CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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1 PSYC 2301 CORE LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND KEY TERMS Wood, Wood, & Boyd Mastering the World of Psychology 6E (For Appendix go to page 9 in this handbook.) CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Learning Objectives Key Terms Revel Module Print Pages 1. Define psychology. Psychology Chapter 1 introduction 1 2. Define the scientific method and explain how it is Scientific method Is Psychology a 3 used in psychology. 3. Describe the major schools of thought and theoretical perspectives in psychology. 4. Define positive psychology and explain how it differs from other perspectives. 5. Define and explain the differences between the various descriptive research methods. 6. Define representative sample and explain why it is important. 7. Describe the experimental method, state its advantages and disadvantages, and distinguish between independent and dependent variables. 8. Explain the rationale behind placebo-control experiments. 9. Outline the ethical standards that psychological researchers must follow. Behaviorism Psychoanalysis Humanistic psychology Cognitive psychology Evolutionary psychology Biological psychology Sociocultural approach Positive psychology Naturalistic observation Laboratory observations Case study Survey Correlation Correlation coefficient Population Sample Representative sample Experimental method Causal hypothesis Independent variable Dependent variable Experimental group Control group Random assignment Placebo effect Placebo Experimenter bias Double-blind procedure Science? Contemporary Psychological Perspectives The Expression of Emotion Observational and Case Studies Survey Research 16 Appendix The Experimental Method Limitations of the experimental method. ( Interactive Limitations of the Experimental Method. ) Protecting Human Participants and Animals Rights Appendix CHAPTER 2: BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR 1. Describe various methods for studying the brain and its functions. Electroencephalogram (EEG) CT scan (computerized axial tomography) MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) The EEG and the Microelectrode Imaging Techniques 1

2 PET scan (positron emission tomography) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) 2. Identify the basic components of the neuron. Neuron Cell body Dendrites Axon 3. Identify the basic components of the synapse. Synaptic gap Synapse Presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic neuron 4. Define the action potential and explain the processes Resting potential that occur when a neuron is activated. 5. Identify the major neurotransmitters and explain how neurotransmitters affect behavior. 6. Explain the difference between the central and the peripheral nervous systems. Action potential Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin Endorphins Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system The Structure of the Neuron Communication between Neurons Communication between 37 neurons Neurotransmitters The Human Nervous System (Introductory paragraph) Explain the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. 8. Identify the medulla, pons and cerebellum, and describe their functions. Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Brain stem Medulla Pons Cerebellum The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System 9. List the processes regulated by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus The Central Nervous System 10. Describe the limbic system, and list the responses and Limbic system The Central Nervous behaviors affected by it. Amygdala System 11. Describe the components of the cerebrum and their functions. Hippocampus Cerebrum Cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum Cerebral cortex 12. Explain the functions of the frontal lobes. Association areas Frontal lobes Motor cortex Broca s area Broca s aphasia 2.4 A Closer Look at the Thinking Part of the Brain (Introductory paragraph) Components of the cerebrum Components of the Cerebrum 13. Explain plasticity. Plasticity The Ever-Changing Brain 14. Define the endocrine system and explain the influence of the pituitary and adrenal glands on behavior. Endocrine system Hormones Pituitary gland Adrenal glands 2.6 Beyond the Nervous System (Introductory paragraph) The Endocrine System 15. Define behavior genetics. Behavior genetics Genes and Behavior Genetics

3 CHAPTER 3: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1. Describe the function of the mirror neuron system Mirror neuron system Social Perception 92 (MNS). (MNS) CHAPTER 4: CONSCIOUSNESS 1. Describe the physical and psychological effects of Meditation Meditation 116 meditation CHAPTER 5: LEARNING 1. Define and identify examples of learning. Learning Chapter introduction Explain the process through which classical conditioning modifies an organism s responses to stimuli Summarize the contributions of Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner to the study of learning. 4. Explain the process through which operant conditioning modifies an organism s responses to stimuli. 5. Define shaping. Shaping Successive 6. Explain the difference between positive and negative reinforcement. Classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR) Neutral stimulus Extinction (in classical conditioning) Spontaneous recovery (Stimulus) generalization (Stimulus) discrimination Operant conditioning Reinforcer Extinction (in operant conditioning) Generalization Discriminative stimulus Reinforcement Primary reinforcer Secondary reinforcer approximations Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement 5.1 Classical Conditioning (Introductory paragraph) Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning Changing Conditioned Responses Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning John Watson and Emotional Conditioning Reinforcement Reinforcement Shaping, Generalization, and Discriminative Stimuli Shaping, Generalization, and Discriminative Stimuli Reinforcement Table Table 5.1 3

