Genetics & Heredity 11/16/2017

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Genetics & Heredity 11/16/2017"

Transcription

1 Genetics & Heredity Biology I Turner College & Career High School 2017 Fertilization is the fusion of an egg and a sperm. Purebred (True breeding plants) are plants that were allowed to selfpollinate and the offspring will be exactly like the parent. 1

2 The Work of Gregor Mendel Austrian monk Born in Studied heredity. Heredity: the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring. Characteristics that are inherited are called traits. First person to successfully predict how traits are transferred from generation to generation. Used garden peas in his experiments. The Father of Genetics Mendel s Work Mendel carried out his work with garden peas. 2

3 Mendel s Observations Mendel noticed differences in: Flower color Flower position Seed color Seed shape Pea pod shape Pea pod color Stem height This led him to further experiment on the plants. Why pea plants? Reproduce sexually, which means that they produce male and female sex cells, called gametes. In a process called fertilization, the male gamete unites with the female gamete. The resulting fertilized cell, called a zygote, then develops into a seed. 3

4 Mendel s Experiment He took pollen from a male plant and dusted it onto a female plant. Parental generation (p) = the original pair of plants Female part Pollen grains Transfer pollen Male parts Cross-Pollination Offspring (F1) = first filial generation (F2) = second filial generation His first experiments are called monohybrid crosses because they only deal with ONE single trait (height, color) mono means one 4

5 Mendel s Experiments Purebred: offspring where all previous generations have the same trait. Ex: a purebred short plant came from short parent plants. First, he crossed a purebred purple with a purebred white. Result of F1 Generation: all plants had purple flowers. Parent Plants F1 Generation Mendel s 2 nd Experiment Crossed two of the purple offspring from the F1 generation. The F2 generation resulted in some offspring having purple flowers and others having white flowers Parent Plants F1 Generation F2 Generation 5

6 Conclusions Each organism has two factors that control each of its traits. These factors are genes and that they are located on chromosomes. Genes exist in different forms called alleles. The principal of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. P 1 Short pea plant Tall pea plant F 1 All Tall pea plants F 2 Tall pea plant 3 tall: 1 short Mendel called the observed trait dominant and the trait that disappeared recessive. Mendel concluded that the allele for tall plants is dominant to the allele for short plants. P 1 Tall pea plant Short pea plant T T t t T t F 1 All tall plants T t 6

7 Law of Segregation Tt x Tt Cross F 1 Tall Tall T t T t F 2 Tall Tall Tall Short T T T t T t t t 3 1 The way an organism looks and behaves is called its phenotype. Ex. Tall, yellow The allele combination an organism contains is known as its genotype. Ex. TT, Tt An organism s genotype can t always be determined by its phenotype. An organism is homozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait are the same. (Truebreeding) Exp. TT or tt An organism is heterozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait differ from each other. (Hybrid) Exp. Tt 7

8 Segregation Summary Each trait has two genes, one from the mother and one from the father. Traits can be either dominant or recessive. A dominant trait only needs one gene in order to be expressed. A recessive trait needs two genes in order to be expressed. Egg and sperm are sex cells called gametes. Segregation is the separation of alleles during gamete formation. Genetics & Probability Probability = the likelihood that a particular event will occur Ex. Coin flipping: 1/2 probability that coin will flip head/tail If you flip the coin 3 times what's the probability of flipping 3 heads? 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/8 *Past outcomes do not affect future ones!!* The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses. What is the probability of parents having two male offspring in a row? (1/2 x 1/2=1/4) 8

9 Genetics & Probability The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called probability. Each trait has two genes, one from the mother and one from the father. Alleles can be homozygous; having the same traits. Alleles can be heterozygous; having different traits. Question 1 The passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring is. A. genetics B. heredity C. pollination D. allelic frequency The answer is B. Genetics is the branch of biology that studies heredity. 9

10 Question 2 What are traits? Answer Traits are characteristics that are inherited. Height, hair color and eye color are examples of traits in humans. Question 3 Gametes are. A. male sex cells B. female sex cells C. both male and female sex cells D. fertilized cells that develop into adult organisms The answer is C. Organisms that reproduce sexually produce male and female sex cells, called gametes. 10

