THE EFFECTS OF GOAL-SETTING INTERVENTIONS ON THREE VOLLEYBALL SKILLS: A SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGN

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1 THE EFFECTS OF GOAL-SETTING INTERVENTIONS ON THREE VOLLEYBALL SKILLS: A SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGN ELENI ZETOU, VASSILIOS PAPACHARISIS & FERENIKI MOUNTAKI Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini. Division of Intercollegiate Athletics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki. Correspondence: Eleni Zetou Papanikolaou Av Thessaloniki Greece Tel:

2 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills THE EFFECTS OF GOAL-SETTING INTERVENTIONS ON THREE VOLLEYBALL SKILLS: A SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGN Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a goal setting intervention program, on basic components of volleyball performance over the course of a competitive season. A multiple-baseline, single-subject design was used with video observations on three performance components (serving, serve-receiving and attacking), collected for three woman volleyball players, in amateur level-six years experience. Every skill evaluated using three symbols: 0 = the lost (a point lost by player), + = the perfect (a point won by player) and - = the neutral (continued the phase). This method evaluates the effectiveness of individual components of performance. At the midseason break, participants selected one skill of their play that they felt would benefit from improvement. A goal-setting program was designed based on the goal attainment scaling procedure recommended by Smith (988). According to the program participants generated numerical targets for their chosen skills. Performance skills assessed for the next seven matches as they had been in the pre-intervention phase. Results were indicated that participants following the intervention, showed a general stability in all three skills and not significant improvements in their targeted area of performance. The findings suggest that amateur athletes cannot enhance their performance by using the goal attainment scaling as an intervention strategy during the games of the competitive season. Key words: volleyball, match performance, improvement, focus attention

3 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Introduction Locke and Latham (98) argued that tasks performed in industrial settings have much in common with sport activities in that both involve mental and physical actions directed toward some goal. They proposed that goal setting should work equally well in the realm of sports as it does in organizational settings. A review of the literature reveals that the research has predominantly focused on goal proximity (Boyce, 99), on goal specificity (Weinberg, Bruya, & Jackson, 990) and goal difficulty (Hall, Weinberg, & Jackson, 987). Consistent support has not been found for Locke and Latham s (98) hypotheses that specific, difficult goals produce higher levels of performance than no goals or do your best goals, or that short-term goals are more effective than long-term goals (Burton, 99). How goal setting operates in the sport environment is still awaited and investigations into the effects of goal-setting interventions in real world sporting situations represent an important tangential area of goal- setting research interest. Directions of behaviors are influenced by long and short term, important and nonimportant, and easy and difficult goals that are prioritized and strategically implemented according to individual aims during self-regulation (Gill, 000). A lot of researchers have indicated that goal setting is an effective performance enhancement technique in sport (Weineberg, 99; Kyllo, & Landers, 99; Theodorakis, 99; Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 000; Moooney, & Mutrie, 000; Boyce, Johnston, Wayda, Bunker, & Eliot, 00; Wang, Huddleston, & Peng, 00; Lane, & Streeter, 00; Papaioannou, Ballon, Theodorakis, & Auwelle, 00). However, many studies have found null results in goal setting intervention in exercise performance. Hollingsworth (97) and Barnett (977) found no performance differences between groups with specific goals and those with no

4 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills goals on a juggling task. Furthermore, Weineberg, Bruya, and Jackson (98; 990), using a strength and endurance task, also found no differences in performance between groups given specific, difficult goals and those given do your best goals. Recently a lot of experiments were done using a mental skill training package comprising relaxation, imagery, self-talk and goal setting and the researchers reported to be beneficial on,00m running (Patrick and Hrycaiko, 998). Thelwell and Greenlees (00) based on Taylor s (99) recommendations for endurance-based activities, examined the effects of a task specific mental skills training package on gymnasium triathlon performance in a simulated competition setting. Five participants took part in a single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design whereby they completed one gymnasium triathlon per week, over a ten week period, and received a mental skills (goal setting, relaxation, self-talk, and imagery) intervention at staggered intervals. The results show the intervention to be effective in enhancing gymnasium triathlon performance for all participants. The first skill included within the package by Thelwell and Greenlees (00) was goal setting, which was included on two accounts. First, goal setting techniques may enhance feelings and perceptions of control via a combination of process, performance and outcome goals can benefit motivation (Filby, Maynard, & Graydon, 999). Second, goal setting can work in a motivational manner via SMART goals (Locke, & Latham, 98) that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timephased. Thelwell and Greenlees (00) extended the previous study, using four participants in a single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design, on competitive gymnasium triathlon performance. The results indicated that mental skills package is effective in enhancing all participants performance.

