Mastery. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter Content CHAPTER 3 LESSON 1. Directions: Study the diagram. Then answer the following questions.

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1 Chapter Content Mastery Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Directions: Study the diagram. Then answer the following questions. LESSON 1 Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Meiosis II Meiosis I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II 1. Meiosis begins with one cell. How many cells are formed by the end of meiosis I? 2. What happens to the chromosomes of a cell in order for meiosis to begin? 3. Meiosis I is the same as what other reproductive process? 4. Meiosis begins with one cell. How many cells are formed by the end of meiosis II? 5. At the end of meiosis II, each of the haploid sex cells has only half the number of chromosomes as the original diploid cell. Why is this important? 12 Reproduction of Organisms

2 Chapter Content Mastery Plant Reproduction LESSON 2 Directions: Read the following information, then label the parts of the flower. Flowers contain the reproductive organs of angiosperms. The male organ is the stamen. It includes the anther and the filament. The female organ is the pistil. It is made of three parts: the stigma, the style, and the ovary, which contains the ovules. The brightly colored petals attract insects, and the sepals protect the growing flower. 1. Stigma Style Ovary Anther Filament 3. Ovule Directions: Use the information above to answer the questions that follow. 5. Which part of the stamen contains pollen grains? 6. Which part of the pistil is sticky and attracts pollen grains? Directions: Complete the following sentences using the correct terms. 7. takes place when a sperm fuses with an egg. 8. The fertilized egg becomes a surrounded by fruit. Reproduction of Organisms 13

3 Chapter Content Mastery Animal Reproduction LESSON 3 Directions: Use the terms below to complete the following statements. embryos external gonads internal metamorphosis ovaries testes 1. The reproductive organs in animals are called. 2. Male animals have, which produce sperm. 3. Female animals have, which produce eggs. 4. fertilization happens inside the body of an organism. 5. In fertilization, the female usually releases eggs into the water at about the same time that the male releases sperm into the water. 6. Amphibians and many invertebrates go through several phases of development in a process called. 7. The of most mammals develop inside the mother. Directions: Decide whether each statement below is true or false. If it is false, rewrite the sentence as a true statement. If it is true, leave the sentence as it is. 8. Animals that reproduce using external fertilization, such as the abalone, usually produce fewer offspring than those that reproduce using internal fertilization. 9. Growth of the zygote and other stages of an animal s life happen by mitotic cell division. 10. The majority of animal embryos develop inside the mother. 14 Reproduction of Organisms

4 Chapter Content Mastery Asexual Reproduction LESSON 4 Directions: Fill in each blank box on the left with the term for the type of asexual reproduction described in the box on the right. animal regeneration budding fission mitotic cell division plant cuttings Type of Asexual Reproduction Description 1. Some single-celled eukaryotes, such as diatoms, divide to produce two genetically identical daughter cells. Each cell is an individual organism. 2. Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, produce two genetically identical cells. The organism grows while the DNA replicates. DNA copies separate, and the cell membrane grows inward and divides in half. 3. Many plants can reproduce by forming new plants from a portion of the stem or root. The new plant is genetically identical to the parent plant. 4. Some single-celled eukaryotes and multicellular animals reproduce by forming a new organism on top of the parent organism. The offspring eventually separates from the parent. 5. Some animals, such as sea stars, can form a new organism from a part of the body. If a sea star breaks apart, each piece can grow the missing parts. Directions: In the spaces provided, write two advantages and two disadvantages of asexual reproduction. Advantages Disadvantages Reproduction of Organisms 15

5 Reinforcement Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Directions: Study the following diagrams. Then label the appropriate steps of meiosis. LESSON Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 5. In what way is meiosis II similar to mitosis? 6. What is a cell with pairs of chromosomes called? What is the name for a cell with no pairs (a single set) of chromosomes? 7. What happens during prophase? 8. How are sex cells different from other cells in the body? 9. What happens during fertilization? 20 Reproduction of Organisms

6 Reinforcement Plant Reproduction LESSON 2 Female cone Male cone A B Directions: Use the illustrations above to answer each question. 1. Which cone produces pollen grains? 2. Which cone produces eggs? 3. In which cone is the egg fertilized? 4. What type of plant produces the above cones? Directions: Write the correct term that identifies each description. 5. transfer of pollen from stamen to ovules 6. male reproductive organ of angiosperms 7. female reproductive organ of angiosperms 8. produces pollen grains 9. part of the flower in which sperm forms 10. top of the pistil that catches the pollen grains 11. young plant growing within the seed 12. part of the flower that becomes part of the fruit 13. type of plant that reproduces without seeds 14. 1ife cycle that includes alternating haploid and diploid stages Reproduction of Organisms 21

7 Reinforcement Animal Reproduction LESSON 3 Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 1. What is the term for the specialized reproductive organs in animals? 2. What is the role of the testes in animal reproduction? The ovaries? 3. Describe the difference between internal and external fertilization. Give an example of an animal that uses each. 4. Why do toads produce large numbers of eggs? 5. Name an animal that undergoes metamorphosis. What are its developmental stages? 6. Compare the nourishment of an embryo inside a mother (and not in an egg) with the nourishment of an embryo inside an egg. 7. What is the typical relationship between the size of an animal at birth and its gestation? 22 Reproduction of Organisms

