood and disposition More creativity at work Better social life To make new friends Feel more relaxed, less tension To lose weight To live longer
41 What is this?
42 The Transformational Lens It is Social recognition Excitement Ego-satisfaction of _achievement Security of _belonging to a _group Social interaction
43 User Benefits Are Important Meet basic human needs
45 A gain in prestige; social recognition; status. The mastery of particular skills may be regarded as a form of conspicuous consumption, which brings forth peer group recognition. Excitement; an adrenaline rush; exhilaration. Ego-satisfaction of achievement and accomplishment; a desire to be successful. Security; to be part of a group that gives a sense of belonging, connectedness to others, and sense of affection. The feeling of being important and having responsibility; growth of self-worth and selfconfidence. Acquisition of knowledge; satisfaction of curiosity.
46 Occupations Projected to Have the Largest Job Growth Job Category Employment Change Quartile Rank # % by in 2008 Median Wages 1 Registered nurses VH Home health aides VL Customer Service Reps L Food Prep and Serving VL Personal and home care aides VL Retail salespersons VL Office clerks, general L Accountants and auditors VH Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants L Postsecondary teachers VH Construction laborers L 1 VH = very high ($51,540 or more), H = high ($32,930 to $51530), L = low ($21,590 to $32,830, and VL very low (under $21,590).
47 People don t know what they want They only want what they know
49 Volunteering as a Recreation Activity Not merely a means to an end
50 Volunteering as a Recreation Activity Not merely a means to an end Many people work for money, and they volunteer for a sense of worth and value
51 Volunteering as a Recreation Activity Not merely a means to an end Many people work for money, and they volunteer for a sense of worth and value What is in it for me?
52 What Benefits Do People Seek Beyond Altruism? Social interaction, affiliation, belonging
53 What Benefits Do People Seek Beyond Altruism? Social interaction, affiliation, belonging Status, prestige, responsibility, leadership
54 What Benefits Do People Seek Beyond Altruism? Social interaction, affiliation, belonging Status, prestige, responsibility, leadership Personal growth, achievement, accomplishment
55 What Benefits Do People Seek Beyond Altruism? Social interaction, affiliation, belonging Status, prestige, responsibility, leadership Personal growth, achievement, accomplishment Enhance self-image
56 Using Target Marketing To Fill Downtime Stage 1. Identify a downtime
57 Using Target Marketing To Fill Downtime Stage 1. Identify a downtime 2. Who is uniquely available at the time?
58 Using Target Marketing To Fill Downtime Stage 1. Identify a downtime 2. Who is uniquely available at the time? 3. What benefits do they seek?
59 Using Target Marketing To Fill Downtime Stage 1. Identify a downtime 2. Who is uniquely available at the time? 3. What benefits do they seek? 4. Which activities can offer those benefits? (They must be doable in the facility)
60 Using Target Marketing To Fill Downtime Stage 1. Identify a downtime 2. Who is uniquely available at the time? 3. What benefits do they seek? 4. Which activities can offer those benefits? (They must be doable in the facility) 5. How can we effectively communicate with the target market?
61 Using Target Marketing To Fill Downtime Stage 1. Identify a downtime 2. Who is uniquely available at the time? 3. What benefits do they seek? 4. Which activities can offer those benefits? (They must be doable in the facility) 5. How can we effectively communicate with the target market? 6. What price should be charged?
64 Implications of the Range of Benefits Continuum
65 Incongruency Associated with the User Benefits Paradigm
66 User satisfaction is an inadequate measure of the success of park and recreation agencies. Most taxpayers are not users of most of our services, so why should they support them? Need wider base of support.
67 User satisfaction is an inadequate measure of the success of park and recreation agencies. Most taxpayers are not users of most of our services, so why should they support them? Need wider base of support. It is off-site benefits that count highest, not on-site benefits.
70 What is this?
71 The Transformational Lens It is Social recognition Excitement Ego-satisfaction of _achievement Security of _belonging to a _group Social interaction
72 What is this?
73 The Transformational Lens It is: Social recognition Excitement Ego-satisfaction of _achievement Security of _belonging to a _group Social interaction But more importantly it is: Reduced health care costs Alleviate juvenile crime Community cohesion Economic development
75 Present Position Recreation and park provision is perceived to be a relatively discretionary, non-essential government service. It is nice to have if it can be afforded.
76 Reposition Position recreation and park services so that they are perceived to be a central contribution to alleviating the major problems in a community identified by tax payers and decision makers.
77 In the communities where there are playgrounds, where healthful sports are encouraged, the morality of boys is high. Not a boy was taken into the juvenile court this year from the neighborhood where there is a playground. Finds Investment in Youth Pays the Community Well, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Daily Herald, February 6, 1925
78 Benefits Related to Alleviating Social Problems Reducing environmental stress Community regeneration Cultural and historical preservation Facilitating healthy lifestyles Alleviating deviant behavior among youth Raising levels of educational attainment Alleviating unemployment distress
80 The big idea associated with repositioning is that funds are invested in solutions to a community s most pressing problems. The term investing suggests a positive, forward-looking agenda with a return on the investments. Elected officials usually have no mandate to fund programs; their mandate is to invest resources into solutions.
81 Positioning Implications Positioning is a relative rather than an absolute concept
83 Positioning Implications Positioning is a relative rather than an absolute concept Legislators political platforms represent residents concerns
84 Positioning Implications Positioning is a relative rather than an absolute concept Legislators political platforms represent residents concerns The challenge is not financial, it is political
85 Positioning Implications Positioning is a relative rather than an absolute concept Legislators political platforms represent residents concerns The challenge is not financial, it is political Some services will be discretionary Strategic importance
How serious are these issues to Boulder residents? Extremely serious Very serious Somewhat serious Not a problem DK/NA Hight health care costs Lack of affordable housing Income inequality Drug and alcohol
How serious are these issues to Jefferson County residents? Extremely serious Very serious Somewhat serious Not a problem DK/NA High health care costs Too much government spending Lack of affordable housing
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