11 Question 4 Which of the following genotypes represents a animal that is homozygous dominant for a trait? a. KK b. Kk c. kk Question 5 Which of the following genotypes represents a plant that is homozygous recessive for height? a. TT b. Tt c. tt 11

12 Punnett Squares The gene combination that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a diagram known as a Punnett square. These are used to predict and compare the genetic variations that will result from a cross. The types of gametes go on the top and left sides of the square. The possible gene combinations appear in the four boxes. Punnett Squares If you know the genotypes of the parents, you can use a Punnett square to predict the possible genotypes of their offspring. 12

13 Making a Punnett Square You try this one A A A A A A AA AA a a Aa Aa Possible Children: ½ (50%) AA = trait A purebred ½ (50%) Aa = trait A hybrid 100% will show the trait 13

14 More Practice For a gene determining hair color (B); where both parents are heterozygous for blue hair. B = dominant allele; blue hair b = recessive allele; yellow hair Parent 1 = Bb B b Parent 2 = Bb B BB Bb Possible Children b Bb bb Possible Children: ½ (50%) Bb = blue hair ¼ (25%) BB = blue hair ¼ (25%) bb = yellow hair More Practice Seed Shape Round (R) Wrinkled (r) Seed Color Yellow (g) Green (G) Flower Position Flower Color Axial (A) Terminal (a) Purple (A) White (a) Pod Shape Smooth (N) Constricted (n) Stem Height Pod Color Yellow (g) Green (G) Tall (T) Short (t) 14

15 Exploring Mendelian Genetics Independent Assortment 1. Genes segregate independently. 2. The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes. 3. Independent assortment helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals and other organisms. 15

16 Summary of Mendel s Principals Genes are passed from parent to offspring. Some forms of a gene may be dominant and others recessive. In most sexually producing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene: one from each parent. These genes are segregated from each other when gametes are formed. The alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of one another. Beyond Mendel: Dominant & Recessive Alleles Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes. Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another are called incomplete dominance. Example: White (W) and Red (R) are both dominant in a flower. If WW x RR the F 1 generation would be WR = pink. 16

17 Incomplete Dominance RR x WW RW x RW RR : RW : WW Incomplete: Think PINK! Co-dominance Codominance is when both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype. Examples: Feathers, flowers, cattle. 17

18 Polygenic Inheritance Polygenic inheritance the kind of inheritance in which the trait is produced from the cumulative effects of many genes. In humans, height, weight, and skin and eye color are examples of polygenic inheritance MEIOSIS A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores. 18

19 Review: Characteristics of Living Things Living things are made up of cells. Unicellular: one celled organisms. Multicellular: many celled organisms. Review: Characteristics of Living Things Living things reproduce to make offspring of the same species. Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction 19

20 Review: Characteristics of Living Things Living things grow and develop 1. What type of cell division is the diagram above? 2. What phase of cell division the arrow pointing to? 20

21 Meiosis is Reduction Division Chromosome number is cut in half by separation of homologous chromosomes in diploid cells Meiosis Every individual has two sets of chromosomes. One from the mother; one from the father. When the chromosomes pair up for the same trait they are called homologous chromosomes. A cell that contains pairs of homologous chromosomes is said to be diploid or 2n. Gametes (egg /sperm) have only one chromosome and are said to be haploid or n. 21

22 Chromosome Number in Body Cells vs. Gametes Gametes Haploid (n) - have 1 set Body Cells Diploid (2n) - have 2 sets Phases of Meiosis Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Meiosis I: The homologous chromosomes line up but, then they crossover, exchanging genetic information. Meiosis II: The two cells produced now enter a second division. Start with 2 the two new cells and get 4 different cells each with 23 chromosomes. 22

23 Variation During normal cell growth, mitosis produces daughter cells identical to parent cell (2n to 2n) Meiosis results in genetic variation by shuffling of maternal and paternal chromosomes and crossing over. No daughter cells formed during meiosis are genetically identical to either mother or father During sexual reproduction, fusion of the unique haploid gametes produces truly unique offspring. Crossing Over: Meiosis I Chiasmata: site of crossing over, occur in synapsis. Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids. Crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes. Results in variations in daughter cells. 23

24 Meiosis I Meiosis II Crossing Over Results of Meiosis Spermatogenesis: the process in which spermatozoa are produced from male germ cells by way of meiosis. Oogenesis: the production of an egg cell (ovum). Results: 4 viable haploid (n) sperm and 1 viable haploid (n) egg. All gametes are genetically different. 24

25 Summary of Meiosis II Results in 4 haploid (n) cells. Differs in male and female. Genetically different from each other & the original cell. Human Cells 2n=46. Sperm Cell 23 chromosomes Gamete is haploid (n) Egg Cell 23 chromosomes Gamete is haploid (n) White Blood Cell 46 chromosomes Body cell is diploid (2n) 25

Mendelian Genetics. You are who you are due to the interaction of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism.