8 Reinforcement Asexual Reproduction LESSON 4 Directions: Find the mistakes in the statements below. Rewrite each statement correctly. 1. During budding, a new organism is produced by sexual reproduction. 2. Regeneration controls what offspring look like and how they function. 3. Most bacteria produce pollen to make seeds. 4. Replacing lost body parts by asexual reproduction is called fertilization. 5. In asexual reproduction, a new organism is produced from the DNA of two cells. 6. Animals continue to grow throughout their lives. 7. Cloning is a laboratory process that produces organisms with different genetic traits. 8. Genetic uniformity helps a population of organisms survive a disease outbreak. 9. A new plant grown from a cutting rarely looks like the parent plant. Reproduction of Organisms 23

9 Content Vocabulary Reproduction of Organisms Directions: Write the term in the blank that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Many female animals are born with all their (eggs, sperm). 2. Cells with pairs of chromosomes are (diploid, haploid). 3. Bacteria reproduce by a process called (fission, fertilization). 4. (Diploid, Haploid) cells contain only one chromosome from each homologous pair of reproductive cells. 5. At the end of (mitosis, meiosis), four daughter cells are produced. 6. The cell formed from the fusion of egg and sperm is called a (gonad, zygote). 7. (Sexual, Asexual) reproduction is the most common form of reproduction in eukaryotes. 8. The specialized reproductive organs of animals are called (gonads, zygotes). 9. (Sexual, Asexual) reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. 10. Amphibians and many insects go through (cloning, metamorphosis) before becoming adults. 11. Producing a new organism from a body part is known as (budding, regeneration). 12. Male animals have (testes, ovaries), which produce sperm. 13. Yeast cells reproduce by (budding, regeneration), in which a new organism forms on the parent organism. 14. (Cloning, Metamorphosis) is a method of asexual reproduction developed by scientists in the laboratory. 15. In an angiosperm, sperm develop from a haploid cell in the (testes, pollen tube). Reproduction of Organisms 29

10 Content Vocabulary CONTINUED Directions: Use the following terms to complete the paragraph about pollination below. angiosperm anther embryo fertilization filament fruit ovary ovules pistil pollen grains pollination seed sperm spores stamen stigma style A(n) (16) is a flowering seed plant. (17) involves the transfer of (18) from a flower s stamen to its stigma. The (19) is the male reproductive organ. (20) cells form inside pollen in a structure called the (21). The (22) is a long stalk that connects the anther to the base of the flower. The (23) is the female reproductive organ. At the tip is the (24), where pollen can land. The stigma is at the top of a long tube called the (25). At its base is the (26), which might have one or more (27). After (28), the egg becomes a(n) (29). It consists of a(n) (30) a(n) (31) (32) instead of seeds. Directions: Circle the word that correctly completes each sentence., a food supply, and a protective covering called. Moss and other seedless plants grow from haploid 33. The human body is made primarily of (haploid/diploid) cells. 34. Organisms that alternate between diploid and haploid generations have a(n) (alternation of generations/mutation). 35. (Pollination/Ovulation) is when pollen grains land on a female reproductive structure of a plant that is the same species as the pollen grains. 30 Reproduction of Organisms

11 Chapter Review Part A. Vocabulary Review Reproduction of Organisms Directions: Identify the term that correctly matches each definition, and write it on the blank provided. angiosperm cloning diploid fertilization fission fruit haploid meiosis metamorphosis ovary regeneration sexual sperm spores testes 1. the joining of an egg and a sperm 2. cells with pairs of chromosomes 3. kind of reproduction involving the combination of genetic material from two cells 4. name for a flowering seed plant 5. production of a new organism from part of an animal s body 6. part of a flowering plant that contains one or more seeds 7. cell division of sex cells 8. reproductive structures from which seedless plants grow 9. cells that do not have pairs of chromosomes (sex cells) 10. type of reproduction carried out by bacteria with no cell nuclei 11. development in animals in which the form of the body changes 12. female reproductive organ that produces eggs 13. reproductive organ in male animals that produces sperm 14. laboratory technique that produces genetically identical organisms 15. male sex cell Reproduction of Organisms 31

12 Chapter Review CONTINUED Part B. Concept Review Directions: Compare meiosis and mitosis by filling in the chart. Then respond to the statements that follow. Meiosis Mitosis Haploid or diploid parent cells? Number of nuclear divisions Number of daughter cells produced Function in organisms Haploid or diploid offspring cells? Demonstrate your knowledge of how flowering plants reproduce by writing about the process in your own words. Use the terms pollen, stamen, pistil, ovary, egg, fertilization, and seed in your answer. (Use a separate sheet of paper, if necessary.) 12. Analyze Pick an animal with which you are familiar. Write a paragraph on a separate sheet of paper analyzing the type of fertilization (internal or external) the animal uses and how its embryos develop. 13. Deduce which type of asexual reproduction is being discussed from the following statements. Write your answer on the blank. A. Each piece can grow the missing parts. B. A new organism forms on the parent organism. C. The organism has a small, circular DNA chromosome but no nucleus. 32 Reproduction of Organisms