5 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Based on these equivocal findings we can suggest that goal setting does not generalize to areas of exercise performance. It is not clear if the goal setting procedure is the same for training or for competition condition (Weinberg, Butt, & Knight, Perritt, 00). Previous research (Burton, Naylor, & Holliday, 00) has indicated that goals might differ across these two situations. Munroe-Chandler, Hall, & Weinberg (00) examined the types of goals that the athletes set in these two situations and they found that goals were quite similar. Smith (998) has recommended the use of goal attainment scaling as a methodology for developing personalized scaled descriptions that can be used for both intervention goal setting and outcome measurement purposes. For each targeted area of perceived need for improvement, -point scales of specific outcomes are generated. Beyond the fundamental issue of testing goal theory in an exercise task, most of the studies in goal setting research in the exercise performance, do not use athletes performance in a real life competitive environment as the depended variable. Swain and Jones (99) examined the effects of a goal setting intervention program on selected components of basketball performance over the course of a competitive season. A multiple-baseline, single-subject design was used with baseline observations on various performance components, collected for four elite college basketball players during their first eight games of the season. At the midseason break, these players selected one aspect of their play that they felt would benefit from improvement. Players followed a goal attainment scaling procedure after they generated numerical targets for their chosen components. Then the performance components were assessed for the next eight games. The results showed that players had consistent improvements in their targeted area of performance.

6 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills For all these studies the athletes need to set a measurable goal. That s why observation and quantitative recording are usually used. Quantitative analysis is not new in the field of volleyball and numerous studies used some type of catalogue or a check list in order to collect data regarding the elements of the game (Baacke, 98, Byra & Scott, 98, Ejem, 980, Eom & Schutz, 99, Sawula, 977, Vojik, 980). These studies used a numerical scale of five gradations (0-) or a symbol (+, -, 0) in order to attribute the quality of each element. Later on the data which were analyzed under different methods depending on the principal aim of their use, -such as to represent the frequencies of appearance of certain elements, compare performances between teams or research the relationship between team performance and the success the teams accomplished in a tournament- (Cox, 97, Ejem & Horak, 980, Nishijima & Matsuura, 988). Trying to replicate Swain and Jones investigation with the same design, but with different characteristics of the players (amateur), we examined the effects of a goal-setting intervention program on selected volleyball skills during the competitive season via a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Three volleyball amateur players agreed to participate in the study and were requested to select one specific aspect of play in which they would wish to see performance improvement. Three different behaviors were targeted and a goal-setting program was designed based on the goal attainment scaling procedure recommended by Smith (988). It was hypothesized that for all three players there would be post intervention improvement in the targeted area of behavior and no post intervention improvement in the no targeted areas of behavior.

7 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 7 We were interested to examine if a goal setting procedure, in a real life competitive environment, for a specific skill of the game was effective in maximizing performance in the particular skill. Method Participants The participants were three members of the starting six of a women volleyball team (Mean age = 7.9 years, SD=. ) who were competing during the season, in the local competition. All participants had been playing competitive volleyball for a minimum two years, in the same playing level (amateur league). Participants were offensive players (two were outside attacker-hitter and one middle attacker-hitter), but according to the tactic of the team they all competed in the team service reception. That means that during the training period the participants spent the same time to practice the three skills. Participants were practiced four days per week for 90 min per practice. Also all three participants started in all sets of the seven matches (from total matches of the first half of the season) which were selected for observation during the pretreatment period. The seven matches were selected according to the previous year ranking, so as not to be so easy or so difficult matches. The same seven matches (from total matches of the second half of the season) were selected for observation after the intervention. Instruments Performance: Performance was assessed on a slightly modified version of the objective measure of volleyball performance that was developed by Byra and Scott, (98). This method used to assess skill performance during the match and it s

