Should Coaches Believe in Innate Ability? The Importance of Leadership Mindset

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Should Coaches Believe in Innate Ability? The Importance of Leadership Mindset"

Transcription

1 Quest, 2010, 62, National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education Should Coaches Believe in Innate Ability? The Importance of Leadership Mindset Melissa A. Chase The purpose of this article is to examine how individuals personal beliefs about the antecedents of leadership ability influence their leadership behavior and ultimate effectiveness. The relevant literature is reviewed to highlight current thinking in relation to the debate over whether leadership is innate or learned. A leadership mindset that differentiates between a fixed or a growth mindset (Dweck, 2006) is presented. A person with a fixed mindset would view leadership as an innate quality, or believe that people are born leaders. A person with a growth mindset would believe that leadership abilities can be learned and acquired through effort and experience. The leadership mindset is a critical component related to effectiveness and success as a leader. Coaching education and leadership training programs should consider focusing on helping coaches and leaders develop a growth mindset about their leadership abilities, and suggestions are offered for ways to incorporate the study of and emphasis on a growth leadership mindset in sport. Leaders are made, they are not born. They are made by hard effort, which is the price which all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile (Lombardi, 2009). This statement by Vince Lombardi, legendary football coach for the Green Bay Packers, sparks an interesting debate among coaches and scholars. Is it possible for anyone to be a great coach or leader if he or she works hard enough? Are there some qualities that effective coaches and leaders possess that are truly innate and unachievable through hard work? A plethora of conceptual approaches have been developed to provide frameworks for the study of leadership, yet answers to these most basic questions remain elusive and a major point of disagreement between scholars and practitioners. The purpose of this article is not to attempt to answer the question of whether leadership is innate or learned. The relevant literature is reviewed to highlight current thinking regarding the innate versus learned leadership debate, but this review is provided as background to what seems to be a more important question. The key question is: How do individuals personal beliefs about the antecedents of leadership ability (i.e., whether it is innate or learned) influence their leadership behavior and ultimate effectiveness? This may be named a leadership mindset, using the term coined by Carol Dweck (2006) that differentiates between what she calls fixed and growth mindsets. A person with a fixed mindset would view leadership an innate quality, and believe that people are born leaders. A person with a growth mindset Chase is the Associate Dean for Undergraduate Affairs, School of Education, Health, and Society, Miami University, Oxford, OH. 296

2 Leadership Mindset 297 would believe that leadership abilities could be learned and acquired through effort and experience. The basic premise of this article is that the internal mindset of individuals about leadership ability, or their leadership mindset, is a critical component related to their effectiveness and success as a leader. Coaching education and leadership training programs should consider focusing on helping coaches and leaders develop a growth mindset about their leadership abilities, as opposed to attempting to identify the elusive formula for how to be a great leader. In the following sections, the leadership literature is examined, and suggestions are offered for ways to incorporate the study of and emphasis on a growth leadership mindset in sport. How Definitions of Leadership May Influence Leadership Mindset The key word in defining leadership seems to be influence. The first often cited definition was Barrow s (1977) explanation of leadership as the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals. Contemporary reviews of leadership continue to use the key verb influence to describe leadership. In his 1995 book Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership, Howard Gardner defined leadership as individuals who can significantly influence the thoughts, behaviors, and feelings of other people. In writing to coaches, Vealey (2005) defined leadership as the behavioral, psychological, and social process of influencing individuals to move toward the achievement of specific objectives. Perhaps an emphasis on the word influence as the key verb describing leadership makes it seem like some mystical, internal charisma that is needed to compel others into action or to behave in a certain way. This is especially emphasized when lauding transformative leadership, or the ability to inspire individuals to transform themselves and their world (Vealey, 2005). Coaches, and others in leadership positions, have been urged to move beyond mere managerial or transactional leadership of managing their day-to-day responsibilities effectively (e.g., planning practice, organizing a schedule, handling a budget, communicating with players) to become more transformative leaders who can inspire individuals to achieve a vision and transform themselves in significant ways (Vealey, 2005; Weinberg & Gould, 2007). A young aspiring coach may read such ideas and wonder if she has the innate stuff to be a transformative leader and coach. This is not to say that transformative leadership is a problematic term or that it is difficult to achieve without certain key innate qualities related to charisma and persuasion. In fact, the psychological, education, and business literature is bursting with practical articles and ideas about how to become more transformative, or positively influential, in leading others. In the sport psychology literature, this involves enabling others to focus on collective goals or accomplishment (Murray & Mann, 2006), or providing guidance for coaches to develop specific skills (vision, relationship, control/decision-making, reinforcement, and information) required of transformative leaders (Vealey, 2005). Chelladurai (2007) explains key skills that coaches or mentors can develop to practice transformative leadership within the pursuit of excellence in sport, including creating a vision, engaging in inspiring communication, individualizing communication, and knowing when to be demanding and directive.

3 298 Chase Other definitions and examples of leadership in the business literature illustrate the importance of a growth mindset. In Jim Collins book Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don t, he defined Level 5 executives as those individuals who rated higher on the leadership hierarchy than Level 4 effective leaders. Level 5 executives lead with ferocious resolve, have professional will, and lead with personal humility (Collins, 2001). Level 5 executives influence others to work for the good of company without the need to receive all the glory themselves. Collins contends that businesses do not need to hire a larger-than-life egocentric leader (e.g., someone with supernatural innate talents, focused on his/ her success) to be great. Level 5 executives have a growth mindset. For example, Darwin Smith, CEO of Kimberly-Clark (and a Good to Great leader according to Collins) stated, I never stopped trying to become qualified for the job. Collins states that most people have the potential to evolve to a Level 5 executive under the right circumstances that includes factors such as self-reflection, conscious personal development, and involvement with a mentor or teacher. Level 5 executives, who are similar to transformative leaders in their qualities and goals for success, can develop if they have a growth mindset. There is a well-established commercial industry offering books, videos, and multistep programs on developing effective, transformative leadership skills. Stephen Covey s two books (1989, 2004) identify key habits of highly effective people, and explain how each of us can learn and engage in habitual behaviors to enhance our personal success. Even Covey s dedication in his 2004 book emphasizes a growth mindset, by dedicating his 8th Habit book to the humble, courageous, great ones among us who exemplify how leadership is a choice, not a position. David Allen s acclaimed book Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress- Free Productivity (2001) and follow-up Making It All Work (2008) provide step by step instructions, worksheets, and systems to teach productive self-management and organizational skills. All of this popular literature clearly states that leaders continue to grow on the job. Leadership primers from successful coaches are also widely marketed and available for young coaches who wish to learn the lessons of leadership effectiveness. Examples include She Can Coach: Tools for Success from 20 Top Women Coaches (Reynaud, 2005), Leading With the Heart: Coach K s Successful Strategies for Basketball, Business, and Life (Krzyzewski, 2000), and Dr. Jack s Leadership Lessons Learned from a Lifetime in Basketball (Ramsey, 2004). Again, emphasizing the growth mindset critical for leadership effectiveness, the She Can Coach book is described as a resource in which highly successful women share how they have grown into their roles and learned to handle them with proficiency (p. viii). These resources move beyond simply autobiographical or biographical anecdotes and entertainment to consciously lay out strategies, processes, and behaviors those readers can choose to incorporate and innovate into their own lives. The success of this industry does not prove that leadership is learned, but certainly a lot of people who buy these products believe that it is. There is a key assumption on the part of readers who purchase popular leadership literature. They have a growth leadership mindset. For new coaches, the message becomes not about being born with the right stuff to be a great leader, but about being around the right mentors, the right coaching education programs, and putting forth the effort to learn to be a great leader. Adopting this growth mindset ensures that leadership