13 Chapter Outline Reproduction of Organisms Lesson 1: Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis A. Sexual Reproduction 1. combines genetic material from two different parent cells. 2. Sexual reproduction creates genetic variation, which helps populations survive changing conditions and. 3. The major disadvantages of sexual reproduction are the need to get and together, and the time needed for organisms to reach an age when they can. B. Importance of Meiosis 1. is cell division that produces sperm or egg cells in sexually reproducing organisms. 2. Meiosis ensures that a species offspring inherit the correct number of. 3. Meiosis produces sperm and egg cells, which combine to form a diploid. C. Phases of Meiosis 1. Meiosis I a. Prophase I: Nuclear membranes break apart and pairs of chromosomes line up close to each other. b. I: Pairs of chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell, and fibers attach to each pair of sister chromatids. c. Anaphase I: Sister chromatids move to ends of the cell. d. Telophase I: Nuclear membranes form and divides, producing two cells. 2. Meoisis II a. Prophase II: Chromosomes do not before nuclear membrane breaks apart. 42 Reproduction of Organisms

14 Chapter Outline CONTINUED b. Metaphase II: line up along the center of the cell. c. : Sister chromatids separate, moving to opposite ends of the cell. d. : Nuclear membranes reform and the cytoplasm divides. D. Meiosis results in haploid nuclei from diploid nucleus. 1. Meiosis I produces two different cells. 2. Meiosis II produces two haploid cells from each cell produced in meiosis I. Lesson 2: Plant Reproduction A. Organisms such as plants that alternate between diploid and haploid stages have alternation of. 1. In seedless plants, the generation lives on its own. 2. In seed plants, the haploid generation lives within tissue. B. Reproduction of Seedless Plants 1. Seedless plants, such as moss and ferns, grow from haploid, not seeds. 2. Spores grow by mitosis and cell division to form plants. 3. Fertilization results in a diploid zygote that grows by mitosis and cell division into the tiny C. Reproduction of Seed Plants generation. 1. Sperm cells form inside a hard, protective structure called a. 2. Egg cells form inside a female reproductive structure called an. 3. In, pollen grains from the male structure reach the female structure. 4. When sperm enters the ovule, occurs, and a seed develops. 5. A consists of an embryo, food supply, and protective covering. Reproduction of Organisms 43

15 Chapter Outline CONTINUED D. Flowerless Seed Plants (Gymnosperms) 1. Male cones produce and female cones produce. 2. form as part of the female cone. E. Flowering Seed Plants ( ) 1. The flower s male reproductive organ is the ; the female organ is the. 2. Pollen grains form in the at the stamen s tip. 3. The is a long stalk that connects the anther to the base of the flower. 4. The pollen grains land on the pistil s, which is at the top of a long tube called the style. 5. A grows from the pollen grain into the stigma, down the style, to the ovary, where occurs. 6. Each ovule and its embryo will become a. 7. The of the plant protects the seed and helps with seed dispersal. Lesson 3: Animal Reproduction A. Animal Reproductive Organs 1. Separate male and female organisms have reproductive organs called. 2. Male gonads called produce sperm; female gonads called produce eggs. B. Fertilization 1. fertilization takes place inside the body of an organism. a. deposit sperm in or near the female s reproductive system. b. Animals that use internal fertilization usually protect their eggs during. 44 Reproduction of Organisms

16 Chapter Outline CONTINUED 2. fertilization takes place outside the organism s body. a. The female usually releases into water when the male releases. b. Most animals that use external fertilization do not their eggs or care for their young. C. Embryo Development 1. Embryo development in most animals occurs the mother, in an egg surrounded by a protective covering. 2. In, an animal goes through several stages of development. 3. Embryos that develop the mother get nourishment in two different ways. a. Some develop inside an egg with a yolk within the mother s body, until they and leave the mother s body. b. Others, including those of most, get nourishment directly from the mother. Lesson 4: Asexual Reproduction A. What is asexual reproduction? 1. reproduction produces offspring from a single parent that is to the parent organism. 2. Asexual reproduction takes time and energy than sexual reproduction, and organisms well- to the environment always produce well-adapted offspring. 3. Lack of genetic makes populations more susceptible to disease, changes in the environment, and harmful. B. Types of Asexual Reproduction 1. Bacteria, which have no nucleus, reproduce by, or producing two identical cells. 2. Some single-celled eukaryotes reproduce by, followed by cell division. Reproduction of Organisms 45

17 Chapter Outline CONTINUED 3. Yeast reproduces by, in which a new organism forms on the parent. 4. Many plants can reproduce from, in addition to reproducing sexually. 5. produces a new organism from part of an animal s body. Regeneration can also mean regrowth of a missing animal part. C. Cloning 1. Scientists can plants to produce identical plants with desirable genetic traits. 2. Animals can be cloned in the laboratory, but they are often not as. 46 Reproduction of Organisms

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