8 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 8 considered that is simple for novice athletes. Every skill evaluated using three symbols: 0 = the lost (a point lost by player), + = the perfect (a point won by player) and - = the neutral (reckless, continued the phase). The perfect execution was graduated with + and the false execution with 0. This method evaluates the effectiveness of individual components of performance (not the quality-technique, but the result of skill) and was expressed to players by numbers. After each of the seven matches, performance feedback was provided for each player on each component in the form of match statistics that were recorded on a piece of paper. The interpretation of the numerical value which the players had to know was the mean of the excellent performance in every skill of the match. For the service and the attack was the number of aces (point), or when the opponents couldn t create an offensive situation. For the service reception was the excellent trial (the direction of service reception had to be near the setter s head, so she could create a perfect set for attack). The score which was given in the participants it was, for example in attack skill, for ten attacking efforts participant has eight effective attacks. The final score was the sum of perfect trials divided by the number of all trials in the match (ex. effectiveness of player in attack=perfect trials / all trials). Goal attainment scaling: A goal attainment scale (GAS) developed by Smith (988) was employed in order to provide a structure to the goal-setting process. This -point scale measured the participants outcome expectations as a result of the intervention. Responses ranged from assessment of their worst possible outcome to the best possible outcome of the intervention for each participant. Numerical values were assigned to each of the -point scale labels (table ). Participants, based on knowledge of their mean performance over the first seven matches, selected accordingly a numerical goal to coincide with these treatment expectations. Details

9 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 9 of the actual procedure are provided shortly in goal-setting intervention procedure section. Smith (998) has recommended the use of goal attainment scaling as a methodology for developing personalized scaled descriptions that can be used for both intervention goal setting and outcome measurement purposes. For each targeted area of perceived need for improvement, -point scales of specific outcomes are generated. TABLE about here Social validation: Participants involved in this investigation were asked to respond anonymously to a social validation questionnaire at the completion of the study. This included four questions with a Likert-type response scale asking: (a) How important to you is improvement on the performance component that you have selected? with responses ranging from one (not at all important) to seven (extremely important); (b) Do you consider any of the performance changes that have occurred to be significant? with responses ranging from one (not at all significant) to seven (extremely significant); (c) Has the procedure proved acceptable to you? with responses ranging from one (not at all) to seven (very much so); and (d) Has the procedure proved useful to you? with responses ranging from one (not at all) to seven (very much so). In order to have some additional information regarding the precise impact of the intervention, participants was also asked to consider underlying reasons for the success or failure of the goal-setting procedure. This was assessed via an open-ended question, which read, If you perceive that the procedure has contributed to enhancing your performance, could you comment briefly on why you believe this to be the case?

10 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 0 Design and procedure A multiple-baseline design (across subjects) was used in this study. The baseline observation collected for all three participants were those derived from their performances during the seven matches of the first half of season. Participants of the study were played all the matches after the midseason break ( days). The design allowed assessment of whether improvement in a particular component of performance was a general outcome or exclusive to the participant for whom the goal attainment scaling procedure was implemented. It was necessary to obtain past performance scores or baseline measures for a sufficient period of time (seven matches) to determine the range of fluctuations in performance that occurred prior to treatment. If an improvement in performance occurred after the intervention program, then we could conclude that the intervention was responsible for the results. Pre-intervention performance assessment. Performance data were collected for the seven matches of the first half of the season from all of the volleyball skills during the specified season. The experimenter video recorded the matches and then evaluated the performance during video replay. A test-retest procedure with a -day time interval between the two recording trials was used to establish the intra-observer reliability of the recording procedure. The first two matches were selected for checking intra-observer reliability. During a video replay of the matches, the three skill performances of the three participants were recorded according to the objective measure of volleyball performance that was referred above. Three days later this procedure was repeated by the same person (i.e. the first author). The data from the two trials were then analyzed using analysis of variance to determine the degree of the intra-observer reliability for each skill

11 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills component. The resulting intra observer correlation coefficients for the three skills were above.9 in all cases, indicating high consistency in the recording procedure. The data were recording in a protocol paper for every trial and then it was derive the sum for the recording match, for every player, for three skills. Goal-setting intervention procedure. At the midseason break, the participants of the study were informed about the match statistics from the previous seven matches, and mean totals for each of the components of performance were presented to them. Participants were asked to consider a component of their performance that they felt was important to their role on the team and they want to improve it. Following the discussions during the midseason break, three of the players chose the following skills: (a) Participant (P)-service, (b) Participant (P) -service reception, (c) Participant (P)-attack. In order to avoid coaching support as a potential confounding error, the coach did not know the specific targeted performance behavior of each participant. Following discussion with the researcher and based on the mean values from the pre-intervention phase, all three participants generated a series of numerical values for their chosen component based on this procedure. As Table shows, the mean value that emerged from the previous seven matches for the components in question fell between - and 0 on the GAS. The participants reasoned that by directing attention and mobilizing effort, they expected to achieve some improvement. Therefore, the target that denoted the expected level of treatment success represented improvement for all three participants. Levels of improvement beyond the expected level of zero (i.e., +, +), although still attainable, tended to represent a significant advance in the participants terms.