4 Leadership Mindset 299 is viewed as a skill that may be developed, and that leaders are made, not born, and most typically, they are self-made. Therefore, perhaps the most important focus in transformative leadership is people s abilities to influence or transform themselves through learning, effort, and persistence to internalize a useful and effective leadership skill-set. Approaches to Studying Leadership Several models or approaches to the study of leadership appear in the sport psychology literature. These models tend to focus on how leadership works, as opposed to how leadership develops. However, the ways in which leadership is studied or conceptualized may influence the leadership mindset that people adopt. Thus, a few of the conceptual approaches to the study of leadership are examined in this section, with an eye for how each approach may influence the leadership mindset. Great Person Approach. One of the first approaches to the study of leadership was to examine the personality traits or characteristics of successful leaders to learn about their commonalities. Termed the trait or great person approach, this view posited that individuals who are successful leaders should have similar personality characteristics, regardless of the situation in which they are asked to lead. Researchers searched for common characteristics and traits among successful leaders. After hundreds of studies, the trait approach was abandoned because a common set of leadership characteristics were not found (Chelladurai, 1990). Researchers concluded that there are no specific characteristics or personality traits that lead to effective leadership, also suggesting that ability to lead is not innate. Clearly, the great person approach was fueled by our cultural fascination with heroes who are distinguished from followers by having innate superior wisdom, strength, virtue, and/or attractiveness. Behavioral Approach. In juxtaposition to the great person approach, the behavioral approach to leadership suggested that effective leaders demonstrated the same effective behaviors, regardless of the situation. The key was to determine what behaviors are the most effective and then teach these behaviors to other leaders. One of the most cited studies in the coaching effectiveness research was Tharp and Gallimore s (1976) observational study of John Wooden, men s basketball coach at UCLA. Tharp and Gallimore recorded over 30 hr of Wooden s coaching behaviors to develop a list of 10 effective behaviors. Tharp and Gallimore s behavioral approach was replicated many times with different coaches and the findings indicated that specific behaviors that consistently predicted effective leadership were not found in different situations (Weinberg & Gould, 2007). These results led researchers to consider the context or situation, in addition to effective behaviors. There was no evidence that successful coaching behaviors were innate and not learned. Interactional Approach. The interactional approach to studying leadership examined personality traits, characteristics, and behaviors of the leader in the context of the situation. This approached argued that the interaction between both the personal factors and the situational factors needed to be considered. This approach also emphasized that coaching behaviors that are successful with one team in one sport may not transfer to be effective with another team in another

5 300 Chase sport because of the unique characteristics found in different situations. An interactional approach to leadership stresses that effective leadership behaviors must match the situation, and that there is not one type of leadership trait for every situation. In fact, many great leaders alter their behavior to fit the context of the situation. The interactional approach seems to suggest that effective leadership can be learned within the context of a situation. Two interactional approaches that have examined sport leadership include the multidimensional model of sport leadership (Chelladurai, 1990) and the mediational model of leadership (Smoll & Smith, 1989). Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership. Chelladurai s (1990) multidimensional model of sport leadership is a combination and extension of earlier leadership models I (e.g., Fiedler, 1967; House, 1971; Osborn & Hunt, 1975; Yukl, 1971). The multidimensional model approach to studying leadership has been shown to be effective in previous research (Horn, 2002). Specifically, the multidimensional model of sport leadership suggests that group performance, coachathlete compatibility, and member satisfaction are a result of the congruence among required, preferred, and actual leader behavior, which stem from characteristics of the situation, the leaders, and the members of the group. Leader and member characteristics can include age, experience, gender, personality, and ability. Situation characteristics can involve the goal of the organization/group, type of sport (team vs. individual), type of task (open vs. closed), or culture. A key to the multidimensional model of sport leadership is the agreement between the leader s required and actual behaviors and the group s preferred behavior. For example, the situation might require the leader to take on an autocratic leadership style and her behavior follows suit. The group members would prefer a democratic leadership style and so there is a lack of agreement. Performance and athlete satisfaction may tend to be lower in this situation. There was support for this model in the research although Chelladurai and colleagues did continue to refine the leadership model. The multidimensional model of sport leadership was slightly changed in 2001 to include the component of transformational leadership (Chelladurai, 2001). Transformational leadership consists of charisma, idealized influence, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration and is believed to influence situational characteristics and group characteristics. According to Chelladurai and similar to Vealey s (2005) work, transformational leaders introduce a new vision and spread inspiration and confidence to the group in their ability to accomplish the group s goals. It is interesting to note that according to Chelladurai (2001) and Bass (1985), not all effective leaders (e.g., those who manage) have charisma. Charisma might be considered more of an innate trait than a learned quality of effective leaders. Overall, the research associated with the multidimensional model of sport leadership has provided a solid foundation for the study of sport leadership (Riemer, 2007). Criticism of the model suggested a lack of comprehensive research that has examined correlational, rather than causal, links in the proposed model. Segments of the model have been tested, with only a limited number of situational, leader, and group member characteristics. The multidimensional model of sport leadership does provide support for an interactional approach to studying leadership in sport as findings indicate that situational factors and characteristics of the leader do interact (Horn, 2002). However, while there is evidence that this model success-

6 Leadership Mindset 301 fully explains leadership it has some limitations; the multidimensional model of sport leadership does not address perceptions about one s ability to lead and how abilities to lead originate. Mediational Model of Leadership. Smoll and Smith s (1989) mediational model of leadership examines the relationships among situational, cognitive, behavioral, and individual difference variables suggesting that effective leadership in youth sport coaches is a result of the coach behaviors, player perception and recall of those behaviors, and player s evaluative reactions. An athlete s attitude toward the coach and his sport experience are mediated by his perception and recall of the coaches behaviors. For example, if an athlete views a coaching behavior as positive and helpful, then the player may react in a positive and constructive manner. Factors that influence these relationships are the coach individual difference variables (e.g., goals, motives, gender, intentions), player individual difference variables (e.g., age, gender, anxiety, motives), and situational factors (e.g., level of competition, nature of sport, success record). Using the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS), Smith, Smoll, and Curtis (1979) (observed and assessed coaching behavior, developed training methods to improve coaching behavior, and measured the effects of players enjoyment and satisfaction. This significant line of research followed by a conceptually-based training program and evaluation of the training program s effectiveness clearly supports a growth leadership mindset. Overall, Smoll and Smith (1989) found that coaches own perceptions of their behavior did not correspond well with the actual observed behavior. Players perceptions of their coaches behaviors did not correspond well to the self-perceptions of their coaches. In addition, training programs can change coaching behaviors that in turn can enhance players enjoyment, satisfaction, and rating of their coaches. The mediational model adds to the evaluation of sport leadership, however, Smoll, Smith, and colleagues have called for additional research to examine the relationships among the factors (Anshel, 2003). Summary of Approaches to the Study of Leadership The various approaches to studying leadership in sport have progressed in sophistication in examining what is effective leadership. The great person approach suggested individuals who are successful leaders should have similar personality characteristics, regardless of the situation in which they lead. The behavioral approach to leadership suggested that effective leaders demonstrate the same effective behaviors, regardless of the situation. The interactional approach argued that the interaction between both the personal factors and the situational factors needed to be considered. The multidimensional model of sport leadership suggested that group performance, coach-athlete compatibility, and member satisfaction are a result of the congruence among required, preferred, and actual leader behavior. The mediational model of leadership suggested that effective leadership in youth sport coaches is a result of the coach behaviors, player perception and recall of those behaviors, and player s evaluative reactions. All of these approaches have been examined in the sport leadership literature. Nevertheless, researchers are not able to stipulate any single best leadership approach or say what behavior works

