Experimental Psychology

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1 Title Experimental Psychology Type Individual Document Map Authors Aristea Theodoropoulos, Patricia Sikorski Subject Social Studies Course None Selected Grade(s) 11, 12 Location Roxbury High School Curriculum Writing History Notes Attachments Page: 1 of 22

2 September/Week 2 - September/Week 3 September October November December January February March April May June Correlational Studies vs. Experiments September/Week 4 The Scientific Method in Correlational Studies: Methodology and Data Collection October/Week 5 - October/Week 6 Survey Writing November/Week 9 Validity and Reliability November/Week 10 How to Conduct a Literature Review and Write a Report November/Week 11 - November/Week 12 The Scientific Method in Experimentation: Methodology and Data Collection December/Week 13 - December/Week 14 The Scientific Method in Experimentation: Analyzing Data and Drawing Conclusions December/Week 15 - December/Week 16 Graphing Results and Presenting Findings January/Week 17 - January/Week 18 Ethics in Experimentation January/Week 19 - January/Week 20 Application of Research Methods (Capstone) September/Week 1 Introduction to Research Methods October/Week 7 - October/Week 8 The Scientific Method in Correlational Studies: Analyzing Data and Making Predictions Page: 2 of 22

3 Duration: September/Week 2 - September/Week 3 UNIT NAME: Correlational Studies vs. Experiments Relational research attempts to show how two variables change together. Correlational research permits a determination of the strength and direction of relations among variables. The internal validity of correlational technique is suspect due to a variety of factors, most specifically a lack of control of any variable. An experiment is the production of a particular comparison while other aspects of the situation are held constant. Independent variables are those manipulated by the experimenter, while the dependent variable is the behavior measured pre and post manipulation. Experiments have greater internal validity than correlational studies due to control of the variables. What is a correlation? When can it be used? What correlation coefficient(s) are considered to be "significant"? Why can one never conclude that one variable causes an other in a correlation? How does an experiment demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between antecedent conditions and behavior? How does the manipulation of variables preserve the internal validity of a study? Recognize that correlational research does not describe or explain behavior, but rather predicts behavior. Discover that a correlational study does not manipulate antecedent conditions, and is therefore vulnerable to validity flaws. Recognize that experimentation does not describe or predict behavior, but rather explains behavior through cause and effect. Explain why one would choose to perform a correlational study over and experiment and vice versa. Describe the strength and direction of a relationship based on a correlation coefficient and scatterplot. Predict the outcomes of behavior based on previous correlational research. Critique the internal validity of correlational data due to the third-variable problem, truncated range, and unknown direction of causation. Compare and contrast the dealings of variables in experimentation versus correlational studies. Compare and contrast the internal and external validity of experimentation versus correlational studies. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both a correlational study and an experiment. APA.SI.2.1-Discuss the value of both basic and applied psychological research with human and non-human animals (09-12) APA.SI.2.3-Identify the important role psychology plays in benefiting society and improving people s lives (09-12) Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods (09-12) Page: 3 of 22

4 Duration: September/Week 4 UNIT NAME: The Scientific Method in Correlational Studies: Methodology and Data Collection One must first ask a question about two variables to begin the process of the scientific method. Forming a sound hypothesis and an operational definition for each variable is essential. Testing one's hypothesis requires a specific procedure to ensure validity. Choosing a population relevant to one's study is essential. Random sampling is the best way to obtain a representative sample from a population. Surveys/questionnaires are the most common way to gather data in a correlational study. Using unbiased wording in questions is essential for obtaining valid results. Why do we need the scientific method to determine relationships between variables? What do we mean by unbiased and objective? How does subjectivity influence measurements? What is the scientific procedure used to pursue and collect data in a correlational study? Understand the principles of the scientific method and why we rely on them for accuracy. Describe the scientific method as systematic and selfcorrecting. Recognize that generalizations produce hypotheses. Explain science's main assumption, and describe the goals of the scientific enterprise. Clarify the relations among theory, hypotheses, and research. Determine what makes for a plausible hypothesis. Distinguish between poorly worded operational definitions and effective ones. Outline the steps in a scientific investigation in a correlational study. Identify the advantages of the scientific approach in a correlational study. Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.1-Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods (09-12) APA.SI.3.2-Define forms of qualitative data and explain how they are used by psychological scientists (09-12) APA.SI.3.3-Define correlation coefficients and explain their appropriate interpretation (09-12) Page: 4 of 22

