Types of Research DANILO V. ROGAYAN JR.

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1 Types of Research DANILO V. ROGAYAN JR.

2 Kinds and classifications of research Researches are classified according to the following criteria: According to Purpose According to Goal According to the Level of Investigations According to the Types of Analysis According to Scope According to Choice of Answers to Problems According to Statistical Content According to Time Allotment According to the Types and Kinds of Research

3 According to Purpose Predictive/Prognostic. This research determines the future operation of the variables Directive. This kind determines what should be done based on the findings. Illuminative. This type of research is concerned with interaction of the components of the variables.

4 According to Goal Fundamental or basic research. This type of research aims to develop theories and often leads to knowledge for knowledge sake. It is often carried on in a laboratory or some other sterile environment. It has no immediate or planned application and may later result to further research of an applied nature.

5 According to Goal Applied research. Its purpose is improving a product or a process testing theoretical concepts in actual problem situations. Most educational research is applied research, for its attempts to develop generalizations about teachinglearning processes, instructional materials, the behavior of children and ways to modify it and so on.

6 According to Goal Action research. Its emphasis is on a problem here and now in a local setting. Its findings are to be evaluated in terms of local applicability, not universal validity.

7 According to the Level of Investigations Exploratory. This study of variables pertinent to a specific situation. Descriptive. This study of the relationship of variables. Experimental. This type of research studies the effects of variables on each other.

8 According to the Types of Analysis Analytic Approach - identification and isolation of components of a research situation. Holistic Approach beginning with the total situation, focusing on the system and its internal relationships

9 Types of Research QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Case Study 2. Grounded Theory Research 3. Phenominological Research 4. Ethnography Research 5. Historical QUANTITATIVE RSESEARCH 1. Descriptive Research = Factor-isolating 2. Correlational Research = Factor-relating 3. Quasi-experimental Research = Situation-relating 4. Experimental Research = Situation-producing

10 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH - presents non-quantitative type of analysis - the nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended - it refers to meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors and description of things. - It is more SUBJECTIVE

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12 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative Research is a journey of discovery into the reality (researcher is the instrument) in its natural setting, equipped with different tools (data collection methods, data analysis procedures etc), guided by philosophical orientations (post-positivism, constructivism, interpretivism etc), in order to answer questions that its essence cannot be or is difficult to be represented numerically. - Dr. Fukofuka, 2012

13 1. Case Study Studies and individual or small group of individuals with an unusual condition or situation Case studies are typically clinical in scope Examples: Clinical studies on psychological behavior of patients Suicide tendencies

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15 2. Grounded Theory Research is a research approach designed to discover what problems exist in a given social environment and how the persons involved handle them; it involves formulation, testing, and reformulation of propositions until a theory is developed.

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17 2. Grounded Theory Research A research method that operates almost in a reverse fashion from traditional research abd appears to contradict scientific method. Four Stages 1. Codes identifying factors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered 2. Concepts collections of codes of similar content that allows the data to be grouped 3. Categories broad groups of similar concepts that are used to generate a theory 4. Theories collection of explanations that explain the subject of the research

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19 3. Phenomenological Research Describes the structures of experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines Its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person Concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the individual, bracketing taken-for-granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving.

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21 4. Ethnography Research refers to the investigation of a culture it involves the systematic collection, description, and analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behavior. It studies people, ethnic groups and formations, resettlement, social welfare characteristics and culture. Data collection is often done through participant observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc.

22 5. Historical Research is research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past The systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events. Example: the lending pattern of business in the 19 th century.

23 4. Historical Research Example: the lending pattern of business in the 19 th century.

24 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - The research is based on numeric figures or numbers - Aim to measure the quantity or amount and comparesit with past records and tries to project for future period. - The process of measurement is its main central; statistical methods are widely used - It is more OBJECTIVE

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26 1. Descriptive Research Refers to research that provides an accurate potrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, situation, or group. Deals with everything that can be counted and studied, which has an impact on the lives of the people it deals with. Discovers meaning, describing what exists, the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information.

27 2. Correlational Research Refers to the systematic investigation or statistical study of relationships among two or more variables, without necessarily determining cause and effect. It seeks to establish a relation/ association/ correlation that do not readily lend themselves to experimental manipulation.

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29 3. Quasi-experimental Research Situation relating Comparing a group that gets a particular intervention with another group that is similar in characteristics but did not receive the intervention no random assignment used

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31 4. Experimental Research is an objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables. Tests the way in which an independent variable (the factor that the scientists manipulates) affects the dependent variable (the factor that the scientists observes).

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36 References Ardales, V.B Basic Concepts and Methods In Research. Quezon City: Great Books Trading Ariola,M..M Principles and Methods of Research.1 st edtion. Manila: Rex Book Store Bautista, O.K Technical Writing. A Lecture given during the Training Workshop on Technical Writing At PCARRD, Los Banos., Laguna Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Washington Best, J.W. and J.V. Kahn Research In Education. 6 th Edition.New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Calderon, J.F. and E.C. Gonzales Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Manila: Great Books Trading Calmorin, L.P. and M.A. Calmorin Methods of Research And Thesis Writing. Ist Edition. (Reprint) Manila: Rex Books Store. De Leon, S.Y. and V. Claudio Guide to Research and Scientific Reporting. Manila: Merriam. Espiritu, J.A Research Methodology. Unpublished Manual. Fraenkel, J. and N. Wallen How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, 6 th Edition. New York, USA: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Gregorio, G.L Research Methods and Technical Writing in Agriculture. Manila: Rex Printing Company. Librero, F. How to Write A Thesis Proposal. Department of Development Communication, College of Agriculture. Laguna, Philippines: UPLB. Mcmillan J. and Schumacher Research in Education A Conceptual Introduction. New York, USA: HarperCollins College Publishers. Sanchez, C.A Methods and Techniques of Research. Manila: Rex Bookstore. Sevilla, C. et al An Introduction to Research Methods. Manila: National Book Store

37 Maraming salamat! That in all things God may be glorified!

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