4 7. Define punishment and summarize the factors that influence its effectiveness. 8. Explain the applications of operant conditioning theory. Positive punishment Negative punishment Behavior modification Token economy Biofeedback Punishment Table Applications of Operant Conditioning 9. Define observational learning. Observational learning Observational Learning Table CHAPTER 6: MEMORY 1. Explain the information-processing approach to Information processing What Is Memory? 162 memory. approach Encoding Storage Retrieval 2. Describe the function and characteristics of short-term Short-term memory Short-Term Memory memory. Working memory 3. Describe the characteristics of long-term memory. Long-term memory Episodic memory Semantic memory Declarative memory (explicit memory) Nondeclarative memory (implicit memory) Long-Term Memory Describe several techniques for improving memory. Elaborative rehearsal Mnemonics Organization Overlearning Massed practice Spaced (distributed) practice Self-references Visual imaginary 5. Explain the differences between recall, free recall, cued recall, and recognition measures of memory. Recall Free recall Cued recall (retrieval cue) Recognition Apply It: Improving Memory 168 Appendix Measuring Retrieval Explain the roles of schemas in memory. Schema The Process of 172 Reconstruction 7. Explain the reasons for forgetting. Encoding failure Decay theory Interference Motivated forgetting Retrieval failure Displacement Why Do We Forget? Describe the process of reconstructive memory and how it affects the accuracy of eyewitness memories. 9. Describe the symptoms, proposed causes of, and preventive measures for Alzheimer s disease. Alzheimer s disease Dementia Eyewitness Memory Memory Loss 184 4

5 CHAPTER 7: COGNITION, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE Learning Objectives Key Terms Pages None None CHAPTER 8: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1. Describe the process of cognitive development Schemes Piaget s Theory of according to Piaget. Assimilation Cognitive Development 2. Summarize the characteristics of Piaget s four stages of cognitive development. 3. Explain Kohlberg s levels and stages of moral development. 4. Summarize the characteristics of Erikson s eight stages of psychosocial development. 5. Explain the differences between crosssectional and longitudinal research designs. 6. List the characteristics of the three stages of prenatal development. 7. Explain the effects of teratogens and other negative factors on prenatal development. 8. Describe the relationship between contact comfort and attachment. 9. Explain the differences between the secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized patterns of attachment. 10. Explain the effects of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles on children s development. Accommodation Sensorimotor stage Object permanence Preoperational stage Egocentrism Concrete operations stage Conservation Formal operations stage Preconventional level and stages Conventional level and stages Postconventional level and stages Trust/mistrust Autonomy/shame & doubt Initiative/guilt Industry/inferiority Identity/role confusion Intimacy/isolation Generativity/stagnation Ego integrity/despair Cross-sectional design Longitudinal design Zygote Period of the zygote (germinal stage) Period of the embryo Period of the fetus Teratogen Fetal alcohol syndrome Attachment Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety Secure attachment Avoidant attachment Resistant attachment Disorganized/disoriented attachment Authoritarian parents Authoritative parents Permissive parents Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development Interactive: Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development Summarize It: Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Development Summarize It: Kohlberg s Levels and Stages of Moral Development Erikson s Theory of Psychosocial Development Interactive: Erikson s Psychosocial Stages 8.1Theories of Development (Chapter introduction) Figure From Conception to Birth Table 8.1 Interactive: Figure Summarize It: Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development 238 Summarize It: Kohlberg s Levels and Stages of Moral Development Appendix Figure Appendix From Conception to Birth Attachment Attachment Interactive: Patterns of Attachment 246 Appendix Socialization