5 Page: 5 of 22

6 Duration: October/Week 5 - October/Week 6 UNIT NAME: Survey Writing Using a survey is an essential part of the scientific process for obtaining data in correlational studies. Sources of error in descriptive research include research bias and the wording effect. The truth obtained from surveys is limited to response-styles, forced-choice questions, belief of anonymity, and volunteer willingness. Both filler questions and target questions are essential in a survey. One target question in a survey must elicit a numerical response in order to perform a t-test. Both target questions in a survey must elicit numerical responses in order to perform a Pearson-r test. What are the pros and cons of open-ended questions? of closed questions? How can one use a nominal scale, an ordinal scale, an interval scale, and a ratio scale in a survey? How can you control for any confounding variables in a survey? for researcher bias? What is the wording effect? How can it be eliminated? Understand that survey writing has an essential role in nonexperimental research for studying behavior. List the factors for designing good surveys/questionnaires. Understand how administering a survey can influence participant responses. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of conducting a survey. Choose a survey topic that can be easily assessed. Distinguish between good and poor survey questions. Produce questions that are objective, clear, and void of research bias. Decipher which questions call for one particular scale of measurement over another. Establish techniques that will increase willingness to participate. Establish techniques that will increase response rate. Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods (09-12) APA.SI.1.3-Define systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings, such as external validity (09-12) APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) APA.SI.3.2-Define forms of qualitative data and explain how they are used by psychological scientists (09-12) Page: 6 of 22

7 Page: 7 of 22

8 Duration: November/Week 9 UNIT NAME: Validity and Reliability One must assess the validity of a study before concluding its worth in the field of psychology. Variables in a study should reflect or measure the behavior of interest for the study to contain validity. Internal validity and external validity are assessed differently. Extraneous and confounding variables can affect the validity of a study and must attempt to be controlled. Reliability is equally essential in determining the scientific value of a study. The larger and more random the sample, the higher the change of validity and reliability in the results. What is the difference between predictive validity and construct validity? How do operational definitions minimize validity flaws? What is the difference between internal and external validity? What type of variables are confounding? What is the difference between validity and reliability? What are the three methods of testing reliability? What are a few strategies that can be used to ensure the reliability and validity of a study? Understand that validity refers to an approximate truth or falsity. Understand that criterion is an additional measure of behavior that serves as a standard for the measurement in question. Recognize that how well a measure predicts a criterion behavior determines the predictive validity of that measure. Describe construct validity as the extent to which variables accurately reflect or measure the behavior of interest. Understand that operational definitions and protocols help minimize construct invalidity resulting from error. Describe external validity as the extent to which observations can be generalized to other settings and populations. Understand that replication helps assess the generality of observations. Explain internal validity as concerning whether causal statements about the relationship between variables are warranted. Distinguish between predictive validity and construct validity. Design operational definitions that lack subjectivity. Differentiate between internal and external validity. Depict what type of factors in a study can be deemed as confounding. Examine the difference in importance between validity and reliability. Determine if a study is valid and reliable. Differentiate the methods to test reliability (test-retest method, parallel forms method, and splithalf method). Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.3-Define systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings, such as external validity (09-12) APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) APA.SI.3.6-Explain how validity and reliability of observations and measurements relate to data analysis (09-12) Page: 8 of 22

9 Determine confounding variables that are a major threat to internal validity. Recognize the Hawthorne Effect as a confounding variable particularly harmful to the validity of a study. Understand that reliability refers to the consistency of the measures of behavior. Determine if a study has statistical reliability based on the percentage of the results due to chance. Understand that random sampling and stratified sampling help ensure external validity of a sample taken from a population. Recognize that a study can be reliable even if not valid, but never valid if not also reliable. Recognize that larger samples increase the confidence of reliability and validity. Page: 9 of 22