Mendelian Genetics. You are who you are due to the interaction of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism. Heredity Chapter 3 3:1 Genetics Mendelian Genetics You are who you are due to the interaction of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism. HEREDITY: traits that

More information

GENETICS PREDICTING HEREDITY

GENETICS PREDICTING HEREDITY GENETICS PREDICTING HEREDITY INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS Genetics is the scientific study of heredity Heredity is essentially the study of how traits are passed from parents to their offspring. GREGOR MENDEL

More information

You are who you are because of a combination of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism.

You are who you are because of a combination of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism. Unit 6 Genetics 6.1 Genetics You are who you are because of a combination of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism. HEREDITY: traits that are passed from parents

More information

Objectives. ! Describe the contributions of Gregor Mendel to the science of genetics. ! Explain the Law of Segregation.

Objectives. ! Describe the contributions of Gregor Mendel to the science of genetics. ! Explain the Law of Segregation. Objectives! Describe the contributions of Gregor Mendel to the science of genetics.! Explain the Law of Segregation.! Explain the Law of Independent Assortment.! Explain the concept of dominance.! Define

More information

Genetics PPT Part 1 Biology-Mrs. Flannery

Genetics PPT Part 1 Biology-Mrs. Flannery Genetics PPT Part Biology-Mrs. Flannery In an Abbey Garden Mendel studied garden peas because they were easy to grow, came in many readily distinguishable varieties, had easily visible traits are easily

More information

Mendel and Heredity. Chapter 12

Mendel and Heredity. Chapter 12 Mendel and Heredity Chapter 12 12.1 Objectives: 1.) summarize the importance of Mendel s experiments 2.)Differentiate between genes and alleles. 3.) Explain that alleles determine what physical traits

More information

Mendel and Heredity. Chapter 12

Mendel and Heredity. Chapter 12 Mendel and Heredity Chapter 12 Objectives: 1.) Differentiate between genotype and phenotype 2.)Differentiate between genes and alleles. 3.) Differentiate between dominant and recessive alleles. 4.) Explain

More information

11-1: Introduction to Genetics

11-1: Introduction to Genetics 11-1: Introduction to Genetics The Work of Gregor Mendel Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Genetics Vocabulary Genetics The study of heredity. Heredity The passing of physical characteristics from parents

More information

Chapter 11 introduction to genetics 11.1 The work of Gregor mendel

Chapter 11 introduction to genetics 11.1 The work of Gregor mendel Chapter 11 introduction to genetics 11.1 The work of Gregor mendel What is inheritance? Two uses of the word inheritance Things that are passed down through generations Factors we get from our parents

More information

Patterns of Inheritance. { Unit 3

Patterns of Inheritance. { Unit 3 Patterns of Inheritance { Unit 3 Austrian monk, gardener, scientist First acknowledged to study heredity the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring Traits characteristics that are inherited

More information

Chapter 10 Notes Patterns of Inheritance, Part 1

Chapter 10 Notes Patterns of Inheritance, Part 1 Chapter 10 Notes Patterns of Inheritance, Part 1 I. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) a. Austrian monk with a scientific background b. Conducted numerous hybridization experiments with the garden pea, Pisum sativum,

More information

The Experiments of Gregor Mendel

The Experiments of Gregor Mendel 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 11.2 Applying Mendel s Principles The Experiments of Gregor Mendel Every living thing (plant or animal, microbe or human being) has a set of characteristics inherited from

More information

Inheritance. What is inheritance? What are genetics? l The genetic characters transmitted from parent to offspring, taken collectively

Inheritance. What is inheritance? What are genetics? l The genetic characters transmitted from parent to offspring, taken collectively Genetics Interest Grabber Look at your classmates. Note how they vary in the shape of the front hairline, the space between the two upper front teeth, and the way in which the ear lobes are attached. Make