7 302 Chase for different situations and populations (Anshel, 2003). Because the answer to the question What qualities in what situation produce the most effective leaders? remains elusive, it seems that the question asked earlier is more significant. That question is the focus of this article. How do individuals personal beliefs about the antecedents of leadership ability (i.e., whether it is innate or learned) influence their leadership behavior and ultimate effectiveness? Why A Growth Leadership Mindset is Important The different approaches to studying leadership have all suggested that the ability to lead can be learned. There is some speculation that transformational leaders are different than traditional leaders or managers since transformative leaders possess unique traits, such as charisma or inspirational influence. According to Murray and Mann (2006), charisma is uniquely distinct to the leader and cannot be transferred to another leader. Nevertheless, this speculation has not led researchers to suggest that transformative leaders are born, not made. In this section, Dweck s (2006) research on mindset is reviewed and applied to leadership. Dweck s mindset conceptualization contends that leader s views of their abilities to lead (e.g., innate or learned) can greatly influence whether they are effective leaders. Dweck s research for the past twenty years has demonstrated that how people view their abilities profoundly affects the way they live their lives (Dweck, 2006). Her research examined how two mindsets (e.g., a fixed mindset or growth mindset) affect leadership, school achievement, friendships, athletic performance, and motivation. Specifically, if individuals believe that their abilities are fixed or unchangeable, they tend to believe they either have what it takes to succeed or they don t. A fixed mindset affects individual s effort because they believe that those who have ability don t have to work hard because things come easily to them. When they do encounter failure, they tend to give up or only seek out opportunities where there is no risk of failure. People with a growth mindset think just the opposite. They believe that their ability is changeable and that they can improve with effort. Failure is not threatening to them because that is a part of learning and working hard to accomplish something. A review of the literature has found clear and consistent findings that individuals with a growth mindset (as opposed to a fixed mindset) will have higher selfefficacy (Kanfer, 1990), persist longer and put forth more effort (Jourden, Bandura, & Banfield, 1991), perform better in physical activities (Lirgg, George, Chase, & Ferguson, 1996; Ommundsen, 2003), and make better management decisions (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Specifically, Wood and Bandura (1989) examined conception of ability and management decision-making. Using graduate students from business programs, the authors divided the students into two groups. One group was told that the task measured their basic, underlying abilities to manage and make decisions. The higher their capacity was, the better their performance. They were led to believe that they had an innate or fixed ability. The second group was told that the task measured their ability to improve upon their ability to manage and make decisions. The management skills were developed through practice and the task would provide them the opportunity to improve. This group was led to believe that they had an acquired ability. The students were then asked to run a simulated furniture company in which they had to place employees in the right jobs, and decide how to organize and

8 Leadership Mindset 303 motivate them. Following feedback on employee productivity, they were asked to make complex management decisions. The task was difficult and early attempts by the groups were marked as failures. Results compared the two groups and found that the group with the innate or fixed mindset did not do well or improve their decision-making over time. The group with the acquired ability kept improving over time. They used the feedback and changed their decision-making to increase their productivity. Of the two groups, the one with the acquired perception of ability or growth mindset had higher self-efficacy and better performance. This research suggests that a growth mindset for leadership may lead to better decision-making by the supervisor and better performance by their employees. Dweck (2006) provided several examples of how a growth mindset in business leadership is important and more effective. According to Dweck, Enron s leaders Ken Lay and Jeffrey Skilling were good examples of leaders with a fixed mindset. Enron hired employees that they believed were naturals in business, they created a culture that worshiped talent, and because employees worried about being seen as less talented they refused to admit there were problems and self-correct themselves. On the other hand, Dweck described the growth mindset leaders: Jack Welch of General Electric, Lou Gerstner of IBM, and Anne Mulcahy of Xerox. All three of these leaders believed in human potential and development. Instead of focusing on their own innate talents, they encouraged the growth and improvement of themselves and others around them. They believed that leadership was about growth, passion to get better, and gratitude toward coworkers. Each year, companies spend millions of dollars for executive leadership training programs (Dweck, 2006). According to Dweck, these training programs are ineffective. Are the programs ineffective and poorly organized? Are the managers untrainable and incapable of learning? The research shows that the answer to both questions is not a matter of the effectiveness of the program or the managers. Dweck suggests that the problem lies with the managers not believing in change or growth in their employees. After the manager makes a judgment about the ability of an employee, that belief becomes fixed and therefore the manager never tries to implement the training program. The fixed opinion of their employees influences the manager s feedback about their employee performance and communication about ways to improve. In their view, why work with someone to improve their performance if they are not capable of getting better? Leadership training programs only work if the participates believe in change and growth. Growth Mindset in Coaching The study of leadership mindset or antecedents of leadership in coaching has not received much attention in the sport leadership literature. Research conducted by Chase, Galli, Myers, and Machida (2008) examined leadership mindset in high school and college coaches. High school coaches in their study indicated that they believed their overall ability to coach is more learned than innate. When asked about five specific dimensions of coaching, the coaches indicated that their ability to motivate athletes, build character, physically condition athletes, and teach techniques to their athletes were learned abilities. Their game strategy ability (e.g., managing Xs and Os ) was perceived to be more innate than learned. Interestingly, NCAA Division I collegiate coaches differed in their leadership mindset based on whether they were head or assistant coaches. Chase and colleagues

9 304 Chase found that head coaches perceived their ability to coach as more learned (a growth mindset), whereas assistant coaches perceived their ability to coach as more innate (a fixed mindset). The same results were found for specific dimensions of coaching: their perceived abilities to motivate athletes, build character, use game strategies, and teach techniques to their athletes were all considered to be more learned by head coaches and more innate by assistant coaches. The authors interpreted these results to suggest that more experience by head coaches (e.g., head coaches had coached more years than assistant coaches) influenced their mindset to believe that coaching effectiveness could be learned. What are the implications for coaches who believe in a fixed mindset? Dweck s research would suggest that they may not have successful win-loss records over a long career and their player s would not reach their full potential in sport or life nor enjoy playing for them. Coaches with a fixed mindset tend not to evolve, seek feedback to improve, and are threatened by losses. As a result, their players do not seek challenges to improve or reach their potential because they do not want to risk failure. The team environment can become one based upon fear and lack of effort. None of these results sound like the achievements of a transformative leader. On the other hand, consider the example of legendary coach John Wooden, who was mentioned earlier in this review. Wooden s mindset or belief about his leadership abilities and his player s basketball abilities could be considered a growth mindset. He fostered a growth mindset in his players that allowed them to put forth the effort to improve, while demonstrating a growth leadership mindset with his coaching expectations. Wooden lived by the principle that each day his players should put forth the effort to get a little better and over time they would become a lot better (Dweck, 2006). The next section addresses coaching education programs and their role in changing the mindset of leaders in sport. Coaching Education Programs Coaching education programs have been cited as one of the primary sources of coaching efficacy and important ways to increase coaching effectiveness (Feltz, Short, & Sullivan, 2008). An abundance of applied research contends that the coach-created climate (e.g., ego or mastery) must be considered, with a mastery climate preferred. Review of achievement goal theory (Duda & Balaguer, 2007; Roberts, Treasure, & Conroy, 2007) and coaching efficacy literature (Feltz, Short, & Sullivan, 2008) is beyond the scope of this paper, nevertheless, both should be included in coaching education programs and influence the effectiveness of the coach as a leader. This review would suggest that coaching education programs should focus on helping coaches develop a growth mindset about their leadership abilities, as opposed to focusing on how to be a great leader. For example, the National Federation of State High School Associations has developed a coaching education program (required for interscholastic coaches in many states) that focuses on the development of four skill sets for coaching effectiveness (Treasure, 2007). These skill sets are: technical (knowledge of sport), tactical (analytical/decision-making component of coaching), managerial (maintenance and organization of a systematic approach to coaching in terms of preparation, time management, administration, and programming), and interpersonal (the most critical category that underpins everything a coach does, such as communication, social skills, and motivation).

