1 М. З. Гарванова Университет библиотековедения и информационных технологий, София Краткосрочные и долгосрочные изменения в ценностной иерархии болгарских студентов М. Z. Garvanova University of Library Studies and Information Technologies (ULSIT), Sofia Short- and long-term changes in the value hierarchy of Bulgarian students Аннотация. В данной статье представлены относительно краткосрочные и долгосрочные тенденции изменения ценностной иерархии болгарских студентов. Дан сравнительный анализ данных трех эмпирических исследований, проведенных среди студентов (n=656) на разных стадиях социально-исторического перехода Болгарии к демократии после , 2005 и г. Результаты, полученные с помощью теста ценностей Шварца SVS (Schwartz, 1992) показали, что в период с 2005 по 2007 год не существует никаких существенных изменений в ценностных приоритетах респондентов. Значения самостоятельности (Self-Direction), безопасности (Security), достижений (Achievement), доброты (Benevolence) и гедонизма (Hedonism) доминировали. Однако исследование показывает, что в долгосрочной перспективе изменение значений ценностных приоритетов в этом социально-профессиональной группе представляет собой разнонаправленный и многослойный процесс, связанный с переоценкой значимости индивидуальных и коллективных интересов. Ключевые слова: краткосрочные и долгосрочные изменения в ценностной иерархии, система ценностей и ценностных приоритетов болгарских студентов Abstract. This article presents the relatively short- and long-term trends of the value hierarchy change of Bulgarian students. For this purpose, data from 3 empirical studies among students (n=656), conducted in different stages of socio-historical Bulgarian transition to democracy after , 2005 and , are compared. Results obtained with the Schwartz Value Survey SVS (Schwartz, 1992) have revealed that in the period there are no significant changes in the respondents value priorities. Values of Self-Direction, Security, Achievement, Benevolence and Hedonism have dominated. In the long-term perspective, however, the value change in this socio-professional group has disclosed as a multidirectional and multilayered process that is associated with the revaluation of the importance of both individual and collective interests. Keywords: short- and long-term changes, value hierarchy, value system, value priorities, Bulgarian students
2 Bulgarian transition to democracy and market economy after 1989 can be defined as a pursuit of value transformation from collectivist to individualist orientation. Students are among the exponents of the new liberal-democratic ideas on both individual and cultural level (Baytchinska, 2011; Garvanova, 2013). On the one hand, the youth age is associated with desire for experimentation, independence and self-assertion, and the other social group of students expresses desire to change the status quo, achieving professional success and social prestige. In this context, the value hierarchy changes of the students in the process of social reforms in the country will be the focus of current research interest. In contemporary psychology, the most comprehensive approach to studying the value system structure is the model of Shalom Schwartz (Schwartz, 1992). It is a continuum of 10 different types of values that are the result of the psychological dynamics of conflict and compatibility that people experience in the process of pursuing different goals in their everyday life, such as: Security (Sec), Conformity (Con), Tradition (Tra), Benevolence (Ben), Universalism (Uni), Self-Direction (SD), Stimulation (Sti), Hedonism (Hed), Achievement (Ach) and Power (Po). Ten value types form two bipolar dimensions. The first dimension, called by Schwartz Self-Transcendence (includes Universalism and Benevolence) versus Self-Enhancement (integrates Achievement and Power) opposes values, focused on acceptance of others as equals and concern for their welfare, the values of personal success and dominance over others. The second dimension Openness to change (Self-Direction, Hedonism and Stimulation) versus Conservation (Tradition, Security and Conformity) opposes values, focused on independent thought and action, and the desire to change, the values of self-restriction, maintaining the tradition and stability. Self-Transcendence and Conservation express the collective interests and Openness to change and Self-Enhancement the individual interests of personality (Schwartz, 1992).
3 Aim and tasks of the study. The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of data from three surveys, conducted in 1995, 2005 и г., to track shortand long-term changes in the value hierarchy of Bulgarian students. More specific tasks of the study are related to comparison and interpretation of categorical and dimensional value priorities of youth from the research period Hypotheses. Some researchers have pointed out that the value hierarchy is a relatively stable psychological structure that is formed in early childhood and difficult to change in the individual lifespan (Rokeach & Ball-Rokeach, 1989; Baytchinska, 1994). The author s previous studies have also revealed that a larger time range is needed to register a significant value hierarchy reorganization (see Garvanova, 2013; Papazova & Garvanova, 2008). Based on data from the literature we can assume that among Bulgarian students: 1. During the period , there will be a short-term trend towards sustainability of value priorities (Papazova & Garvanova, 2008). 2. In the interval , there will be a long-term trend towards increasing individualistic values (Garvanova, 2013). Method. In the current study, the Schwartz Value Survey, including 58 values, is applied (SVS; Schwartz, 1992). Respondents need to assess the importance of each value, using a 9-point scale (from 0 not important to 7 extremely important, and [-1] opposite to my values). When processing the data, values are grouped into 10 categories of values, 2 bipolar dimensions and 2 types of value interests (for more details see Schwartz, 1992; Baytchinska, 2011; Garvanova, 2013). To build hierarchical structural models of the students from the three time periods is used Student s Paired-Samples T Test for all pairs of value categories The empirical study in 1995 was carried out by Prof. K. Baytchinska, PhD IPHS, BAS (Baytchinska, 2011), the survey in 2005 by Assist. Prof. M. Garvanova, PhD ULSIT (Garvanova, 2013), and the last one in by Assoc. Prof. E. Papazova, PhD IPHS, BAS (Papazova & Garvanova, 2008).