6 11. Describe the distinctions among the terms sex, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. 12. Outline the proposed causes of sexual orientation and gender identity. 13. Explain the differences among the cognitivedevelopmental, social-cognitive, and gender schema theory explanations of gender role development. Sex Gender Gender identity Sexual orientation Gender constancy Gender schema Sexual Orientation Appendix Sexual Orientation Gender Role Development Interactive: Theories of Gender Role Development Appendix 8 CHAPTER 9: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 1. Explain Maslow s hierarchy of needs Hierarchy of needs Maslow s Hierarchy 275 of Needs 2. Outline the proposed causes of sexual orientation and Sexual Orientation gender identity. 3. Describe the distinctions among the terms sex, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. Sex Gender Gender identity Sexual orientation Sexual Orientation Appendix 7 CHAPTER 10: HEALTH AND STRESS 1. Explain the difference between stress and stressors. Stress Stressors 10.1 Sources of Stress (Introductory paragraph) Explain the purpose and structure of the Social Social Readjustment The Life Events 304 Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS.) Rating Scale (SRRS) Approach 2. Describe the features of post-traumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress The Life Events (PTSD). disorder Approach 3. Describe the impact of daily hassles on stress and Hassles Everyday Stressors 306 health. 4. Describe the effects of stress on the immune system. Biopsychosocial model Health psychology Psychoneuroimmunology The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness The Physiology of the Health-Stress Describe the stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). 6. Explain the differences between problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. 7. List the factors that influence individual capacity for resisting the effects of stress. General Adaptation syndrome (GAS) Alarm stage Resistance stage Exhaustion stage Problem-focused coping Emotion-focused coping Resilience (risk/resilience model) Hardiness Social support Connection Theories of Stress Response Risk and Resilience Interactive: Resilience in the Face of Stress Risk and Resilience Summarize It: Factors that Promote Resilience Appendix Appendix 10 6

7 CHAPTER 11: PERSONALITY THEORY AND ASSESSMENT Learning Objective Key Terms Revel Module Pages 1. Define personality. Personality Chapter introduction Describe the processes that take place in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. Conscious Preconscious Freud s Theory of Personality Define and identify the functions of the id, ego, and superego. 4. Explain the purpose of defense mechanisms in Freud s theory. 5. Summarize the basic assumptions associated with Freud s psychosexual stages. Unconscious Id Ego Superego Defense mechanism Repression Projection Denial Regression Reaction formation Displacement Psychosexual stages 6. Explain the views of humanistic theorists regarding Humanistic psychology personality. 7. Explain the views of Abraham Maslow on selfactualization and its role in personality functioning. Self-actualization 8. Explain the Big Five personality traits. Traits Big Five (five-factor model) 9. Explain Bandura s social-cognitive view of Social cognitive theory personality. Reciprocal determinism Self-efficacy 10. Describe the evidence for and against the view that personality is inherited. 11. Explain the differences between objective (self-report inventory) and projective personality test. Self-report inventory Projective test Freud s Theory of Personality Freud s Theory of Personality Interactive: Table The Psychosexual Stages of Development Interactive: Summarize It 11.2 Humanistic Theories (Chapter introduction) Two Humanistic Theories 11.3 Trait Theories (Chapter introduction) The Five-Factor Model 11.4 Social-Cognitive Theories (Chapter introduction) The Situation-Trait Debate Nature, Nurture, and Personality Traits Personality Inventories Projective Tests Appendix Appendix CHAPTER 12: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 1. List the criteria for abnormal behavior. Maladaptive/dysfunctional behaviors Deviation from social/cultural norms Personal distress What Is Abnormal Behavior? Describe the purpose, organization, and content of the DSM Define and describe the group of disorders called anxiety disorders. 4. Describe the features of obsessive-compulsive disorders. DSM-5 Agoraphobia Panic disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Social anxiety disorder Specific phobias Obsessive-compulsive disorders Classifying and Tracking Psychological Disorders Panic Attacks, Agoraphobia, and Panic Disorder Other Anxiety Disorders Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder

8 5. Describe the features of major depression. Major depressive disorder Major Depressive Disorder Explaining Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Interactive: Risk Factors for Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 6. Summarize the features of bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder Mania (manic episode) Bipolar Disorders Explaining Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Interactive: Risk Factors for Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 7. Summarize the risk factors for suicide Suicide, Race, Gender, and Age 8. Describe the features of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia 12.4 Schizophrenia (Introductory paragraph) The Symptoms of Schizophrenia 9. List the possible causes of schizophrenia Explaining Schizophrenia 10. Describe the characteristics of dissociative identity Dissociative identity Dissociative disorder. disorder (DID) Disorders 11. Summarize the features of the personality disorders. Personality disorders Paranoid personality Narcissistic personality Borderline personality Antisocial personality Personality Disorders Table Appendix Appendix Table 12.3 CHAPTER 13: THERAPIES 2. Explain the difference between a psychologist and a Psychologist Choosing a Therapist 416 psychiatrist. Psychiatrist 3. Summarize the various approaches to therapy. Psychoanalysis Person-centered (clientcentered) therapy Behavior therapy Cognitive therapy Biomedical therapy Evaluating the Therapies Summarize It Explain the difference between cognitive and behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy 13.4 Cognitive Behavior Theories (Introductory paragraph) 407 CHAPTER 14: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Learning Objectives Key Terms Pages None None 8

9 APPENDIX 1: Positive Psychology Championed by Martin Seligman. Says that psychology should help people maintain positive emotional states and control their emotions. Promotes optimism, counting your blessings, and keeping busy. Positive psychologists study the impact of positive emotional states on other aspects of functioning. APPENDIX 2: Placebo, Placebo Effect, Experimenter Bias Placebo False treatment given to control group subjects to control for participants expectations Placebo effect Occurs when a participant s response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself. Experimenter bias Happens when researchers preconceived notions or expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy and cause the researchers to find what they expect to find. This can happen through the unconscious tone of voice, expressions, and expectations conveyed to participants, or through a misinterpretation of the data. To control for this, research should use the double-blind technique: neither the participants nor the researchers know who is in the control group and who is in the tested treatment group. APPENDIX 3: Methods of Improving Memory Mnemonics Definition o A verbal tool such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations that assists in remembering something Examples o Rhymes such as When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking. o Method of loci: memory aid that can help you recall lists of items by associating each item with a location. For example, you might recite the definition of the key term plasticity while imagining you are in your bedroom. To recall the definition while taking an exam, you think of your bedroom. o Acronyms: memory aid that uses the first letter of each item you need to remember to form a word or phrase. For example, HOMES is an acronym that can help you remember the names of the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior). Study Strategies Mnemonics are usually not helpful for remembering complex memory tasks such as remembering textbook information for a test. Here are some useful strategies. Organization: using classification strategies to store information in memory such as o Alphabetical order o Historical sequence o Associating concepts, terms, events, etc., with major figures; for example, associating the term psychoanalysis with Freud and behaviorism with Watson Overlearning: a highly effective study strategy that involves continuing to rehearse information after you can easily recall it Spaced practice: short study sessions; the opposite is massed practice or continuous study for a long period of time o Spaced practice is more effective than massed practice which often leads to fatigue, a state that undermines memory. 9