10 Leadership Mindset 305 The program is divided into learning modules, so that coaches develop their knowledge and abilities in each of the four skill sets. In many states, the program is required for not only novice, but also experienced coaches, with the point being that continuing education within a growth mindset is critical for any professional field. Coaches, like business leaders will only find education programs effective if they believe their coaching abilities are changeable and not just innate. Dweck suggested that changing to a growth mindset includes leaders monitoring words and actions when communicating with individuals and groups, praising effort and improvement rather than talent and abilities, providing constructive criticism that includes information about how to improve, setting high expectations that are achievable, pursuing the process of learning, and asking for full commitment and full effort from themselves and their players. Required coaching education programs, coaching certification, and continuing education programs send an important message to coaches that coaching skills are learned, and lifelong learning is a key to leadership effectiveness. Conclusion The question posed at the beginning of this review asked, Should coaches believe in an innate ability to lead? The conclusion should be no, especially if they believe that they have innate leadership talent that is fixed and doesn t require growth or effort to be effective. Leaders in sport need a growth mindset so they can transform themselves and believe in their ability to influence the transformation of others to achieve the collective goal. A growth mindset is simply a way of viewing the world and being open to possibilities for growth. Compare the difference between a growth mindset and fixed mindset when faced with challenges, obstacles, effort, criticism, and success of others. A growth mindset embraces challenges, persists during setbacks, views effort as necessary for achievement, learns from criticism, and finds inspiration in the success of others, whereas, a fixed mindset avoid challenges, quits during setbacks, see effort as pointless and threatening, ignores critical feedback, and may feel threatened by the success of others (Dweck, 2006). Leaders believe in their abilities and the antecedents of their leadership ability stem from a growth mindset, which is a critical component related to their effectiveness and success as a leader. All aspiring leaders should internalize a growth mindset, and shape their self-image as a transformative leader dedicated to strong effort to make a difference in the life of others. Consider John Wooden s growth mindset about his leadership ability: There is no basketball in which I am a genius. None. Tactically and strategically, I m just average, and this is not offering false modesty. We won national championships while I was coaching at UCLA because I was above average in analyzing players, getting them to fill roles as part of a team, paying attention to fundamentals and details, and work well with others. Additionally, I enjoyed very hard work. There is nothing fancy about these qualities. They have wide applications and equal effectiveness in any team endeavor anywhere. If there is any mystery as to why UCLA won ten national championships while I was the coach, that may clear it up. (Wooden, 1997, p. 113)

11 306 Chase Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Dr. Robin S. Vealey for her comments and suggestions on this article. Notes I The contingency model of leadership effectiveness by Fiedler (1967), the path-goal theory of leadership by House (1971), the adaptive-reactive theory by Osborn & Hunt (1975), and the discrepancy model of leadership, by Yukl (1971). References Allen, D. (2001). Getting things done. New York: Viking. Allen, D. (2008). Making it all work. New York: Viking. Anshel, M. (2003). Leadership: A matter of style. In Sport psychology: From theory to practice. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. pp Barrow, J.C. (1977). The variables of leadership: A review and conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 2, Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press. Chase, M.A., Galli, N., Myers, N., & Machida, M. (2008). Coaching effectiveness, coaching efficacy, and innate abilities: Were you born to be a coach? Symposium. Presented at the Association of Applied Sport Psychology Conference, St. Louis, MO. Chelladurai, P. (1990). Leadership in sports: A review. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21(4), Chelladurai, P. (2001). Managing organizations for sport and physical activity: A systems perspective. Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb-Hathaway. Chelladurai, P. (2007). Leadership in sports. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp ). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap and others don t. New York: HarperCollins. Covey, S.R. (1989). The 7 habits of highly effective people. New York: Free Press. Covey, S.R. (2004). The 8 th habit: From effectiveness to greatness. New York: Free Press. Duda, J.L., & Balaguer, I. (2007). Coach-created motivational climate. In S. Jowett and D. Lavallee, (Ed.), Social psychology in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. (pp ). Dweck, C.S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success (pp ). New York: Random House. Feltz, D.L., Short, S.E., & Sullivan, P.J. (2008). Self-efficacy and sport (pp ). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Fielder, F.E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gardner, H. (1995). Leading minds: An anatomy of leadership. New York: Basic Books. Horn, T.S. (2002). Leadership effectiveness in the sport domain. In T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology. (2nd ed., pp ). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. House, R.J. (1971). A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, Jourden, F. J., Bandura, A., & Banfield, J. T. (1991). The impact of conception of ability on self-regulatory factors and motor skill acquisition. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13, Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation and individual differences in learning: An integration of developmental, differential and cognitive perspectives. Learning and Individual Differences, 2,

12 Leadership Mindset 307 Krzyzewski, M. (2000). Leading with the heart: Coach K s successful strategies for basketball, business, and life. New York: Warner. Lirgg, C. D., George, T. R., Chase, M. A., & Ferguson, R. H. (1996). Impact of conception of ability and sex-type of task on male and female physical self-efficacy. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, Lombardi, V. (2009). Brainy Quote. Murray, M., & Mann, B. (2006). Leadership effectiveness. In J. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance. (pp ). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Ommundsen, Y. (2003). Implicit theories of ability and self-regulation strategies in physical education classes. Educational Psychology, 23, Osborn, R.N., & Hunt, J.G. (1975). An adaptive-reactive theory of leadership: The role of macro variable in leadership research. In J.G. Hunt & L.L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers (pp ). Kent, OH: Kent State University. Ramsey, J. (2004). Dr. Jack s leadership lessons learned from a lifetime in basketball. Hoboken, NH: Wiley. Reynaud, C. (2005). She can coach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Riemer, H. (2007). Multidimensional model of coach leadership. In S. Jowett & D. Lavallee (Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp ). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Roberts, G.C., Treasure, D.C., & Conroy, D.E. (2007). In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 3 30). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., & Curtis, B. (1979). Coach effectiveness training: A cognitivebehavioral approach to enhancing to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (1989). Leadership behaviors in sport: A theoretical model and research paradigm. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, Tharp, R.G., & Gallimore, R. (1976). Basketball s John Wooden: What a coach can teach a teacher. Psychology Today, 9(8), Treasure, D.C. (2007). Fundamentals of coaching. Indianapolis, IN: National Federation of State High School Associations. Vealey, R.S. (2005). Coaching for the inner edge (pp ). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Weinberg, R., & Gould, D. (2007). Leadership. In R. Weinberg & D. Gould (Eds.), Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (pp ). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, Wooden, J. (1997). Wooden: A lifetime of observations and reflections on and off the court. Chicago: Contemporary Books. Yukl, G. (1971). Toward a behavioral theory of leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6,

C H A P T E R. Leadership. Chapter 9: Leadership

C H A P T E R. Leadership. Chapter 9: Leadership C H A P T E R 9 Leadership Chapter 9: Leadership A boss creates fear, a leader confidence. A boss fixes blame, a leader corrects mistakes. A boss knows all, a leader asks questions. A boss makes work

More information

Best Practices for Coaching the Ego-Oriented Athlete

Best Practices for Coaching the Ego-Oriented Athlete Best Practices for Coaching the Ego-Oriented Athlete Charlotte R. Stith, M.S. Health and Human Performance Oklahoma State University Timothy Baghurst, Ph.D. Health and Human Performance Oklahoma State

More information

IJMS 2015 vol. 2 (2): page num. H. P. N. Perera and 2 M. D. Pushpakumari. Corresponding author: H.P.N. Perera,

IJMS 2015 vol. 2 (2): page num. H. P. N. Perera and 2 M. D. Pushpakumari. Corresponding author: H.P.N. Perera, IJMS 2015 vol. 2 (2): page num International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies (IJMS) Volume 2, Issue 2, 2015 The Perception of Athletes on the Factors Affecting to Coach Leadership Behavior Styles:

More information

The 9 Virtues of Exceptional Leaders: Unlocking Your Leadership Potential Discussion Guide

The 9 Virtues of Exceptional Leaders: Unlocking Your Leadership Potential Discussion Guide The 9 Virtues of Exceptional Leaders: Unlocking Your Leadership Potential Discussion Guide In keeping with our commitment to lifelong learning as a key ingredient of virtue-based leadership, we invite

More information

Strength Report The Art of Strength and Conditioning Coaching: Beyond the Sets and Reps (Part II) By: Mike Gentry Copyright American Football Monthly

Strength Report The Art of Strength and Conditioning Coaching: Beyond the Sets and Reps (Part II) By: Mike Gentry Copyright American Football Monthly Strength Report The Art of Strength and Conditioning Coaching: Beyond the Sets and Reps (Part II) By: Mike Gentry Copyright American Football Monthly I believe your program s success will be impacted as

More information

Keys to Being a Successful Leader

Keys to Being a Successful Leader FEDERER PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GROUP, LLC TRANSFORMING VISIONS INTO RESULTS WHITE PAPER Keys to Being a Successful Leader Introduction Why is it that some people are successful in leadership roles, while