More information

Chapter 17 Genetics Crosses:

Chapter 17 Genetics Crosses: Chapter 17 Genetics Crosses: 2.5 Genetics Objectives 2.5.6 Genetic Inheritance 2.5.10.H Origin of the Science of genetics 2.5.11 H Law of segregation 2.5.12 H Law of independent assortment 2.5.13.H Dihybrid

More information

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages )

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages ) Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) This section describes how Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits in garden peas and what his conclusions

More information

Name Period. Keystone Vocabulary: genetics fertilization trait hybrid gene allele Principle of dominance segregation gamete probability

Name Period. Keystone Vocabulary: genetics fertilization trait hybrid gene allele Principle of dominance segregation gamete probability Name Period BIO B2 GENETICS (Chapter 11) You should be able to: 1. Describe and/or predict observed patterns of inheritance (dominant, recessive, co- dominant, incomplete dominance, sex- linked, polygenic

More information

Mendel explained how a dominant allele can mask the presence of a recessive allele.

Mendel explained how a dominant allele can mask the presence of a recessive allele. Section 2: Mendel explained how a dominant allele can mask the presence of a recessive allele. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What is the significance of Mendel

More information

UNIT III (Notes) : Genetics : Mendelian. (MHR Biology p ) Traits are distinguishing characteristics that make a unique individual.

UNIT III (Notes) : Genetics : Mendelian. (MHR Biology p ) Traits are distinguishing characteristics that make a unique individual. 1 UNIT III (Notes) : Genetics : endelian. (HR Biology p. 526-543) Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to another. Traits that are passed on are said to be inherited. Genetics is

More information

Summary The Work of Gregor Mendel Probability and Punnett Squares. Oass

Summary The Work of Gregor Mendel Probability and Punnett Squares. Oass --------------------------- Oass ---------------- Date Chapter 11 Summary Introduction to Genetics 11-1 The Work of Gregor Mendel The scientific study of heredity is called genetics. Gregor Mendel used

More information

Biology. Chapter 13. Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits. Concepts and Applications 9e Starr Evers Starr. Cengage Learning 2015

Biology. Chapter 13. Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits. Concepts and Applications 9e Starr Evers Starr. Cengage Learning 2015 Biology Concepts and Applications 9e Starr Evers Starr Chapter 13 Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 After completing today s activities, students should

More information

Genetics. The study of heredity. Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (mid 1800 s) Developed set of laws that explain how heredity works

Genetics. The study of heredity. Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (mid 1800 s) Developed set of laws that explain how heredity works Genetics The study of heredity Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (mid 1800 s) Developed set of laws that explain how heredity works Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel original pea plant (input) offspring

More information

Genetics & The Work of Mendel. AP Biology

Genetics & The Work of Mendel. AP Biology Genetics & The Work of Mendel Gregor Mendel Modern genetics began in the mid-1800s in an abbey garden, where a monk named Gregor Mendel documented inheritance in peas u used experimental method u used

More information

Notes: Mendelian Genetics

Notes: Mendelian Genetics Notes: Mendelian Genetics Heredity is passing characteristics from one generation to the next. Genetics is the study of heredity. Who was Gregor Mendel? Gregor Mendel is the Father of Modern Genetics.

More information

Genetics & The Work of Mendel

Genetics & The Work of Mendel Genetics & The Work of Mendel 2006-2007 Gregor Mendel Modern genetics began in the mid-1800s in an abbey garden, where a monk named Gregor Mendel documented inheritance in peas used experimental method

More information

He called these new plants hybrids because they received different genetic information, or different alleles, for a trait from each parent.

He called these new plants hybrids because they received different genetic information, or different alleles, for a trait from each parent. /6/204 in a Garden Each time Mendel studied a trait, he crossed two plants with different expressions of the trait and found that the new plants all looked like one of the two parents. He called these

More information

8.1 Genes Are Particulate and Are Inherited According to Mendel s Laws 8.2 Alleles and Genes Interact to Produce Phenotypes 8.3 Genes Are Carried on

8.1 Genes Are Particulate and Are Inherited According to Mendel s Laws 8.2 Alleles and Genes Interact to Produce Phenotypes 8.3 Genes Are Carried on Chapter 8 8.1 Genes Are Particulate and Are Inherited According to Mendel s Laws 8.2 Alleles and Genes Interact to Produce Phenotypes 8.3 Genes Are Carried on Chromosomes 8.4 Prokaryotes Can Exchange Genetic