10 Recitation: stating recalled information aloud o This strategy is most effective in a spaced practiced format in which you study a brief amount of material and then attempt to recite it. You then check the accuracy of your recitation, make corrections, and move on to another brief chunk of material. APPENDIX 4: Erikson s Stages of Psychosocial Development Erikson s Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson: a neo-freudian. Proposed the only theory of development to include the entire life span. Eight psychosocial stages, strongly linked to age. Each stage is defined by a conflict involving the individual s relationship with the social environment, which must be resolved satisfactorily for healthy development to occur. Trust vs. mistrust Also called basic trust vs. basic mistrust Infants develop a level of trust based on the degree and regularity of care, love, and affection they receive from the primary caregiver. Autonomy vs. shame Children age 1 to 3 begin to develop their independence and develop physical and mental abilities. Initiative vs. guilt Children 3 to 6 years old begin to develop initiative beyond just expressing their autonomy. Industry vs. inferiority Children age 6 to puberty begin to enjoy and take pride in making things and doing things. Identity vs. role confusion Adolescents experience an identity crisis. Teens must develop an idea of how they will fit into the adult world. Intimacy vs. isolation Young adults around age 18 must find a life partner or come to a healthy acceptance of living in a single state. Generativity vs. stagnation At peak during middle age. Generativity is the desire to guide the next generation. If a person doesn t interact with the next generation, they become stagnant. Ego integrity vs. despair Goal of this stage in later life is an acceptance of one s life in preparation for facing death. Lack of selfacceptance leads to despair. APPENDIX 5: Stages of Prenatal Development Period of the zygote Period of the embryo Period of the fetus 1 to 2 weeks Zygote attaches to the uterine lining. At 2 weeks, zygote is the size of the period at the end of this sentence. 3 to 8 weeks Major systems, organs, and structures of the body develop. Period ends when first bone cells appear. At 8 weeks, embryo is about 1 inch long and weighs 1/7 of an ounce. 9 weeks to birth Rapid growth and further development of the body structures, organs, (38 weeks) and systems. APPENDIX 6: Attachment Categories Secure attachment o 65% of American infants o Infant is distressed at separation, happy at reunion 10

11 o Infant uses caregiver as safe base for exploring the world o Protects infants from adverse influences such as poverty Avoidant attachment o 20% of American infants o Infant is not distressed when caregiver leaves Resistant attachment o 10 to 15% of American infants o Prefer close contact with caregiver but display anger when caregiver returns after separation o Hard to comfort Disorganized/disoriented attachment o 5 to 10% of American infants o Most puzzling, least secure attachment o Infants look away from or ignore caregiver APPENDIX 7: Sex, Gender, Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation sex o physiological, chromosomal status of being male or female o often used by psychologists and others who study this aspect of human experience gender o psychological and social variables associated with sex gender identity o the psychological experience of feeling male or female o Most boys grow up with a masculine gender identity that helps them to be comfortable with the behaviors that their cultures regard as acceptable for males. Likewise, o Most girls develop a feminine gender identity that is consistent with behaviors in the cultures in which they are raised. sexual orientation o the direction of an individual s sexual attraction, erotic feelings, and sexual activity o In heterosexuals, the human sexual response is oriented toward members of the opposite sex. o In homosexuals, attraction is directed toward those of the same sex; and o In bisexuals, attraction is directed toward members of both sexes. APPENDIX 8: Theories of Gender Role Development Biological view o Says that genes and prenatal sex hormones have an important influence on gender role development o Collaer and Hines (1995) found that these hormones have a reasonably strong influence on children s play behavior. o Prenatal androgens are also known to affect brain development and functioning in humans. Social learning theory o Says that environmental influences are more important than biological forces in explaining gender role development. o Children are usually reinforced for imitating behaviors considered appropriate for their gender. o Imitation and reinforcement probably play some part in gender role development, but they do not provide a full explanation of this phenomenon. Cognitive developmental theory o Says that an understanding of gender is a prerequisite to gender role development. o Proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg. o Says that children go through a series of stages in acquiring the concept of gender. 2 and 3: children acquire gender identity their sense of being a male or a female. 4 and 5: children acquire the concept of gender stability awareness that boys are boys and girls are girls for a lifetime. 11