12 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Prior to each of their seven subsequent performances, participants were instructed to think about the numerical goal they had set for their particular targeted area of performance and to focus on striving for that target throughout the match. The numerical goal that was emphasized was the one that represented the expected level of treatment success or 0 in Table. Post intervention performance assessment. The three participants retained their status as starting players for all of the corresponding seven matches (with the same opponents) in the second half of the season. Performance was assessed in the same way as it had been in the seven matches of the first half season. Performance feedback was also provided in accordance with the pre-intervention phase. The match took place every Sunday, and in the first training of the week (Tuesday) the results of statistics were given in every player for three skill in a piece of paper. Collection of social validation data. In addition to the performance data, supplementary information concerning the intervention process was also obtained. Intervention researchers have called for social validation to assess subject reactions to treatment procedures and experimental outcomes (Kazdin, 98; Kendall et al., 990). Subsequently, the three participants were asked to complete the social validation questionnaire, 8 hr after the seventh and final match of the post-intervention phase. Treatment of the performance data. The three participants raw scores were plotted for all of the three skills that were selected for the purpose of the investigation. Through visual inspection of the single-subject data, the following criteria were used to identify whether a significant experimental effect had occurred: (a) the number of overlapping data points between

13 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases, (b) the size of the effect after intervention, and (c) the number of times that effects were replicated across participants (Martin & Pear, 988). Two additional means of establishing whether performance increments were a function of the intervention were also consider. Scores first were examined for each of the targeted skills of performance for three participants for whom the particular component in question was not directly of concern. Second, assessment was made of each individual s performance in the other areas of play in order to determine whether the player had also experienced improvements in the non-targeted components of play or, alternatively, whether targeted behavior improvement had occurred at the expense of other facets of play. Results Inspection of the performance for the three components selected by the three participants revealed minimal changes between the mean scores of the seven matches of the first half of season and the seven matches of the second half of season. The data are presented for the three participants on an individual basis. A figure for each participant mean performance changes in the targeted component is provided, and, for the purposes of comparison, this is shown against performance changes in the two areas that were selected by the other two participants. Means and standard deviations for pre- and post intervention performance component scores for participants one to three are reported in Table. TABLE about here Participant : Service Figure shows the effects of the intervention on the targeted service performance of Participant one as well as her attack and service reception

14 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills performances. Performance prior to the intervention was not stable for target skill, with scores ranging from zero to four, with two times to be in one and two times in two. Following the implementation of the goal setting strategy, there was stability in performance, with a score of one to be in four matches and a score of two to be in three matches. There was an overlapping of score three times, four times was equal and once was decreased in the same matches. As Figure also shows, there was not stability for the service reception skill performance score in pre-intervention with a fluctuation from zero to thirteen, but there was stability in post intervention with score from two to eight. There was an overlapping of score three times, and four times was decreased in the same matches. In attack skill performance score there was a score fluctuation from one to eight in the pre-intervention and from two to seven, with four matches score to overlap the preintervention score, two to be equal and one to be decreased. There were no effects of the intervention on the targeted skill, only a stability of performance. The mean scores for the other components for Participant one was stable and slight improved as well, but there was no significant. However, this change was not significant and the mean value of performance (.9) was considerably smaller than the expected level (five) of success set by Participant one on the goal attainment scale. Figure about here Participant : Service reception Figure shows the effects of the intervention on the targeted service reception performance of Participant two as well as her attack and service performances. Performance prior to the intervention was not stable, with scores ranging from four, to eight with three times to be between four and five and one time to be under three.