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Gregor Mendel. Father of modern genetics

Mendelian Genetics. Gregor Mendel. Father of modern genetics Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel Father of modern genetics Objectives I can compare and contrast mitosis & meiosis. I can properly use the genetic vocabulary presented. I can differentiate and gather data

More information

draw and interpret pedigree charts from data on human single allele and multiple allele inheritance patterns; e.g., hemophilia, blood types

draw and interpret pedigree charts from data on human single allele and multiple allele inheritance patterns; e.g., hemophilia, blood types Specific Outcomes for Knowledge Students will: 30 C2.1k describe the evidence for dominance, segregation and the independent assortment of genes on different chromosomes, as investigated by Mendel 30 C2.2k

More information

Mendel s Law of Heredity. Page 254

Mendel s Law of Heredity. Page 254 Mendel s Law of Heredity Page 254 Define pollination The transfer of pollen grains from a male reproductive organ to a female reproductive organ in a plant is called pollination. Define cross pollination.

More information

Section 1 MENDEL S LEGACY

Section 1 MENDEL S LEGACY Chapter 9 Genetics Section 1 MENDEL S LEGACY Genetics is the field of biology devoted to understanding how characteristics are transmitted from parents to offspring Genetics was founded with the work of

More information

Gregor Mendel father of heredity

Gregor Mendel father of heredity MENDEL AND MEIOSIS Gregor Mendel father of heredity MENDEL S LAWS OF HEREDITY Heredity branch of genetics dealing with the passing on of traits from parents to offspring Pea Plants Easy maintenance & large

More information

Genetics and Heredity Notes

Genetics and Heredity Notes Genetics and Heredity Notes I. Introduction A. It was known for 1000s of years that traits were inherited but scientists were unsure about the laws that governed this inheritance. B. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

More information

11.1 The Work of Mendel

11.1 The Work of Mendel 11.1 The Work of Mendel Originally prepared by Kim B. Foglia Revised and adapted by Nhan A. Pham Objectives Describe Mendel s classic garden pea experiment. Summarize Mendel s conclusion about inheritance.

More information

Genetics & The Work of Mendel

Genetics & The Work of Mendel Genetics & The Work of Mendel 2006-2007 Gregor Mendel Modern genetics began in the mid-1800s in an abbey garden, where a monk named Gregor Mendel documented inheritance in peas used experimental method

More information

Mendel rigorously followed various traits in the pea plants he bred. He analyzed

Mendel rigorously followed various traits in the pea plants he bred. He analyzed 4.2.a Mendelian Genetics Mendel explained how a dominant allele can mask the presence of a recessive allele. Real-World Reading Link There are many different breeds of dogs, such as Labrador retrievers,

More information

Patterns of Inheritance

Patterns of Inheritance 1 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 2 Topics Mendel s Principles Variations on Mendel s Principles Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes 3 Experimental

More information

.the science that studies how genes are transmitted from one generation to the next.

.the science that studies how genes are transmitted from one generation to the next. Genetics .the science that studies how genes are transmitted from one generation to the next. The chromosomes are contained in the nucleus of the cell. Genes and Chromosomes Chromosomes are made of: Gene:

More information

The Work of Gregor Mendel

The Work of Gregor Mendel The Work of Gregor Mendel Transmission of characteristics from is parents to offspring called. heredity The SCIENCE that studies how those characteristics are passed on from one generation to the next

More information

Genetics and heredity. For a long time, general ideas of inheritance were known + =

Genetics and heredity. For a long time, general ideas of inheritance were known + = Mendelian Genetics Genetics and heredity For a long time, general ideas of inheritance were known + = + = What was really lacking was a quantitative understanding of how particular traits were passed down

More information

Genetics. *** Reading Packet

Genetics. *** Reading Packet Genetics *** Reading Packet 5.4 Mendel and His Peas Learning Objectives Describe Mendel's first genetics experiments. Introduction Why do you look like your family? For a long time people understood that

More information

Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he do?

Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he do? Page 1 of 20 Genetics: Heredity: Trait: The scientific Study of Heredity. The passing of traits from one generation to the next. Any observable characteristic on organism may have. Ex: eye colour, hair

More information

Patterns of Inheritance

Patterns of Inheritance Patterns of Inheritance { Austrian monk, gardener, scientist First acknowledged to study heredity the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring Traits characteristics that are inherited Father

More information

6.1 Mendel s Investigations

6.1 Mendel s Investigations 6.1 Mendel s Investigations Lesson Objectives Explain why and how Mendel studied pea plants. Describe the results of Mendel s experiments. State Mendel s laws of segregation and independent assortment.

More information

Traits and Probability

Traits and Probability 6.5 Traits and Probability KEY CONCEPT The inheritance of traits follows the rules of probability. S Punnett squares illustrate genetic crosses. A monohybrid cross involves one trait. A dihybrid cross

More information

The Law of Segregation Introduction Today, we know that many of people's characteristics, from hair color to height to risk of diabetes, are

The Law of Segregation Introduction Today, we know that many of people's characteristics, from hair color to height to risk of diabetes, are The Law of Segregation Introduction Today, we know that many of people's characteristics, from hair color to height to risk of diabetes, are influenced by genes. We also know that genes are the way parents

More information

Biology. Slide 1 of 31. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1 of 31. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1 of 31 11 3 Exploring Mendelian 11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics Genetics 2 of 31 Independent Assortment Independent Assortment To determine if the segregation of one pair of alleles affects

More information

Gregor Mendel. Father of Genetics

Gregor Mendel. Father of Genetics Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics Genetics Branch of biology which deals with principles of variations in traits (distinguishing characteristics) and inheritance Allows us to predict patterns of inheritance

More information

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis SECTION 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid

More information

Patterns of Heredity - Genetics - Sections: 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, & 11.3

Patterns of Heredity - Genetics - Sections: 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, & 11.3 Patterns of Heredity - Genetics - Sections: 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, & 11.3 Genetics = the study of heredity by which traits are passed from parents to offspring Page. 227 Heredity = The passing of genes/traits

More information

Chapter 12 Multiple Choice

Chapter 12 Multiple Choice Chapter 12 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What did Gregor Mendel do to study different characteristics in his genetics experiments? a.

More information

VOCABULARY. TRAITS a genetic (inherited) characteristic. HEREDITY The passing of traits from parent to offspring

VOCABULARY. TRAITS a genetic (inherited) characteristic. HEREDITY The passing of traits from parent to offspring VOCABULARY TRAITS a genetic (inherited) characteristic HEREDITY The passing of traits from parent to offspring GENETICS the branch of biology that studies heredity (inherited traits) 1 Gregor Mendel Who?

More information

Genetics Practice Questions

Genetics Practice Questions Name: ate: 1. If Jessica has light eyes (bb) and both of her parents have dark eyes (b) which statement is true?. Jessica inherited both genes from her father.. Jessica inherited both genes from her mother..

More information

Lesson Overview. The Work of Gregor Mendel. Lesson Overview The Work of Gregor Mendel

Lesson Overview. The Work of Gregor Mendel. Lesson Overview The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Overview 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel The Experiments of Gregor Mendel Where does an organism get its unique characteristics? An individual s characteristics are determined by factors that are

More information

Part 2: Heredity and Mendelian Genetics

Part 2: Heredity and Mendelian Genetics Part 2: Heredity and Mendelian Genetics The Genetics of Inheritance Traits. Ex. Earlobes, Dimples, Curved Fingers, Rolling Tongue Inheritance The mechanism that between generations. Genetics The branch

More information

Introduction to Genetics

Introduction to Genetics Introduction to Genetics Remember DNA RNA Protein Traits DNA contains the code for proteins (protein synthesis remember?) Proteins determine our traits Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Father of Genetics Studied

More information

Guided Reading and Study. Definition a. The scientific study of heredity. b. Physical characteristics

Guided Reading and Study. Definition a. The scientific study of heredity. b. Physical characteristics Genetics: The Science of Heredity Mendel's Work Guided Reading and Study This section describes how Gregor Mendel identified the method by which characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring.