10 Duration: November/Week 10 UNIT NAME: How to Conduct a Literature Review and Write a Report There are specific techniques used in scientific writing. There are components to each section of an APA style research report. A literature review is essential to conduct before performing a study in order for the researcher to make improvements in the methodology and comparisons of results. The APA has specific guidelines for citing sources. What is the purpose of a literature review? What is a scientific writing style? How is it different than an English essay? What are the major sections that should be included in each report? What should be described as a good title? What is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association? What is the function of the introduction of a report? Why is it important that a literature review is included in the introduction? How is a reference cited in-text and at the end of the report following APA format guidelines? Understand that a literature review detects what other researchers have done that is related to your proposed study. List the seven parts to a psychological report. Describe the rationale for an introduction to a study. List all of the components to the method section (participants, materials, design, and procedures). Understand that results section contains a summary of the data collected. Recognize that the discussion section requires the researcher to state the implications of his or her findings. Memorize the APA format for citing references. Produce a literature review using a sample journal article as a guide. Summarize the findings of previous studies on related topics. Identify the components of a critical reader. Detect the hypothesis of a study. Decide how the methodology of a study could be improved. Predict and interpret the results of a study. Cite references using the APA format guideline. Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods (09-12) APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) APA.SI.3.4-Interpret graphical representations of data as used in both quantitative and qualitative methods (09-12) Page: 10 of 22

11 Duration: November/Week 11 - November/Week 12 UNIT NAME: The Scientific Method in Experimentation: Methodology and Data Collection One must first ask a question about two variables to begin the process of the scientific method. There are two types of variables that are the focus of an experiment; independent and dependent. Forming a sound hypothesis and an operational definition for each variable is essential. Testing one's hypothesis requires a specific procedure to ensure validity. Choosing a population relevant to one's study is essential. Random sampling is the best way to obtain a representative sample from a population. Random assignment of the participants into the experimental group and the control group is the best way to avoid participant bias and obtain valid results. What are the physical variables of an experiment? How is elimination used as a control procedure? What is constancy of conditions? What is the difference between a random sample and a random assignment? How do they both control for confounding variables? How can we eliminate researcher bias in methodology and data collection? Why is a control group necessary? What is a single-blind experiment? A double-blind experiment? What is the difference between a within-groups experiment and a between-groups experiment? Understand that an experiment occurs when a particular comparison is produced while other aspects of the situation are held constant. Discover that the choice of participants, variables, and settings may all distort the underlying psychological processes. Recognize that generalization of results can be enhanced by using a large and truly random sample. Know that an experimental group receives the important level of the independent variable. Understand that the independent variable is that which is manipulated by the researcher while the dependent variable is the behavior observed and recorded by the researcher. Understand that a control group is an essential factor, as it serves as the untreated comparison in an experiment. Explain science's main assumption, and describe the goals of the scientific enterprise. Clarify the relations among theory, hypotheses, and research. Determine what makes for a plausible hypothesis. Distinguish between poorly worded operational definitions and effective ones. Outline the steps in a scientific investigation in an experimental study. Identify the advantages of the scientific approach in an experimental study. Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.1-Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods (09-12) APA.SI.1.3-Define systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings, such as external validity (09-12) Page: 11 of 22