15 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Following the implementation of the goal setting strategy, there was not stability in performance as the pre-intervention matches, with a score from five to nine. There was an overlapping of score in all matches of second round. As Figure also shows, there was not stability for the service skill performance score, in post intervention with a fluctuation from one to six. In the post-intervention matches the score was from two to seven. There was an overlapping of score five times and two times was decreased in the same matches. In attack skill performance score there was a fluctuation from one to eight prior to intervention and in the post intervention score from two to nine, with six times to overlap the score prior to intervention. Following the implementation of the intervention small increase emerged over the mean of the seven matches in the second round for the target skill. In addition, scores for the other components for Participant two, were slight improved in service but slight decreased in attack. However, this change was not significant and the mean value (six) was smaller than the expected level (eight) of success set by Participant two on the goal attainment scale. Figure about here Participant : Attack Figure shows the effects of the intervention on the targeted attack performance of Participant three as well as her service and service reception performances. Performance prior to the intervention was not stable, with scores ranging from one, to seven with two times to be in seven and two times to be in one. Following the implementation of the goal setting strategy, there was a decreasing, but

16 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills there was stability in performance. There was an overlapping of score four times, but an increasing three times in the same matches of second round. As Figure also shows, there was not stability for the service reception skill performance score, in post intervention with a fluctuation from zero to nine. In the post-intervention matches there was a decreasing of score. There was an overlapping of score in five times and only two times there was a decreasing in the matches of second round. In service skill performance score there was a fluctuation from zero to nine prior to intervention and in the post intervention score from one to, with every match score to overlap the score prior to intervention. Following the implementation of the intervention there was a slight increase emerged over the mean of the seven matches in the second round, in the target skill. In addition, scores for the other components for Participant three, were also improved as well. However, this change was not significant and the mean value (four) was smaller than the expected level (six) of success set by Participant three on the goal attainment scale. Figure about here The mean values of all targeted performance component scores for all three participant (Table ), indicates that in post intervention performance were no improvement for Participant one and there were considerably less improvement than the expected level for the Participants two and three. Table, also indicates, across three participants, that performance tended not to change in any of the components that weren t targeted by the participant s during the intervention.

17 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 7 Social Validation Questionnaire In response to how important improvement was to them, two of the participants reported a value of seven and the other one chose six, with seven representing extremely important. The responses to whether the performance changes were significant for them were four, seven, and seven, with seven being extremely significant. The responses to whether the procedure was acceptable to them were six, six, and seven with seven being very much. The responses to whether the procedure proved useful were four, five, and five, with seven also being very much. Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a goal-setting intervention on selected components of volleyball performance over the course of a competitive season. Previous research on the application of the goal attainment scaling procedure, where participant s generated numerical targets for their chosen components, reported improvements in performance following the intervention phase (Swain & Jones, 99). The present study replicated and extended these results to non-elite or relatively unskilled athletes. Two of the three participants slightly improved the score in the target skills, but this improvement was not significant. In addition participants did not manage to reach the goal attainment score. The results of this study suggested also that the selected skill had little effect on the other skills. There were generally no outcome changes in other components of performance. Responses of the social validation questionnaire indicated that the participants had been highly committed to improvement on their respective targeted performance and they felt that the procedure had been acceptable and useful enough. However, to

18 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 8 the open ended question, in the interviews, were each participant was responsible for her response, comments were different. All three participant reported disappointment with their performance improvement, they commented on the positive effect that the strategy had on their concentration but they said that were very difficult to them to keep focus on their target component during the match. In addition Participant two and three added that was easier for them to keep focus on their target component during their training sessions. In such experiments in real world situations, there are some disadvantages. So we tried to eliminate the influence of other factors, by keeping the content of training (physical, technical and tactical) as possible as the same and stable for all players (coach didn t know which athletes were the subjects of experiment and which was the skill they selected to improve). It was expected that the performance of participants, teammates and opponents, would have the same physical progress. The players who played in the first 7 matches, they competed in the 7 second round matches (same duration of play). To ensure also that all opponent teams have the same level of playing, we chose the matches were the same in first and second round (opponent players are the same in first and second round). An important limitation of this study was the athletes ability to set reachable and realistic goals. Lack of this ability, in many situations can be lead in errors, performance decrements and disappointment. When an athlete has to perform two or three task, simultaneously during the game, performance of the focused task depends strongly on the proportion of available attention required by the other tasks and this depends to the extend to which the other tasks can be performed automatically. The strategies participants use to share resources and switch attention between focused

