Psychological Approaches to Counseling. Mr. Lema, Isaac Clinical Psychologist (MSc.) 25 th November 2015

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1 Psychological Approaches to Counseling Mr. Lema, Isaac Clinical Psychologist (MSc.) 25 th November 2015

2 Learning Objectives Explore different psychological approaches to counseling Adopt psychological approaches in counseling process

3 Outline Introduction Psychodynamic approach Behavioral approach Humanistic approach Cognitive approach Transactional analysis approach Personal construct approach Gestalt therapy approach Eclectic approach Conclusion

4 Introduction Psychological approaches comprised different theoretical approach in understanding client or patient A system of assumption, ideas and principles proposed to explain behaviors or personality Explain why people they act in that way and how to help them through counseling

5 Psychodynamic Approach Persons behavior, whether normal or abnormal is determined largely by underlying psychological forces of which s/he is not conscious aware Psychodynamic theories are based on the work of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychodynamic theory

6 Psychodynamic Approach Focus upon the conflict amongst the psychic structures (id, ego and superego) Psychoanalysis the form of treating psychological disorders, invented by Freud Seeks to help people develop insight into the dynamic struggles occurring within the psyche between the three psychic structures

7 Psychodynamic Approach Goal to bring conflicts between the psychic structures into conscious awareness and work through them Emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses

8 Psychodynamic Approach Unconscious mind resulted from early experiences which we were unable to dealt with Present experience in any way similar to that past event, lead to anxiety Unconsciously reminded of the situation (Burnard, 1994)

9 Psychodynamic Approach Psychoanalysis Techniques Free Association Free uttering of all thoughts that come to mind Explains why people behave as they do to lower defenses so unconscious material may emerge Resistance Tendency to block the free expression of impulses and primitive ideas a reflection of the defense mechanism of repression

10 Psychodynamic Approach Interpretation An explanation of a client s utterance according to psychoanalytic theory Transference Traditionally is a projection of unconscious desires onto the therapist Responding to one person (spouse or therapist) in a way that is similar to the way one responded to another person (parent) in childhood

11 Psychodynamic Approach Dream Analysis Freud believed that unconscious impulses tend to be expressed in dreams as a form of wish fulfillment Dreams consist of both manifest (reported content) content and latent (symbolized or underlying meaning) content

12 Psychodynamic Approach Many contemporary psychoanalytic practitioners Abandoned many of Freud s original tenets i.e. couch Therapy has become more brief Sessions focus both on the past and on the present Focus in on identified goals and not a entire restructuring of the personality Helpful in borderline, narcissistic personalities

13 Psychodynamic Approach Counseling principles Help the person to tell his or her past story, identify and or relieve painful past experience to lower anxiety and come up with best choice Examine how the past is impacting the present (determinism) Explore the precipitating events Deal with resistance also revisit resistance to interventions

14 Psychodynamic Approach Counseling principles cont Increase the client s awareness regarding defensiveness Explore the client s transference and monitor the therapist s counter transference Provide feedback and confront discrepancies

15 Psychodynamic Approach Limitations Doesn t take all the client s needs into consideration. e.g. sometimes clients have a need to be alone or regress Psychoanalysis isn t for everyone and it is still long in duration compared to more brief theories

16 Behavioural Approach Both abnormal and normal behavior is learned Clinical procedures relying on experimental findings of psychological research Based on principles of learning Treatment goals are specific and measurable Focusing on the client s current problems

17 Behavioural Approach... Don't try to find out why their patients behave the way they do Help people change maladaptive to adaptive behaviours Therapy is largely educational - teaching clients skills of self-management

18 Behavioral Approach Behavioral Techniques Systematic Desensitization Gradually exposed to feared situation they, either in a role-playing situation or in reality with relaxation Flooding Direct exposure to anxiety-provoking situation either through mental visualization or real life contact

19 Behavioral Approach Modeling Learn a new behavior through observation and imitating others Skills Training Techniques Education program to learn social, parenting, or other relevant life skills Token Economy Controlled environment in which people are reinforced for desired behaviors with tokens

20 Behavioral Approach Applicable in conditions which involve maladaptive behavior, i.e. substance abuse, aggressive behavior, anger management, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders Limitations Inadequate to the task of explaining complex cognitive, emotional and perceptual dimension of human development

21 Humanistic Approach Regard people as unique, self determined and worthy of respect Focus on self, which translate into a person, and his or her perception of experiences Stress free will, the human ability to make choices People can freely choose to live more creative, meaningful and satisfying lives

22 Humanistic Approach Maslow s approach Human development as being guided by a variety of basic human needs among them the needs of achieve self actualization Human beings have two basic sets of needs that are rooted in their biology Basic or deficiency needs Growth or meta needs