More information

Agro/ANSC/Biol/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MENDELIAN INHERITANCE Chapter 2, Genetics by Brooker (Lecture outline) #2

Agro/ANSC/Biol/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MENDELIAN INHERITANCE Chapter 2, Genetics by Brooker (Lecture outline) #2 Agro/ANSC/Biol/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MENDELIAN INHERITANCE Chapter 2, Genetics by Brooker (Lecture outline) #2 MENDEL S LAWS OF INHERITANCE Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) is considered the father

More information

Mendelian Genetics Chapter 11

Mendelian Genetics Chapter 11 Mendelian Genetics Chapter 11 Starts on page 308 Roots, Prefixes & Suffixes: homo = hetero = geno = pheno = zyg = co = poly = Section 11-1: Mendel & His Peas I. Vocabulary Words: A. Gene - a small section

More information

MENDELIAN GENETICS. Punnet Squares and Pea Plants

MENDELIAN GENETICS. Punnet Squares and Pea Plants MENDELIAN GENETICS Punnet Squares and Pea Plants Introduction Mendelian laws of inheritance are statements about the way certain characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another in an organism.

More information

Biology. Chapter 11 Notes: Mendel and Heredity

Biology. Chapter 11 Notes: Mendel and Heredity Interest Grabber Section 11-1 Biolog Chapter 11 Notes: Genetics Analzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance,

More information

Unit 3. Intro. Genetics The branch of biology that deals with variation (differences) and inheritance. Genetics. Sep 6 5:24 PM.

Unit 3. Intro. Genetics The branch of biology that deals with variation (differences) and inheritance. Genetics. Sep 6 5:24 PM. Unit 3.notebook June 03, 2014 Unit 3 Genetics Sep 6 5:24 PM Intro Genetics The branch of biology that deals with variation (differences) and inheritance. Feb 27 1:30 PM Intro Heredity The passing of genetic

More information

PREDICTING INHERITED TRAITS & PUNNETT SQUARE ANALYSIS

PREDICTING INHERITED TRAITS & PUNNETT SQUARE ANALYSIS PREDICTING INHERITED TRAITS & PUNNETT SQUARE ANALYSIS GENETICS TERMS AND VOCABULARY DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the molecule that codes for our traits. CHROMOSOME - A structure found in the nucleus

More information

Extra Review Practice Biology Test Genetics

Extra Review Practice Biology Test Genetics Mendel fill in the blanks: Extra Review Practice Biology Test Genetics Mendel was an Austrian monk who studied genetics primarily using plants. He started with plants that produced offspring with only

More information

Introduction to Genetics

Introduction to Genetics Introduction to Genetics Remember DNA RNA Protein Traits DNA contains the code for proteins (protein synthesis remember?) Proteins determine our traits Remember Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Father of Genetics

More information

Ch 10 Genetics Mendelian and Post-Medelian Teacher Version.notebook. October 20, * Trait- a character/gene. self-pollination or crosspollination

Ch 10 Genetics Mendelian and Post-Medelian Teacher Version.notebook. October 20, * Trait- a character/gene. self-pollination or crosspollination * Trait- a character/gene shape, * Monk in Austria at age 21 * At 30, went to University of Vienna to study science and math * After graduating he returned to the monastery and became a high school teacher

More information

Class *GENETIC NOTES & WORKSHEETS

Class *GENETIC NOTES & WORKSHEETS Name Class *GENETIC NOTES & WORKSHEETS DAY 1: Mendelian Genetics Vocabulary A. Genetics- Study of B. Heredity- The passing on of characteristics (traits) from to C. Trait A particular that can vary from

More information

Unit 5: Genetics Guided Notes

Unit 5: Genetics Guided Notes 1 Unit 5: Genetics Guided Notes Basic Mendelian Genetics Before Gregor Mendel 1) When Mendel started his work, most people believed in the blending theory of inheritance. (Inheritance, Heredity, and Genetics

More information

Introduction to Genetics & DNA {DNA

Introduction to Genetics & DNA {DNA Introduction to Genetics & DNA {DNA What is Heredity? Heredity explains how traits may be passed from parents to offspring. Heredity People have bred plants and animals for thousands of years to get desirable

More information

By Mir Mohammed Abbas II PCMB 'A' CHAPTER CONCEPT NOTES

By Mir Mohammed Abbas II PCMB 'A' CHAPTER CONCEPT NOTES Chapter Notes- Genetics By Mir Mohammed Abbas II PCMB 'A' 1 CHAPTER CONCEPT NOTES Relationship between genes and chromosome of diploid organism and the terms used to describe them Know the terms Terms