19 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 9 and secondary tasks is a critical influence of performance. Amateur athletes cannot allocate attention and resources between two or more tasks in a flexible manner. Further, participants worried too much about the winning and consequently did not focus sufficiently the task at hand. Weinberg & Gould (999) stated that It is very difficult not to think about winning or how your performance compares with other. After all, winning and losing receive much more attention from others than do an individual s personal goal achievements. Despite the results of the present study, there are studies in elite athletes showing that elite athletes can enhance performance when competing in the real world by using goal setting as an intervention strategy (Swain & Jones 99) and can have better concentration, higher level of self-confidence, more task oriented thoughts and lower level of anxiety (Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 99). In addition, they could set daily goals, were high in confidence and could practice physiological skills effectively (Orlick & Partigton, 988). In conclusion our findings provide some support of the notion that, particularly for armature athletes, goal attainability during the match cannot produce significant gains in performance. It would appear that future research should focus on understanding the various conditions under which goal attainability hypothesis affects motor performance. This might include an investigation of goal attainability using different strategies other than Smith s (988) scale used in the present study. It is very important for psychologists and coaches to teach participants in that level not only to set goals but also the process of setting goals. Athletes, who employ such strategies, can improve their sports skills; while at the same time learn how to set goals for their life (Papacharisis, Goudas, Danish, & Theodorakis, 00). Studies in elite athletes (Burton, 989) and children s (Papacharisis et al, 00) indicated that

20 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 0 athletes who learn how to set goals demonstrated more appropriate cognitions and better performance than those with less effective goal setting skills. Future investigations should continue to assess the effectiveness of goal setting interventions across a competitive season using team and individual sport athletes, males and females as well. In parallel way situational and personal variables such as goal orientation, coaching style, self-motivation, and social support should be combined to designs to determine the amount of interaction with the goal setting effectiveness. Clearly, it s needed more applied research of the notion that goal setting intervention strategies can enhance performance of sports performers competing in the real world situation. References Byra, M., & Scott, A. (98). A method for recording team statistics in volleyball. Volleyball Technical Journal, 7(), 9-. Baacke, H. (98). Statistical match analysis for evaluation of players and teams performances. Volleyball Technical Journal, Vol. 7(), p. -. Barnett, M. L. (977). Effects of two methods of goal setting on learning a gross motor task. Research Quarterly, 8, 9-. Boyce, B. A., Johnston, T., Wayda, V. K, Bunker, L. K., & Eliot, J. (00). The effects of three types of goal setting conditions on tennis performance: a field-based study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 0()

21 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Boyce, B. A. (99). The effects of goal proximity on skill acquisition and retention of a shooting task in a field-based setting. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,, Burton, D. (99). The Jekyll/Hyde nature of goals: Reconceptualizing goal setting in sport. In T. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (7-97). Champaigne, IL: Human Kinetics. Burton, D., Naylor, S. & Holliday, B. (00). Goal setting in sport: Investigating the goal effectiveness paradox. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. Janelle (Eds). Handbook of Sport Psychology. New York: Wiley. Cox, R. H. (97). Relationship between Volleyball skill components and team performance of men s Northwest AA volleyball teams, Research Quarterly,, -. Ejem, M. (980). Some theoretical aspects of statistical game analysis utilization in player s performance evaluation. Volleyball Technical Journal, Vol. (), p. -8. Ejem, M. & Horak, J. (980). Selected findings from statistical analysis of individual play in Czechoslovak championships. Volleyball Technical Journal, Vol. (), p Eom, H. J., and Schutz, R. W. (99). Statistical Analyses of Volleyball Team Performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Vol., No, pp.-8. Filby, W. C. D., Maynard, I. W., & Graydon, J. K. (999). The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology,, 0-.

22 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Gill, D. L. (000). Psychological dynamics of sport and exercise. (nd Ed.) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Gould, D., Eklund, R., & Jackson, S. (99). Coping strategies used by more versus less successful Olympic wrestlers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,, 8-9. Hall, H. K., Weinberg, R. S., & Jackson, A. (987). Effects of goal specifity, goal difficulty, and information feedback on endurance performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, -. Hollingsworth, B. (97). Effects of performance goals and anxiety on learning a gross motor task. Research Quarterly,, -8. Kadzin, A. E. (98). Single-case experimental designs. In P. C. Kendal & J. N. Butcher. (Eds), Hanbook of research methods in clinical psychology (- 90). New York: Wiley. Kendall, G., Hrycaido, D., Martin, G. L., & Kendall, T. (990). The effects of an imagery rehearsal, relaxation, and self-talk package on basketball game performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,, 7-. Kyllo, L. B. & Landers, D. M. (99). Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7, 7-7. Lane, A., & Streeter, B. (00). The effectiveness of goal setting as a strategy to improve basketball shooting performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, () 8-0. Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (98). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology,, 0-.