More information

Characteristics of Authentic Islamic School Leaders. Kathy Jamil

Characteristics of Authentic Islamic School Leaders. Kathy Jamil Characteristics of Authentic Islamic School Leaders Kathy Jamil When we think of anything authentic to Islam, we naturally think of the Prophet Muhammed, the truest of humanity. He naturally modeled leadership

More information

The comparison of sports coaches pre-season, in-season and post-season leadership behaviours in terms of sport psychology 1

The comparison of sports coaches pre-season, in-season and post-season leadership behaviours in terms of sport psychology 1 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Year: 013 The comparison of sports coaches pre-season, in-season and post-season leadership behaviours in terms of sport psychology 1 Turhan Toros Melih Salman 3 İhsan Sarı 4 Abstract

More information

Motivation Motivation

Motivation Motivation This should be easy win What am I doing here! Motivation Motivation What Is Motivation? Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort. Direction of effort: Whether an individual seeks out, approaches,

More information

TALES FROM THE TOP. Ten Crucial Questions from the World s #1 Executive Coach GRAHAM ALEXANDER

TALES FROM THE TOP. Ten Crucial Questions from the World s #1 Executive Coach GRAHAM ALEXANDER TALES FROM THE TOP Ten Crucial Questions from the World s #1 Executive Coach GRAHAM ALEXANDER INTRODUCTION WHAT WILL I GET OUT OF THIS BOOK? The way you see yourself shapes your life. How you define life

More information

A Meaning-Centered Approach to Positive Education. Paul T. P. Wong

A Meaning-Centered Approach to Positive Education. Paul T. P. Wong A Meaning-Centered Approach to Positive Education Paul T. P. Wong Youth Suicide Rate In the US, it is the third leading cause of death among youth 15-25. In Taiwan, according to the Ministry of Education,

More information

Competitive orientations and motives of adult sport and exercise participants

Competitive orientations and motives of adult sport and exercise participants Competitive orientations and motives of adult sport and exercise participants By: Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, and Jeffrey J. Martin Gill, D.L., Williams, L.,

More information

Coaching Leadership Styles and Athlete Satisfactions Among Malaysian University Basketball Team

Coaching Leadership Styles and Athlete Satisfactions Among Malaysian University Basketball Team Coaching Leadership Styles and Athlete Satisfactions Among Malaysian University Basketball Team Mohamad Nizam Bin Hj. Nazarudin Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia E-mail: mnizam@ums.edu.my Tel:

More information

Patient Engagement & The Primary Care Physician

Patient Engagement & The Primary Care Physician Patient Engagement & The Primary Care Physician The Quest for the Holy Grail A Patient-Centered Strategy for Engaging Patients Written by Stephen Wilkins, MPH President and Founder Smart Health Messaging

More information

DAY 2 RESULTS WORKSHOP 7 KEYS TO C HANGING A NYTHING IN Y OUR LIFE TODAY!

DAY 2 RESULTS WORKSHOP 7 KEYS TO C HANGING A NYTHING IN Y OUR LIFE TODAY! H DAY 2 RESULTS WORKSHOP 7 KEYS TO C HANGING A NYTHING IN Y OUR LIFE TODAY! appy, vibrant, successful people think and behave in certain ways, as do miserable and unfulfilled people. In other words, there

More information

ENDORSEMENT AREA: ATHLETIC ADMINISTRATION AND COACHING

ENDORSEMENT AREA: ATHLETIC ADMINISTRATION AND COACHING DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION Johnny D.Thomas, Ed.D., Department Chair Davey L. Whitney HPER Complex, 2 nd Floor 1000 ASU Drive #1380 Phone: 601-877-6507 FAX: 601-877-3821 GRADUATE

More information

Genius File #5 - The Myth of Strengths and Weaknesses

Genius File #5 - The Myth of Strengths and Weaknesses Genius File #5 - The Myth of Strengths and Weaknesses By Jay Niblick There is a myth about strengths and weaknesses, one which states that we all naturally possess them. In reality, we don t. What we do

More information

The Power of Feedback

The Power of Feedback The Power of Feedback 35 Principles for Turning Feedback from Others into Personal and Professional Change By Joseph R. Folkman The Big Idea The process of review and feedback is common in most organizations.

More information

Coaching Ethics. Kristen Dieffenbach West Virginia University Larry Lauer Michigan State University Youth Sport Institute

Coaching Ethics. Kristen Dieffenbach West Virginia University Larry Lauer Michigan State University Youth Sport Institute Coaching Ethics An oxymoron, a lost art, a moot point? Creating a culture of principles and standards Kristen Dieffenbach West Virginia University Larry Lauer Michigan State University Youth Sport Institute

More information

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 152 ( 2014 ) ERPA 2014

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 152 ( 2014 ) ERPA 2014 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 152 ( 2014 ) 421 425 ERPA 2014 The relationship between perceived coaching behaviour and achievement motivation:

More information

The Relationships Among Competitiveness, Age and Ability In Distance Runners

The Relationships Among Competitiveness, Age and Ability In Distance Runners Wayne State University Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies College of Education 12-1-1994 The Relationships Among Competitiveness, Age and Ability In Distance Runners Robert C. Eklund University of Western

More information

Sports and Health (SPHE)

Sports and Health (SPHE) Sports and Health (SPHE) SPHE295 Foundations of Nutrition (3 semester This course introduces students to the scientific principles of nutrition pertinent to the function of nutrients in the body and the

More information

THOUGHTS, ATTITUDES, HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

THOUGHTS, ATTITUDES, HABITS AND BEHAVIORS THOUGHTS, ATTITUDES, HABITS AND BEHAVIORS Ellen Freedman, CLM Law Practice Management Coordinator Pennsylvania Bar Association I ve been thinking a lot lately about how we think, what we think, and what

More information

Reflect on the Types of Organizational Structures. Hierarch of Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) Hierarchy of Needs

Reflect on the Types of Organizational Structures. Hierarch of Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) Hierarchy of Needs Reflect on the Types of Organizational Structures 1 Hierarch of Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) Self- Actualization or Self- Fulfillment Esteem Belonging, Love, and Social Activities Safety and Security Psychological

More information

Self-Efficacy And Psychological Skills During The Amputee Soccer World Cup

Self-Efficacy And Psychological Skills During The Amputee Soccer World Cup August, 2002 Volume 4, Issue 2 Self-Efficacy And Psychological Skills During The Amputee Soccer World Cup James Lowther Wimbledon Football Club Selhurst Park Stadium and Andrew Lane & Helen Lane School

More information

REBUILDING ATHLETES IN AMERICA

REBUILDING ATHLETES IN AMERICA REBUILDING ATHLETES IN AMERICA AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL TABLE OF CONTENTS State of the Games: Why Create ADM?.... 2 How This Impacts Sport in America... 4 Overview... 5 ADM Statement.... 6 Key Principles...

More information

The Youth Experience Survey 2.0: Instrument Revisions and Validity Testing* David M. Hansen 1 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

The Youth Experience Survey 2.0: Instrument Revisions and Validity Testing* David M. Hansen 1 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign The Youth Experience Survey 2.0: Instrument Revisions and Validity Testing* David M. Hansen 1 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Reed Larson 2 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign February 28,

More information

LEADER VS VICTIM. This is where coaching can help you create the life you want. But, if given the opportunity to change, would you want to?

LEADER VS VICTIM. This is where coaching can help you create the life you want. But, if given the opportunity to change, would you want to? LEADER VS VICTIM Most of us have felt victims at one point or another. Perhaps this was due to circumstances that were completely out of our control. Perhaps we knew deep down that we didn t want to feel

More information

The Relationship between Perceived Coach Leadership Behaviors and Athletes Satisfaction

The Relationship between Perceived Coach Leadership Behaviors and Athletes Satisfaction International Journal of Sports Science 2017, 7(5): 196-202 DOI: 10.5923/j.sports.20170705.04 The Relationship between Perceived Coach Leadership Behaviors and Athletes Rodolfo A. Ignacio III 1, Rona C.