23 Humanistic Approach People are unique must follow their own paths to self-actualization Involves risk easier to stay with the tried and true From basic needs Maslow developed a Hierarchy of Needs

24 Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers: Person-Centered Approach Believed that humans are basically good Self is the core of personality Include real self and ideal self Argued that we have an innate drive to reach an optimal sense of ourselves & satisfaction with our lives

25 Humanistic Approach Client-Centered therapy Try to create supportive climate in which client feel able to look at themselves honestly and acceptingly Therapist must display three important qualities Unconditional positive regard Accurate empathy Genuineness

26 Humanistic Approach Humanistic approach Sensitize importance of subjective experience of consciousness, of self conception, of consideration of the whole person, and of our innate positive nature Calls attention to the positive capacities of human beings Deals with distress, problem of self, meaning

27 Humanistic Perspective Limitation Tendency to be too optimistic Inclination to encourage excessive self love

28 Cognitive Approach Assumption that people actually create their own problems, symptoms by the way they interpret events and situation Focus on helping people change the beliefs, attitudes and automatic types of thinking that are believed to underlie psychological problems such as anxiety and depression

29 Cognitive Approach... People with psychological disorder can overcome their problems by developing new more functional ways of thinking Counselor helps the client to Recognize the negative thoughts Biased interpretations and errors in logic that dominate their thinking

30 Cognitive Approach... Albert Ellis Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) Based on the principle that psychological problems are produced by irrational assumptions Counselor asks client to discriminate between the real event and unrealistic assumptions Counselor acts as a teacher, expert or authority figure challenge, confront

31 Cognitive Approach... Cognitive therapy is effective on treating depression, anxiety, panic, sexual dysfunctions

32 Transactional Analysis Approach Eric Berne (1970) is the founder of Transactional Analysis Basically the study of how people take on certain behaviors, either by accident or from their early caretakers or authority figures and then continue to play them out in their adult lives

33 Transactional Analysis Approach... Berne recognized that three such ego states Must be in everyone, together they make up the unique individual Are not roles but phenomenological realities Each is concerned with what actually happened in the past and how they acted will determine how they act in the here and now Decisions that they made then will determine the decisions and behaviors they now make presently

34 Transactional Analysis Approach... Parent ego state Contains attitudes and behaviors that are observed and copied from the individual s caretakers and figures Spoken & unspoken rules; should & ought of life Adult ego state Concerned primarily with appraising facts, reasoning, thinking, evaluating and responding to available data

35 Transactional Analysis Approach... The child ego state Concerned with feelings though that does not mean that when in the here and now experience the person does not have access to attitudes and thinking, but it simply means that when activated feelings are usually the executive energy force

36 Transactional Analysis Approach... Choose how s/he want to operate with others Possibilities for changes in conversations Determine whether transaction is said in a healthy straight forward manner or said in an ulterior or confused manner

37 Personal Construct Approach Developed by George Kelly (1995) Based on developing and testing hypothesis Predictions, confirmations or reconstructions In viewing the world, personal construct out of qualities, behaviours, or characteristics are developed or modified Personal construct as a set of criteria, rules or methods of interpretation

38 Personal Construct Approach... Principles Enhance self awareness Coping with relationship problems Breakdown complex issues

39 Gestalt Therapy Approach Developed in the 1950s, by Fritz Perls Guides clients toward self-recognition and self acceptance Achieve this goal by challenging and even frustrating their clients Gestalt techniques are also meant to shorten the therapy process Some of Perl s favorite techniques were:

40 Gestalt Therapy Approach... Skillful frustration Refusal to meet client s expectations or demands, to help people see how they often try to manipulate others into meeting their needs Role playing Act out various roles, to be another person, an object an alternative self or even a part of the body Encouraged to fully express emotions

41 Gestalt Therapy Approach... Many cry out, scream, kick or pound Through this experience they may come to own / accept feelings that previously made them uncomfortable Numerous rules and exercise List of rules to ensure that clients will look themselves more closely. i.e. use I language rather than It language; I am frightened rather than the situation is frightening

42 Eclectic Approach No single approach suit each problem Today, many counselors don t adhere to a single approach Many counselors utilize an eclectic approach

43 Conclusion Theory inform practice Implement active, eclectic counseling strategies and interventions Establish clear, concrete, measurable goals in order to evaluate progress.

44 References Burnard, P (1994) Counseling Skills for Health Professionals; 2 nd Edition. Stanley Thornes Publishers Ltd Fuster, JM (2003) Personal Counseling Gross, R. (2010) Psychology the Science of Mind and Behaviors 6 th edition; Macmillan Company Hoeksema, Susan. N (2007), Abnormal Psychology 4 th Edition McGraw Hill Publisher Lahey, Benjamin. B (2004), Psychology An Introduction 8 th Edition McGraw Hill Publisher

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