23 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Martin, G., & Pear, J. (99). Behavior modification: What it is and how to do it ( th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Mooney, R. P., & Mutrie, N. (000). The effects of goal specificity and goal difficulty on the performance of badminton skills in children. Pediatric, Exercise, Science, (), Munroe-Chandler, K. J., Hall, C. R., & Weinberg, R. S. (00). A qualitative analysis of the types of goal athletes set in training and competition. Journal of Sport Behavior, 7() 8-7. Nishijima, T. & Matsuura, Y. (988). Contribution of the player in reference to his position to the game performance in Volleyball. Paper presented at 988 Seoul Olympic Scientific Congress, Seoul, Korea. Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (988). Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist,, 0-0. Papaioannou, A., Ballon, F., Theodorakis, Y. & Auwelle, Y.V. (00). Combined effect of goal setting and self-talk in performance of soccer shooting task. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 98, Papacharisis, V., Goudas, M., Danish, S. & Theodorakis, Y. (00). The effectiveness of teaching a life skills program in a sport context. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. (in press). Patrick, T. D., & Hrycaiko, D. W. (998). Effects of a mental training package on an endurance performance. The Sport Psychologist,, Sawula, L. (977). Individual Action Plan. Volleyball Technical Journal, Vol. (), p. -8. Smith, R. E. (988). The logic and designed of case study research. The Sport Psychologist,, -.

24 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Swain, A., & Jones, G. (99). Effects of goal-setting interventions on selected basketball skills: A single - subject design, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,, -. Thelwell, R. C., & Greenlees, I. A. (00). Developing competitive endurance performance using mental skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 7, 8-7. Thelwell, R. C., & Greenlees, I. A. (00). The effect of a mental skills training package on gymnasium triathlon performance. The Sport Psychologist,, 7-. Taylor, J. (99). A conceptual model for integrating athlete s needs and sport demands in the development of competitive mental preparation strategies. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 9-7. Theodorakis, Y. (99). Effects of Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Personal Goals on Swimming Performance. The Sport Psychologist, 9, -. Vojik, J. (980). Several remarks to a system of accumulating data in volleyball. Volleyball Technical Journal, (), -. Wang, L., Huddleston, S, & Peng, L. (00). Psychological skill used by Chinese swimmers. International Sport Journal, 7(), 8-. Weinberg, R. S. (99). Goal setting and motor performance: A review and critique. In G. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (77-97). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Weinberg, R. S., Butt, J., Knight, B. & Perritt, N. (00). Collegiate coaches perceptions of their goal-settings practices: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology,, 7-98.

25 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Weinberg, R. S., Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, (000). Perceived goal setting practices of Olympic athletes: an exploratory investigation. The Sport Psychologist,, Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (999) Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. ( nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Weinberg, R. S., Bruya, L., & Jackson, A. (990). Goal setting and competition: A reaction to Hall and Byrne. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,, Weinberg, R. S., Bruya, L., & Jackson, A. (98). The effects of goal proximity and goal specificity on endurance performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 9-0.

26 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills Table Goal attainment scales for Participants to (P, P, P). Most Less than More than Best Pre- unfavorable expected expected anticipated intervention treatment success with Target success with treatment Skill mean outcome treatment Goal treatment success P: service. 7 P: service reception P: attack.7 7 8

27 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 7 Table Means and standard deviations for pre- and post intervention performance component scores for Participants to. Participant Participant Participant st round nd round st round nd round st round nd round Service.*.9* (.0) (0.9) () (.80) (.9) (.9) Service.7.7 * *.8. reception (.7) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.7) Attack * * (.7) (.07) (.) (.) (.0) (.) Note *numbers identify performance on the participant s target goal.

28 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 8, service (target behavior),,, games 0, st round nd round 0 service reception games st round nd round 9 attack games 0 st round nd round Figure. Performance component scores for Participant (P).

29 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 9 service st round nd round games service reception (target behavior) st round nd round games attack st round nd round games Figure. Performance component scores for Participant (P).

30 Goal setting interventions on three volleyball skills 0 service games st round nd round service reception 9 games st round nd round 8 attack (target behavior) st round nd round Figure. Performance component scores for Participant (P). games

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