More information

This is a large part of coaching presence as it helps create a special and strong bond between coach and client.

This is a large part of coaching presence as it helps create a special and strong bond between coach and client. Page 1 Confidence People have presence when their outer behavior and appearance conveys confidence and authenticity and is in sync with their intent. It is about being comfortable and confident with who

More information

SELF, OTHERS AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

SELF, OTHERS AND SOCIAL CONTEXT BCom (Business Management) SELF, OTHERS AND SOCIAL CONTEXT Article SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY TRIANGLE Page! 1 of 5! The CEO Refresher SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY TRIANGLE by Paul B. Thornton on November 8,

More information

What is Coaching? Coaches:

What is Coaching? Coaches: What is Coaching? Coaches: Help people set better goals and then reach those goals. Ask their clients to do more than they would have done on their own. Focus their clients better to more quickly produce

More information

THE CUSTOMER SERVICE ATTRIBUTE INDEX

THE CUSTOMER SERVICE ATTRIBUTE INDEX THE CUSTOMER SERVICE ATTRIBUTE INDEX Jane Doe Customer Service XYZ Corporation 7-22-2003 CRITICAL SUCCESS ATTRIBUTES ATTITUDE TOWARD OTHERS: To what extent does Jane tend to maintain a positive, open and

More information

Personal Leadership Development Plan. Dave Forsberg Bethel University BUSN 600 Foundations of Business 3/20/2011

Personal Leadership Development Plan. Dave Forsberg Bethel University BUSN 600 Foundations of Business 3/20/2011 Personal Leadership Development Plan Dave Forsberg Bethel University BUSN 600 Foundations of Business 3/20/2011 The Personal Leadership Development Plan will serve as my guide to personal and leadership

More information

Preferred Leadership Styles Within Minor League Baseball Organizations Front Offices

Preferred Leadership Styles Within Minor League Baseball Organizations Front Offices Preferred Leadership Styles Within Minor League Baseball Organizations Front Offices Danny Davis, Ed.D. The University of North Carolina at Pembroke; Pembroke, North Carolina, USA Max Blaisdell Gagnon,

More information

MODULE E: ECONOMICS, WORK, AND HAPPINESS

MODULE E: ECONOMICS, WORK, AND HAPPINESS MODULE E: ECONOMICS, WORK, AND HAPPINESS 1 Common Sense Economics ~ What Everyone Should Know About Wealth and Prosperity http://commonsenseeconomics.com/ Turn on the learning light! SECRET TO HAPPINESS

More information

The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) measures a broad range of leadership types from passive leaders, to leaders who give contingent rewards

The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) measures a broad range of leadership types from passive leaders, to leaders who give contingent rewards Published by: Mind Garden, Inc. www.mindgarden.com info@mindgarden.com Copyright 1998, 2007, 2011, 2015 by Bernard M. Bass and Bruce J. Avolio. All rights reserved. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce

More information

Entertaining Violence or Violent Entertainment? Mapping the Media Violence Controversy

Entertaining Violence or Violent Entertainment? Mapping the Media Violence Controversy Entertaining Violence or Violent Entertainment? Mapping the Media Violence Controversy The media violence controversy basically centers around the questions of effects: Does watching violent media make

More information

The 7 Habits Of Highly Effective People Powerful Lessons In Personal Change

The 7 Habits Of Highly Effective People Powerful Lessons In Personal Change Powerful Lessons In Personal Change By Stephen R. Covey Habits are powerful factors in our lives. According to Dr. Stephen Covey, a graduate of Harvard Business School and author of the best-selling The

More information

MGMT 301 Exam 3 Answer Key 2. You would use an Autocratic leadership style in a CS call center

MGMT 301 Exam 3 Answer Key 2. You would use an Autocratic leadership style in a CS call center www.liontutors.com MGMT 301 Exam 3 Answer Key 1. A; This is the Law of Immediate Reinforcement 2. You would use an Autocratic leadership style in a CS call center 3. D; Your boss is asking you to look

More information

Journal of Coaching Education

Journal of Coaching Education Coaching Leadership Preferences: Insight from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III Athlete Kelly S. Witte, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Abstract The purpose of this study

More information

that fosters self-determined motivation among athletes. Coaching style influences athlete

that fosters self-determined motivation among athletes. Coaching style influences athlete BURRELL, CHELSEA J., M.S. The Relationship of Perceived Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Behavior with Motivation Among High School Athletes. (2016) Directed by Dr. Diane Gill. 94 pp. Recent literature suggests

More information

Being an Effective Coachee :

Being an Effective Coachee : : Things to Act on When Working with a Personal Coach By Roelf Woldring WCI Press / Transformation Partners 21 st Century Staffing Innovators www.21cstaffing.com Elora, Ontario, Canada N0B 1S0 Copyright,

More information

Sports Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety: A Relationship Study

Sports Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety: A Relationship Study Sports Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety: A Relationship Study Zamirullah Khan E-mail: zamirullahkhan@gmail.com Zeeshan Haider (Corresponding author) E-mail: zeeshu.haider@gmail.com

More information

ARE YOU UP TO THE CHALLENGE OF COACHING?

ARE YOU UP TO THE CHALLENGE OF COACHING? . ARE YOU UP TO THE CHALLENGE OF COACHING? It s not for everyone, It may not be for you L. Michael Hall, Ph.D. Before you begin reading, I want to warn you that this article may be dangerous to your peace

More information

2015 NADTA Conference Pre-Education Committee Book Club Everyday Bias, Howard J. Ross, Suggested Group Discussion Questions

2015 NADTA Conference Pre-Education Committee Book Club Everyday Bias, Howard J. Ross, Suggested Group Discussion Questions 2015 NADTA Conference Pre-Education Committee Book Club Everyday Bias, Howard J. Ross, Suggested Group Discussion Questions 1. After reading this book, which research examples stand out the most in your

More information

Lesson 1: Gaining Influence and Respect

Lesson 1: Gaining Influence and Respect Lesson 1: Gaining Influence and Respect The Big Idea: Conduct yourself with wisdom toward outsiders, making the most of every opportunity. Let your speech always be seasoned, as it were, with salt, so

More information

Leadership Behaviour Preferences of Student-Athletes: A Comparative Study of South Africa and India

Leadership Behaviour Preferences of Student-Athletes: A Comparative Study of South Africa and India Leadership Behaviour Preferences of Student-Athletes: A Comparative Study of South Africa and India Andile. Mji Jhalukpreya. Surujlal Tswane University of Technology & North-West University Vaal Campus

More information

Values-Based Leadership Why does it matter?

Values-Based Leadership Why does it matter? Values-Based Leadership Why does it matter? Managers are the ethics teachers of their organizations. This is true whether they are saints or sinners, whether they intend to teach ethics or not. It simply

More information

The Power to Change Your Life: Ten Keys to Resilient Living Robert Brooks, Ph.D.