4 and dimensions. Value type with the highest average score gets rank 1, while the lowest rank 10. Categories or dimensions, which do not differ statistically significantly with each other, share the same rank. Participants. Total number of tested students is 656. In 1995 are involved 242 (x=22.76, sd=2.99), as 121 are men (50%), 118 women (48.8%) and 3 (1.2%) without indication. In 2005 are involved 161 (x=22.14, sd=3.12), of which men 88 (54.6%) and women 73 (45.4%). The number of students tested in is 253 (x=21.82, sd=3.33), of which 93 (36.8%) men and 160 (63.2%) women. They all learn in different Bulgarian universities and specialties: SU, TU, UNWE, NAТFA, HTMU, MGU, and Thracian University. Results and analysis. Categorical and dimensional structural models of the students from the three stages of socio-historical time are presented in Fig. 1 and 2. а) Students 1995 b) Students 2005 c) Students 2006/7 R A N K SD Sec Ach Ben Uni Con Hed Sti Po Tra SD Sec Ben Ach Hed Con Uni Sti Po Tra SD Sec Ben Ach Hed Uni Sti Con Tra Po Fig. 1. Structural models of categorical value hierarchy of the students surveyed in 1995, 2005 and Visualization of the data on fig. 1 gives a clear idea of sustainability in value priorities of students in Self-Direction occupies rank 1 (I st level) in all
5 three groups, Security and Achievement in 1995 (rank 2.5) are joined by Benevolence and Hedonism in 2005 and in , all sharing rank 3.5 (II nd level). During the analyzed period the most significant changes occur in the middle of the value array where Conformity has decreased its valence of 5.5 th (1995) and 6 th rank (2005) to 8 th rank ( ) and fell from III rd to IV th level of the value hierarchy. Universalism ranks 5.5 in 1995 but also goes down to rank 7.5 in 2005 and rank 6.5 in the last study. Importance of Stimulation, however, has increased 8.5 th rank and IV th level in 1995, 7.5 th rank and IV th level in 2005 and 6.5 th rank and III rd level in At the bottom of hierarchy are placed Power and Tradition, which in the first two studies stand at different levels V th and VI th respectively, and in they have a shared rank of 9.5 at the last V th level in the value system of contemporary youth. Dimensional value organization of the students also reveals interesting trends. Figure 2 shows that while in 1995 Openness to change and Self- Transcendence are coordinated at the I st level with rank 1.5, in the following two surveys they are subordinated and build the first two levels of the structural model. Self-Enhancement with rank 3 (II nd level) and Conservation with rank 4 (III rd level) in the first study, in turn, are integrated with a shared rank of 3.5 at the last III rd level in the hierarchical structure of the students during 2005 and а) Students 1995 b) Students 2005 c) Students 2006/7 R А N K ST OC SE CONS ОC ST CONS SE ОC ST CONS SE Fig. 2. Structural models of dimensional value hierarchy of the students surveyed in 1995, 2005 and Abbreviations are as follows: ST Self-Transcendence; CONS Conservation; SE Self-Enhancement; OC Openness to change
6 Findings and conclusions. Based on the results from three consecutive empirical studies in 1995, 2005 and , conducted with the SVS (Schwartz, 1992), we can conclude that in short-term aspect the categorical and especially dimensional value hierarchies of the students have retained their distinctive features. In , the categorical (Self-Direction, Security, Benevolence, Achievement, and Hedonism) and dimensional value priorities (Openness to change and Self-Transcendence) have kept their rank positions, confirming the first hypothesis. Dimensional value profile of current students remains close to the so-called by Triandis horizontal individualism (Triandis, 1996). It expresses the idea of the other as equal to myself, aspirations are to achieve collective prosperity, but the individuals are largely free to seek and affirm themselves. In the long-term perspective, changes in the intensity of both individual- and collective value categories and dimensions are observed. For example, among today's students compared to their peers since the beginning of transition, the importance of Hedonism, Benevolence and Stimulation have increased, but the intensity of Conformity and Universalism have decreased in the pursuit of life-long goals. This gives a good reason to reject the second hypothesis there is a multidirectional and multilayered value change. In conclusion, it could be said that young people, particularly students, are the great hope of Bulgarian society to implement cultural transformation and socioeconomic progress. Security, wealth, value consensus and democratic governance are some positive factors for the achievement of overall national prosperity. References Baytchinska, К. (1994). Values. Value stress... Value crisis! Sofia: Marin Drinov (in Bulgarian). Baytchinska, К. (2011). Values of the contemporary Bulgarian culture. Sofia: Gutenberg (in Bulgarian).
7 Garvanova, М. (2013). Transformation in the values of contemporary Bulgarian. Sofia: За буквите О писменехь. Monograph, 262 pp. (in Bulgarian). The book is also available on: Papazova, E., & Garvanova, М. (2008). Basic individual values at Bulgarian students: A comparative analysis. Psychological Research, 2, 7-16 (in Bulgarian). Rokeach, М., & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1989). Stability and change in American value priorities, American Psychologist, 44, Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In: M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 25 (pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press. Triandis, H. (1996). State of the contemporary research on Individualism and Collectivism. Sociological Problems, 1, 5-18 (in Bulgarian). Published: G a r v a n o v a, М. (2014). Short- and long-term changes in the value hierarchy of Bulgarian students. In: V. Gritsenko et al. (Eds.), Materials for the 4th International Scientific Conference Theoretical problems of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology, May 30-31, 2014, Smolensk, Russia, Tome 1,