12 Duration: December/Week 13 - December/Week 14 UNIT NAME: The Scientific Method in Experimentation: Analyzing Data and Drawing Conclusions After data in an experiment is collected, three basics steps for analyzing the results are organizing the data, summarizing the data, and applying the appropriate statistical test to interpret the data. Data in an experiment can be summarized using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The statistical significance of a p-value must demonstrate that the results of an experiment are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not to chance. Valid conclusions can be made based on an experiment's internal validity. External validity is limited to a single study. How can high variability in data influence the validity of the results? What is a null hypothesis? How do we know when to accept or reject it? What does a statistical significance of p <.05 mean? What is the difference between a Type I and Type II error? Explain when a hypothesis would call for a one-tailed (directional) or two-tailed (nondirectional) t-test? How do we select the appropriate statistical test for an experiment? What do we hope to accomplish when we evaluate the results of an experiment? Explain how experimenters use statistics to determine whether the independent variable probably caused the changes in the dependent variable. Understand that in a statistical analysis of data, researchers test the null hypothesis (H0), which is assumed to be true until it can be rejected. Recognize that experimenters can only accept the alternate hypothesis (H1) if the differences between groups are statistically significant. Understand that measures of central tendency and variance describe the data collected, but make no inferences. Recognize how scale attenuation and regression artifacts can lead to the misinterpretation of results. Understand that an experiment that can be replicated is a reliable one. Discuss experimentation in relation to cause-and-effect. Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics. Calculate mean, median, mode, range, and variance. Calculate a p-value using statistical tests and software. Decide whether the differences between treatments are statistically significant on the basis of probabilities. Depict extraneous variables that could account for the results of an experimental study. APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) APA.SI.3.1-Define descriptive statistics and explain how they are used by psychological scientists (09-12) APA.SI.3.2-Define forms of qualitative data and explain how they are used by psychological scientists (09-12) APA.SI.3.3-Define correlation coefficients and explain their appropriate interpretation (09-12) APA.SI.3.4-Interpret graphical representations of data as used in both quantitative and qualitative methods (09-12) APA.SI.3.5-Explain other statistical concepts, such as statistical significance and effect size (09-12) APA.SI.3.6-Explain how validity and reliability of observations Page: 12 of 22

13 and measurements relate to data analysis (09-12) Page: 13 of 22

14 Duration: December/Week 15 - December/Week 16 UNIT NAME: Graphing Results and Presenting Findings Results of an experiment can be visually represented using a bar graph. The APA provides a framework for presenting findings. For psychological science to progress, reports must be presented so that teams can critically evaluate their contribution to the scientific field. Is the goal of the research being presented in a clear and concise manner? How can I ensure that my audience will understand how I tested my hypothesis? How can I ensure that my audience will understand that my results are valid and free from bias? What applications and implications will I convey from my interpretation of the results? What other explanations can I suggest for these results? Does my interpretation best represent the data? Are there questions still left unanswered? If so, what additional studies could I suggest be conducted to answer these questions? Understand that presenting findings gives the researcher a chance to convey the importance of his/her study and explain how it can extend to the greater realm of society. Recognize that proper interpretation of tables and figures is crucial to understanding the results of a research study. Know that the vertical axis of a figure is called the ordinate, on which the dependent variable is scaled. Know that the horizontal axis on a figure is called the abscissa, where the independent variable appears. Present the goal of the experiment in a visually and orally appealing manner. Orally translate the written methodology of the experiment. Explain how the variables were controlled to eliminate confounding and bias. Suggest how the findings of the study could apply to real life. Examine the implications the study's results may have for particular groups of people or humanity as a whole. Investigate alternative reasons for the results. Construct a forum to discuss further research options for the particular topic presented. Graph the results of the study using statistical software. APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) APA.SI.3.1-Define descriptive statistics and explain how they are used by psychological scientists (09-12) APA.SI.3.4-Interpret graphical representations of data as used in both quantitative and qualitative methods (09-12) Is my graph truly representative of the data? Label and title a bar graph to reflect the data accurately. Page: 14 of 22