12 6 and 8: children understand gender constancy that gender does not change regardless of the activities people engage in or the clothes they wear. o This theory fails to explain why many gender-appropriate behaviors and preferences are observed in children as young as age 2 or 3, long before gender constancy is acquired. Gender-schema theory o Proposed by Sandra Bem. o Says that young children are motivated to behave in a way consistent with gender-based standards and stereotypes of the culture and that children begin to use gender as a way to organize and process information. o But gender-schema theory holds that this process occurs earlier, when gender identity rather than gender constancy is attained. APPENDIX 9: Emotion-Focused and Problem-Focused Coping Coping o A person s efforts through action and thought to deal with demands perceived as taxing or overwhelming. Problem-focused coping o Reducing, modifying, or eliminating the source of stress itself. o For example, if you are getting a poor grade in history and appraise this as a threat, you may study harder, talk over your problem with your professor, form a study group with other class members, get a tutor, or drop the course. Emotion-focused coping o Reappraising a stressor to reduce its emotional impact. Research has shown that emotion-focused coping can be a very effective way of managing stress. o For example, if you lose your job, you may decide that it isn t a major tragedy and instead view it as a challenge, an opportunity to find a better job with a higher salary. APPENDIX 10: Factors that Promote Resilience Coping o Problem-focused coping is accomplished by minimizing or eliminating a stressor. o Emotion-focused coping is accomplished by managing emotional responses to a stressor. o Proactive coping is accomplished by taking actions that minimize or eliminate a future stressor. Optimism o Expecting positive, desirable outcomes o Hardiness o Belief that people have some degree of control over what happens to them o Belief that stressors are opportunities for developing the ability to deal with challenges o Commitment to occupational and personal pursuits and personal growth Religious faith o Involvement in a community o Development of habits the lead to positive health outcomes o Management of emotions Social support o Physical and emotional support and encouragement from family and others o Includes both perceived and actual support Perceived control o View that one has the ability to control and cope with stressors 12

13 APPENDIX 11: Defense Mechanisms Repression Projection Denial Rationalization Regression Reaction formation Displacement Sublimation Involuntarily forgetting an unpleasant memory or idea ing one s own faults and disturbing behaviors in others Refusing to allow disturbing thoughts or information from entering one's consciousness Attributing an undesirable outcome to a socially acceptable reason beyond one s control rather than to personal failure Exhibiting anxiety-reducing behaviors characteristic of an earlier age Responding to one s own undesirable feelings and thoughts by exhibiting exaggerated reactions to displays of such feelings and thoughts exhibited by others Exhibiting hostility toward an object or person who is less capable of fighting back than the actual target of one's hostility Directing socially unacceptable and/or undesirable feelings and thoughts into socially acceptable outlets Luther forgets that he was sexually assaulted by a neighbor at the age of seven. A man who is secretly obsessed with pornography complains to friends about how over-sexed society is. Margaret delays getting treatment for cancer because she refuses to believe that her diagnosis is accurate. Lucy believes that she lost her job because the boss didn t like her. Twenty-year-old Leo throws temper tantrums every time his friends refuse to go along with his suggestions for recreational activities such as movies and games. Bruno has racist beliefs but always quickly and loudly condemns others remarks and behavior that he deems to be motivated by racism. Bob kicks his dog after an argument with his partner that left him feeling hostile. Will has a difficult boss. Whenever he feels frustrated and angry about his work situation, he heads to the park and joins an intense game of pick-up basketball. APPENDIX 12: Freud s Psychosexual Stages Oral (birth to 1 year) Mouth Weaning Oral gratification from sucking, eating, biting Anal (1 to 3 years) Anus Toilet training Gratification from expelling and Phallic (3 to 5 or 6 years) Latency (5 or 6 years to puberty) Genital (from puberty on) Genitals None Genitals withholding feces Oedipal conflict Sexual curiosity Masturbation Period of sexual calm Interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends Revival of sexual interests Establishment of Optimism, gullibility, dependency, pessimism, passivity, hostility, sarcasm, aggression Excessive cleanliness, orderliness, stinginess, messiness, rebelliousness, destructiveness Flirtatiousness, vanity, promiscuity, pride, chastity None Sexual dysfunctions 13

14 mature sexual relationships APPENDIX 13: Risk Factors for Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Heredity o 50% of identical twins of people with bipolar disorders have depressive or bipolar disorder Abnormal patterns of brain activity Reduced amounts of tissue in the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that helps control emotions Abnormal amounts of serotonin The personality trait of neuroticism Neurotransmitter dysfunctions o Serotonin o Dopamine o GABA o Norepinephrine Stress o Most first episodes of depression occur after a major life stressor. o Negative life events contribute to depression according to longitudinal research. Culture o Expectations that one is supposed to be happy at all times Gender o Females are more likely to be depressed than males 14

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