The Power to Change Your Life: Ten Keys to Resilient Living Robert Brooks, Ph.D. The Power to Change Your Life: Ten Keys to Resilient Living Robert Brooks, Ph.D. The latest book I co-authored with my colleague Dr. Sam Goldstein was recently released. In contrast to our previous works

More information

Bringing out the Best: Utilizing Bandura s Model of Self-Efficacy to Expand Current Concepts of Coaching Efficacy

Bringing out the Best: Utilizing Bandura s Model of Self-Efficacy to Expand Current Concepts of Coaching Efficacy Macalester College DigitalCommons@Macalester College Psychology Honors Projects Psychology Department 5-2010 Bringing out the Best: Utilizing Bandura s Model of Self-Efficacy to Expand Current Concepts

More information

Value From Regulatory Fit E. Tory Higgins

Value From Regulatory Fit E. Tory Higgins CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Value From Regulatory Fit E. Tory Higgins Columbia University ABSTRACT Where does value come from? I propose a new answer to this classic question. People experience

More information

A heros journey CORE VIRTUE: AMBITION

A heros journey CORE VIRTUE: AMBITION STRATA EPI A heros journey CORE VIRTUE: AMBITION Objectives Students will be able to identify key scenes in a book/movie that fit the structure of the Hero s Journey and the Hero s Inner Journey. This

More information

Kantor Behavioral Profiles

Kantor Behavioral Profiles Kantor Behavioral Profiles baseline name: date: Kantor Behavioral Profiles baseline INTRODUCTION Individual Behavioral Profile In our earliest social system the family individuals explore a range of behavioral

More information

Integral Energetics FAQ Frequently Asked Questions

Integral Energetics FAQ Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions The IIQTC The Institute of Integral Qigong and Tai Chi (IIQTC) is among the most credible institutions of training and research outside of China and advocates for all forms of

More information

The Necessity of Self-Esteem and Confidence

The Necessity of Self-Esteem and Confidence The Necessity of Self-Esteem and Confidence 1 Content 1. Self Esteem: What is it? 2. Self Esteem: What s it made of? 3. The Effects of High Self Esteem 4. The Effects of Low Self Esteem 5. 12 Steps to

More information

Manitoba Action Plan for Sport (MAPS)

Manitoba Action Plan for Sport (MAPS) 2016-2020 Manitoba Action Plan for Sport (MAPS) About Sport Manitoba Sport Manitoba is the lead planning, programming and funding agency for the development of amateur sport in the province. The primary

More information

THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ATTRIBUTE INDEX

THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ATTRIBUTE INDEX THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ATTRIBUTE INDEX "He who knows others is learned He who knows himself is wise" Lao Tse Jerry Doe Financial Analyst XYZ Corporation 7-11-2003 THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ATTRIBUTE

More information

SOMEONE I CARE ABOUT IS NOT DEALING WITH HIS OCD: WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT IT?

SOMEONE I CARE ABOUT IS NOT DEALING WITH HIS OCD: WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT IT? SOMEONE I CARE ABOUT IS NOT DEALING WITH HIS OCD: WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT IT? By Heidi J. Pollard, RN, MSN and C. Alec Pollard, Ph.D., Anxiety Disorders Center, Saint Louis Behavioral Medicine Institute and

More information

Respect Handout. You receive respect when you show others respect regardless of how they treat you.

Respect Handout. You receive respect when you show others respect regardless of how they treat you. RESPECT -- THE WILL TO UNDERSTAND Part Two Heading in Decent People, Decent Company: How to Lead with Character at Work and in Life by Robert Turknett and Carolyn Turknett, 2005 Respect Handout Respect

More information

I am the Center of the Universe and so are you!

I am the Center of the Universe and so are you! TEXAS CASA ADVANCED ADVOCACY WEBINAR SERIES THE SEVEN HABITS OF THE HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CASA Brenda Sweeten, LCSW June 11, 2014 I am the Center of the Universe and so are you! Because of the laws of physics,

More information

Mindset For Optimal Performance: Essential Mental Skills DR. RICK MCGUIRE DIRECTOR OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY ANNE SHADLE M.ED.

Mindset For Optimal Performance: Essential Mental Skills DR. RICK MCGUIRE DIRECTOR OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY ANNE SHADLE M.ED. Mindset For Optimal Performance: Essential Mental Skills DR. RICK MCGUIRE DIRECTOR OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY ANNE SHADLE M.ED. THINKING RIGHT IN SPORT It s all about FOCUS! Outline For Today: 1. Thinking Right

More information

CAREERS IN KINESIOLOGY

CAREERS IN KINESIOLOGY CAREERS IN KINESIOLOGY ASSESSMENT CATEGORIES Application Communication Knowledge and Understanding Thinking Activities in this chapter: 1 Career Opportunities 14 Review Your Key Terms Matching the Job

More information

Maximizing a Timeout. Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: By Staci R. Andrews

Maximizing a Timeout. Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: By Staci R. Andrews Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: Maximizing a Timeout I was intense but never uncontrolled in the huddle. No screaming, no profanity. That short period of time was valuable. I didn t

More information

AN INVESTIGATION INTO COACHING EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN GYMNASTICS.

AN INVESTIGATION INTO COACHING EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN GYMNASTICS. AN INVESTIGATION INTO COACHING EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN GYMNASTICS. by KATE BRAILSFORD A thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the degree of MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY School of Sport, Exercise

More information

D.O.I: Young Researchers Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kurdistan, Iran 2

D.O.I:  Young Researchers Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kurdistan, Iran 2 The Relationship between Self-Confidence and Sport Commitment with the Sport Identity of the Gymnasts... D.O.I: http:dx.doi.org/10.4127/ch.2013.0074 Bahareh Nazari 1, Sardar Mohammadi 2, Mozafar Yektayar

More information

Follow the leader! Zubin R. Mulla. (Published in Human Capital, January 2002)

Follow the leader! Zubin R. Mulla. (Published in Human Capital, January 2002) Follow the leader! Zubin R. Mulla (Published in Human Capital, January 2002) In many organizational motivational issues, the solution is not in making better leaders, but in having better followers. Mistrust

More information

FASD Spring Forum Developing a Purposeful Community

FASD Spring Forum Developing a Purposeful Community FASD Spring Forum Developing a Purposeful Community Session Outcomes Increased: understanding of the relationship between a purposeful community and student achievement. understanding of the four characteristics

More information

Seven Smarter Emotions Every Employer

Seven Smarter Emotions Every Employer Cynthia Kivland, BCC, NBC President, Smart2Smarter Director, Coaching Services Liautaud Institute Process Designed Training(PDT) Board Certified and ICF Coach Certifications www.smart2smarter.com www.liautaudinstitute.com

More information

HARRISON ASSESSMENTS DEBRIEF GUIDE 1. OVERVIEW OF HARRISON ASSESSMENT

HARRISON ASSESSMENTS DEBRIEF GUIDE 1. OVERVIEW OF HARRISON ASSESSMENT HARRISON ASSESSMENTS HARRISON ASSESSMENTS DEBRIEF GUIDE 1. OVERVIEW OF HARRISON ASSESSMENT Have you put aside an hour and do you have a hard copy of your report? Get a quick take on their initial reactions

More information

Andreas Bund University of Darmstadt. Self-Confidence and Sports Performance

Andreas Bund University of Darmstadt. Self-Confidence and Sports Performance University of Darmstadt Self-Confidence and Sports Performance Self-Confidence and Sports Performance 2. Theoretical and Motor Performance (Moritz et al., 2000) and Motor Learning (Bund, 2001) Statements

More information

SMART TRUST. Brief Instruction of. Smart Trust. Five Actions

SMART TRUST. Brief Instruction of. Smart Trust. Five Actions SMART TRUST Bin Song EADM 834 March 5, 2014 Instruction How do we rescue ourselves from misery of distrust and blind trust, how can we chieve more in work, social connection and family life Page 1 Five

More information

Personal Statement Workshop Guidelines, Tips, & Suggestions

Personal Statement Workshop Guidelines, Tips, & Suggestions Personal Statement Workshop Guidelines, Tips, & Suggestions Diversifying Clinical Psychology Weekend University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Fall, 2017 Contributors: Dr. Don Baucom, Dr. Deborah Jones,

More information

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Fourth Edition

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Fourth Edition Assessment CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Fourth Edition Complete this book, and you ll know how to: 1) Catch disagreement before it escalates into dysfunctional conflict. 2) Replace habitual styles of handling differences

More information

Interpersonal Skills Through Emotional Intelligence: A Psychological Perspective

Interpersonal Skills Through Emotional Intelligence: A Psychological Perspective Interpersonal Skills Through Emotional Intelligence: A Psychological Perspective Suvarna Sen* We must become the way we visualize ourselves! The million-dollar question is how? The answer is a very simple

More information

A Study on Leadership Styles of Coaches of the Turkish Professional Handball First League

A Study on Leadership Styles of Coaches of the Turkish Professional Handball First League Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(2): 612-617, 2013 ISSN 1991-8178 A Study on Leadership Styles of Coaches of the Turkish Professional Handball First League Eyyüp NACAR Physical Education

More information

Perceived Leadership Behavior in Sports: The Interaction between Individual Differences and Task Characteristics. Hasan Birol YALCIN, Ph.D.