15 Duration: January/Week 17 - January/Week 18 UNIT NAME: Ethics in Experimentation The APA has set up guidelines to ensure the ethical conduct of research using human participants. A well-planned experiment includes careful treatment of the subjects who participate. A researcher may need to disguise the true purpose of a study to ensure that subjects behave naturally and spontaneously. Why are ethical guidelines for conducting research necessary? What is the function of informed consent? How can a researcher minimize harm or discomfort in an experiment? When is it appropriate to use deception? When is it inappropriate? What is the purpose of debriefing? Understand that an ethical researcher ensures that participants are fully informed as to the experimental procedure and give their consent before beginning the experiment. Understand that an ethical researcher uses deception only when there is no other way to investigate a research question. Recognize that participants must feel free to withdraw from the experiment at anytime without fear of penalty. Explain how any mental discomfort the participant experiences after an experiment would be eased with the process of debriefing. Understand that confidentiality regarding information about the participants acquired during the course of the experiment must be maintained at all times. Debate what makes research "controversial". Contrast the pros and cons of deception in research with human subjects. Rank a series of experiments from least unethical to most unethical. Depict the violation of the ethical guidelines within a series of experiments. Decide when the use of deception is necessary. Create an experiment outlining the ethical guidelines. APA.SI.2-Major subfields within psychology (09-12) APA.SI.2.1-Discuss the value of both basic and applied psychological research with human and non-human animals (09-12) APA.SI.2.3-Identify the important role psychology plays in benefiting society and improving people s lives (09-12) Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1.4-Discuss how and why psychologists use nonhuman animals in research (09-12) APA.SI.2-Ethical issues in research with human and nonhuman animals (09-12) APA.SI.2.1-Identify ethical standards psychologists must address regarding research with human participants (09-12) Page: 15 of 22

16 APA.SI.2.2-Identify ethical guidelines psychologists must address regarding research with non-human animals (09-12) Page: 16 of 22

17 Duration: January/Week 19 - January/Week 20 UNIT NAME: Application of Research Methods (Capstone) One must first ask a question about two variables to begin applying the process of the scientific method. Forming a sound hypothesis and an operational definition for each variable is essential. Testing one's hypothesis requires a specific procedure to ensure validity. Choosing a population relevant to one's study is essential. Random sampling is the best way to obtain a representative sample from a population. A Pearson-r test is used to calculate the results of a correlational study, whereas a chi-square test or a t-test is used to calculate the results of an experiment. Results are graphed using a scatterplot for a correlational study and a bar graph for an experiment. Valid conclusions can be made based on an assessment of the study's internal validity. What is the goal of my study? What has already been researched on my topic and what questions remain unanswered? What hypothesis will be tested in my study? How will I design the experiment to test my hypothesis? What are the independent and dependent variables? Where and how will I obtain my participants? What materials will I need? What statistical test will I use to calculate my results? How can I interpret my results? Were there any confounding variables that could have skewed the findings? How can I assess the reliability? The validity? What implications do my findings have beyond the realm of the classroom? What does this suggest about people as a whole? Recognize that a literature review must be conducted on the topic of interest as to avoid redundancy. List the seven sections to a psychological research report. Understand that the introduction describes the rationale for the study. Understand that the method sections describes the participants, materials, design, and procedure used by the experimenter. Understand that the results section contains a summary of the data collected. Explain why the creation of tables and graphs is crucial to interpreting the results of an experiment. Understand that the discussion section is where the researcher can state the implications and applications of his/her findings. Know that articles used in a research report must be referenced using the APA format guidelines. Decide what topics of study would be easier to test than others. Determine what makes for a plausible hypothesis. Distinguish between poorly worded operational definitions and effective ones. Outline the steps in a scientific investigation. Produce survey questions that are objective, clear, and void of research bias. Establish techniques that will increase willingness to participate. Distinguish between positive and negative correlations. Calculate a correlation coefficient using data from a survey. Calculate mean, median, mode, range, and variance. Calculate a p-value using statistical tests and software. Decide whether the differences between treatments are statistically significant on the Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1.3-Define systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings, such as external validity (09-12) APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) APA.SI.3.4-Interpret graphical representations of data as used in both quantitative and qualitative methods (09-12) APA.SI.3.5-Explain other statistical concepts, such as statistical significance and effect size (09-12) APA.SI.3.6-Explain how validity and reliability of observations and measurements relate to data analysis (09-12) Page: 17 of 22

