Piaget A Cognitive Approach

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1 Piaget A Cognitive Approach 0

2 A COGNITIVE APPROACH: PIAGET Cognitive Theorists Are concerned with how we obtain, process, and use information. (Intellectual development) 1

3 A COGNITIVE APPROACH: PIAGET Four major stages, each marked by strikingly different perceptions of the world and by different adaptations to it. Each stage is the product of learning that occurred in earlier stages, and each is a preparation for the next stage. 2

4 A COGNITIVE APPROACH: PIAGET Development is a continuous process of successful changes Development does not consist of abrupt, clearly recognizable changes like steps on a stairway; it s more like a gradual incline Readiness State 3

5 Chapter 4 Psychoanalytic Therapy 4

6 The Development of Personality ORAL STAGE First year Related to later mistrust and rejection issues ANAL STAGE Ages 1-3 Related to later personal power issues PHALLIC STAGE Ages 3-6 Related to later sexual attitudes LATENCY STAGE Ages 6-12 A time of socialization GENITAL STAGE Ages Sexual energies are invested in life Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (1) 5

7 The Structure of Personality THE ID The Demanding Child Ruled by the pleasure principle THE EGO The Traffic Cop Ruled by the reality principle THE SUPEREGO The Judge Ruled by the moral principle Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (2) 6

8 The Unconscious Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious: Dreams Slips of the tongue Posthypnotic suggestions Material derived from free-association Material derived from projective techniques Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (3) 7

9 Ego-Defense Mechanisms Ego-defense mechanisms: Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (4) 8

10 Psychoanalytic Techniques Free Association Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts Interpretation Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed Dream Analysis Therapist uses the royal road to the unconscious to bring unconscious material to light Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (5) 9

11 Transference and Countertransference Transference The client reacts to the therapist as he did to an earlier significant other This allows the client to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible ANALYSIS OF TRANSFERENCE allows the client to achieve insight into the influence of the past Countertransference The reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (6) 10

12 Resistance Resistance Anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the production of unconscious material Analysis of Resistance Helps the client to see that canceling appointments, fleeing from therapy prematurely, etc., are ways of defending against anxiety These acts interfere with the ability to accept changes which could lead to a more satisfying life Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (7) 11

13 Psychoanalysis Video 12

14 Chapter 5 Adlerian Therapy 13

15 Alfred Adler s Individual Psychology A phenomenological approach Social interest is stressed Birth order and sibling relationships Therapy as teaching, informing and encouraging Basic mistakes in the client s private logic The therapeutic relationship a collaborative partnership Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 5 (1) 14

16 The Phenomenological Approach Adlerians attempt to view the world from the client s subjective frame of reference How life is in reality is less important than how the individual believes life to be It is not the childhood experiences that are crucial it is our present interpretation of these events Unconscious instincts and our past do not determine our behavior Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 5 (2) 15

17 Social Interest Adler s most significant and distinctive concept Refers to an individual s attitude toward and awareness of being a part of the human community Mental health is measured by the degree to which we successfully share with others and are concerned with their welfare Happiness and success are largely related to social connectedness Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 5 (3) 16

18 Birth Order Adler s five psychological positions: 1) Oldest child receives more attention, spoiled, center of attention 2) Second of only two behaves as if in a race, often opposite to first child 3) Middle often feels squeezed out 4) Youngest the baby 5) Only does not learn to share or cooperate with other children, learns to deal with adults Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 5 (4) 17

19 Encouragement Encouragement is the most powerful method available for changing a person s beliefs Helps build self-confidence and stimulates courage Discouragement is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning Clients are encouraged to recognize that they have the power to choose and to act differently Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 5 (5) 18

20 Adlerian Therapy Video Jungian Analysis Video 19

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