Perceived Leadership Behavior in Sports: The Interaction between Individual Differences and Task Characteristics. Hasan Birol YALCIN, Ph.D. Perceived Leadership Behavior in Sports: The Interaction between Individual Differences and Task Characteristics Hasan Birol YALCIN, Ph.D. Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Physical Education and

More information

SAMPLE. Behavioral EQ SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE. Prepared for: By: Session: 23 Jul Lars Dupont. Sample Organization

SAMPLE. Behavioral EQ SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE. Prepared for: By: Session: 23 Jul Lars Dupont. Sample Organization SAMPLE Behavioral EQ SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE Prepared for: Lars Dupont By: Sample Organization Session: Improving Interpersonal Effectiveness 23 Jul 2014 Behavioral EQ, Putting Emotional Intelligence to

More information

Changing manager behaviour

Changing manager behaviour Changing manager behaviour August 2010. Occasional Paper Vol. 3 No. 7 Derek Mowbray Why is behaviour so important? The role of the manager is to get the job done. Normally, this involves asking someone

More information

Eta Sigma Gamma Student Member At-Large (SMAL) Candidate Information Form

Eta Sigma Gamma Student Member At-Large (SMAL) Candidate Information Form Eta Sigma Gamma Student Member At-Large (SMAL) Candidate Information Form Name: Skye McDonald Position: Graduate Assistant Degree(s): B.S.; M.S. Department: Health Promotion and Education at the University

More information

Why Movement Experiences at U6 Impact a Soccer Career

Why Movement Experiences at U6 Impact a Soccer Career Why Movement Experiences at U6 Impact a Soccer Career Readiness for Soccer Readiness for sports is the match between a child s level of growth, maturity and development, and the task demands presented

More information

SOURCES OF COACHING EFFICACY: THE COACHES PERSPECTIVE

SOURCES OF COACHING EFFICACY: THE COACHES PERSPECTIVE ISJEP, 2005, 1, 7-25 2005 West Virginia University Sources of Coaching Efficacy SOURCES OF COACHING EFFICACY: THE COACHES PERSPECTIVE MELISSA A. CHASE 1, DEBORAH L. FELTZ 2,SUSAN W. HAYASHI 2, AND TERI

More information

TTI Personal Talent Skills Inventory Coaching Report

TTI Personal Talent Skills Inventory Coaching Report TTI Personal Talent Skills Inventory Coaching Report "He who knows others is learned. He who knows himself is wise." Lao Tse Mason Roberts District Manager YMCA 8-1-2008 Copyright 2003-2008. Performance

More information

September MESSAGING GUIDE 547E-EN (317)

September MESSAGING GUIDE 547E-EN (317) September 2016 1 MESSAGING GUIDE 547E-EN (317) Contents OVERVIEW 3 4 ABOUT THIS GUIDE BRINGING ROTARY S BRAND STORY TO LIFE WHAT WE SAY & HOW WE SOUND 5 5 WHAT IS MESSAGING? ROTARY S BRAND VOICE TAILORING

More information

Carroll University Department of Health and Movement Sciences. EXP 521 Exercise & Sport Psychology Fall 2013 COURSE SYLLABUS

Carroll University Department of Health and Movement Sciences. EXP 521 Exercise & Sport Psychology Fall 2013 COURSE SYLLABUS Carroll University Department of Health and Movement Sciences EXP 521 Exercise & Sport Psychology Fall 2013 COURSE SYLLABUS Instructor: William V. Massey, PhD Credits Hours: 4 Office: TBD Location: CGS

More information

(2009). The Gift of Therapy Yalom, I Yes. (2015) Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (7th Ed.

(2009). The Gift of Therapy Yalom, I Yes. (2015) Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (7th Ed. Instructor Course Books Author ISBN Required? Tucker, M. Hawk, C. Lodato, V./Palombo MSE6560 Research Methods (MS only) COUN7517 Survey of Research Methods (EdD only) Summer 2017 SPP Booklist Reading and

More information

Internal Requirements for Change Agents

Internal Requirements for Change Agents for Change Agents The True Purpose Process The inner game of becoming a powerful change agent is of paramount importance. In its ordinary configuration, the ego is not properly tuned and optimized to be

More information

Where Are We Going Today?

Where Are We Going Today? Day 2 2017 City of Madison Where Are We Going Today? Relationship Management 1. Personal Boundaries 2. Active Listening & Powerful Questions 3. Situational Leadership Your Behavior - Krista Morrissey Your

More information

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRADUATE AT GRADUATION

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRADUATE AT GRADUATION A Jesuit, Catholic School of Excellence THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRADUATE AT GRADUATION Students live in many worlds the worlds of faith, of reason, of self, of family and of community. They live in

More information

Bandura s Social Learning & Cognitive Learning Theory

Bandura s Social Learning & Cognitive Learning Theory Bandura s Social Learning & Cognitive Learning Theory Theories of Developmental Psychology By: Razieh Tadayon Nabavi 2011-2012 1 Albert Bandura He was born December 4, 1925 in a small town in northern

More information

Motivational Interviewing

Motivational Interviewing Motivational Interviewing By: Tonia Stott, PhD What is Motivational Interviewing? A client-centered, directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence

More information

Achievement: Approach versus Avoidance Motivation

Achievement: Approach versus Avoidance Motivation LP 11E Achievement motivation 1 Achievement: Approach versus Avoidance Motivation Approach motivation: A motivation to experience positive outcomes Avoidance motivation: A motivation not to experience

More information

sports coach UK Research Summary 25 Intervention Tone and Coach-athlete Relations

sports coach UK Research Summary 25 Intervention Tone and Coach-athlete Relations sports coach UK Research Summary 25 Intervention Tone and Coach-athlete Relations New research from Canada has shown that coaches will often individualise their behaviour and tone for different people

More information

Self-Concept By Saul McLeod 2008

Self-Concept By Saul McLeod 2008 Name: Class: Self-Concept By Saul McLeod 2008 Because most people identify as separate from other people, they have what we call some "concept" of themselves. Self-concept refers to how people think about,

More information

PERSON PERCEPTION AND INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION

PERSON PERCEPTION AND INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION Person Perception and Interpersonal Attraction MODULE-V 22 PERSON PERCEPTION AND INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION We have already noted, achieving a sense of self is an important achievement. A neonate may not

More information

Industrial Relations Centre RESEARCH PROGRAM

Industrial Relations Centre RESEARCH PROGRAM RESEARCH PROGRAM ircentre@post.queensu.ca DISCUSSION PAPER #2005-01 Title: Spirit at Work: Finding Meaning and Purpose Author: Val Kinjerski, PhD. Kaizen Solutions for Human Services kaizensolutions@kaizensolutions.org

More information

The Relationship between leadership styles of coaches with self-determination and burn-out of the Iranian elite female Volleyball players

The Relationship between leadership styles of coaches with self-determination and burn-out of the Iranian elite female Volleyball players The Relationship between leadership styles of coaches with self-determination and burn-out of the Iranian elite female Volleyball players Shirin Zardoshtian Member, (Ph.D) Razi University, Iran Rasool

More information

Core Competencies for Peer Workers in Behavioral Health Services

Core Competencies for Peer Workers in Behavioral Health Services BRINGING RECOVERY SUPPORTS TO SCALE Technical Assistance Center Strategy (BRSS TACS) Core Competencies for Peer Workers in Behavioral Health Services OVERVIEW In 2015, SAMHSA led an effort to identify

More information

Validity and Reliability of Sport Satisfaction

Validity and Reliability of Sport Satisfaction International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 2014 Available online at www.irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 8 (10): 1782-1786 Science Explorer Publications Validity and Reliability of Sport

More information

Growth of Empowerment in Career Science Teachers: Implications for Professional Development

Growth of Empowerment in Career Science Teachers: Implications for Professional Development Growth of Empowerment in Career Science Teachers: Implications for Professional Development Mary Hobbs, Ph.D. Coordinator for Science Initiatives The Texas Regional Collaboratives The University of Texas

More information