18 basis of probabilities. Depict extraneous variables that could account for the results of the study. Present the goal of the experiment in a visually and orally appealing manner. Orally translate the written methodology of the experiment. Explain how the variables were controlled to eliminate confounding and bias. Investigate alternative reasons for the results. Suggest how the findings of the study could apply to real life. Examine the implications the study's results may have for particular groups of people or humanity as a whole. Construct a forum to discuss further research options for the particular topic presented. Page: 18 of 22

19 Duration: September/Week 1 UNIT NAME: Introduction to Research Methods Psychological research provides scientific understanding as to why people and animals behave the way they do. The research method is used to solve practical problems. Critical thinking is essential to evaluating findings in psychological research. Research can either be basic or applied. Laboratory research is concerned with the processes that govern behavior and showing the conditions under which certain psychological processes can be observed. Why do we need the scientific methods? How can commonsense psychology reduce objectivity when we gather data? What are the characteristics of modern science? Why is the difference between objective and subjective? How does objectivity influence observation, measurement, and experimentation? Understand why we rely on scientific methods rather than common sense to explain behavior. Identify the basic tools of psychological research. Explain how research helps to provide scientific understanding and solve practical problems. Explain how critical thinking may alter the perceived outcome of research data. Depict design flaws in research studies, such as confounding variables. Recognize the fallacy of fixed beliefs (mental sets) and confirmation bias prior to conducting research. Differentiate between basic and applied research. Distinguish between beliefs formed on the basis of empirical research versus those formed on the basis of representativeness and availability heuristics. Perspectives in Psychological Science (09-12) APA.SI.1-Development of psychology as an empirical science (09-12) APA.SI.1.1-Define psychology as a discipline and identify its goals as a science (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe the emergence of psychology as a scientific discipline (09-12) APA.SI.1.3-Describe perspectives employed to understand behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.4-Explain how psychology evolved as a scientific discipline (09-12) APA.SI.2.1-Discuss the value of both basic and applied psychological research with human and non-human animals Page: 19 of 22

20 (09-12) APA.SI.2.3-Identify the important role psychology plays in benefiting society and improving people s lives (09-12) Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) Page: 20 of 22

21 Duration: October/Week 7 - October/Week 8 UNIT NAME: The Scientific Method in Correlational Studies: Analyzing Data and Making Predictions After data in a correlational study is collected, one must compute it to create a numerical value known as a correlation coefficient. Data from a correlational study can be mapped out in a scatterplot to create a more visually appealing representation of the results. It is critical to evaluate the scales used in a scatterplot as to avoid making extreme and faulty predictions. A correlation can either be positive (direct), negative (inverse), or none. The statistical significance of a coefficient depends on the degree of how directly or inversely two variables change with one another. What is the formula for computing a correlation coefficient? Is a particular correlation coefficient significant or not and what does it mean if so? What can one not say about the results of a correlational study? What factors of a correlational study could possibly skew the predictive value of two sets of data? Describe the appropriate formula for determining a correlation coefficient. Define the numerical range of a correlation and what makes it significant. Understand how a scatterplot can convey information about the relationship of two variables. Understand that regression is a correlational procedure that focuses on predicting the values of an outcome based on its correlation with another variable. Distinguish between positive and negative correlations. Calculate a correlation coefficient using data from a survey. Discuss correlation in relation to prediction and causation. Depict extraneous variables that could account for the results of a correlational study. Research Methods and Measurements and Statistics (09-12) APA.SI.1-Research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes (09-12) APA.SI.1.1-Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology (09-12) APA.SI.1.2-Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods (09-12) APA.SI.1.3-Define systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings, such as external validity (09-12) APA.SI.3-Basic concepts of data analysis (09-12) Page: 21 of 22

22 APA.SI.3.1-Define descriptive statistics and explain how they are used by psychological scientists (09-12) APA.SI.3.3-Define correlation coefficients and explain their appropriate interpretation (09-12) APA.SI.3.4-Interpret graphical representations of data as used in both quantitative and qualitative methods (09-12) Page: 22 of 22

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