More information

Chapter 8 Heredity. Learning Target(s):

Chapter 8 Heredity. Learning Target(s): Chapter 8 Heredity copyright cmassengale 1 Learning Target(s): I Can. A) explain the differences between dominant and recessive traits. B) explain the differences between phenotypes and genotypes. 1 Why

More information

CHAPTER- 05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION

CHAPTER- 05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION CHAPTER- 05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION Genetics is the study of principles and mechanism of heredity and variation. Gregor Johann Mendel is known as father of Genetics. Inheritance is the

More information

Genetic basis of inheritance and variation. Dr. Amjad Mahasneh. Jordan University of Science and Technology

Genetic basis of inheritance and variation. Dr. Amjad Mahasneh. Jordan University of Science and Technology Genetic basis of inheritance and variation Dr. Amjad Mahasneh Jordan University of Science and Technology Segment 1 Hello and welcome everyone. My name is Amjad Mahasneh. I teach molecular biology at Jordan

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Ch. 2

Mendelian Genetics. Ch. 2 Mendelian Genetics Ch. 2 1 The historical puzzle of inheritance! Artificial selection has been an important practice since before recorded history Selection of animals for domestication Selective breeding

More information

MENDELIAN GENETICS. Law of Dominance: Law of Segregation: GAMETE FORMATION Parents and Possible Gametes: Gregory Mendel:

MENDELIAN GENETICS. Law of Dominance: Law of Segregation: GAMETE FORMATION Parents and Possible Gametes: Gregory Mendel: MENDELIAN GENETICS Gregory Mendel: Heredity: Cross: X P1 Generation: F1 Generation: F2 Generation: Gametes: Dominant: Recessive: Genotype: Phenotype: Law of Dominance: Genes: Alleles: Law of Segregation:

More information

Led him to formulate 3 principles of heredity based on his pea plant experimentation...

Led him to formulate 3 principles of heredity based on his pea plant experimentation... Mendel s Work (cont d)... His observations made him believe that information passed from parents to their young as packages he called units or factors...the factors for one trait are inherited as a unit...an

More information

NOTES: Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics!

NOTES: Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics! NOTES: 11.3 Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics! Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles OR multiple genes.

More information

Heredity. Biology 30i Cooper

Heredity. Biology 30i Cooper Heredity Biology 30i Cooper Early Theories of Inheritance Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) l proposed the first widely accepted theory of inheritance called pangenesis egg and sperm consist of particles

More information

Name Class Date. Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank. sex cells genotype sex chromosomes

Name Class Date. Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank. sex cells genotype sex chromosomes Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank. sex cells genotype sex chromosomes alleles phenotype meiosis 1.

More information

Mendel. The pea plant was ideal to work with and Mendel s results were so accurate because: 1) Many. Purple versus flowers, yellow versus seeds, etc.

Mendel. The pea plant was ideal to work with and Mendel s results were so accurate because: 1) Many. Purple versus flowers, yellow versus seeds, etc. Mendel A. Mendel: Before Mendel, people believed in the hypothesis. This is analogous to how blue and yellow paints blend to make. Mendel introduced the hypothesis. This deals with discrete units called

More information

Name Date Per. Vocabulary Crossword - Chapter 6: Genetics and Heredity M 2 3 D S 11 L P Y 30 L 38 E 45

Name Date Per. Vocabulary Crossword - Chapter 6: Genetics and Heredity M 2 3 D S 11 L P Y 30 L 38 E 45 Name Date Per. Vocabulary Crossword - Chapter 6: enetics and Heredity 1 2 3 D 5 6 7 4 8 9 10 S 11 12 D 13 16 19 20 21 14 X 17 18 15 P E 22 H D 23 24 25 N 31 32 33 29 26 C B Z 28 I P Y 30 34 V 27 38 T 41

More information

Mendel and Genetics. Mr. Nagel Meade High School

Mendel and Genetics. Mr. Nagel Meade High School Mendel and Genetics Mr. Nagel Meade High School Warm Up Meiosis Review Consider the following about Meiosis: How many daughter cells are created? How many chromosomes are in each daughter? What words could

More information

READING ASSIGNMENT GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS I. HOW DO MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARE?

READING ASSIGNMENT GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS I. HOW DO MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARE? READING ASSIGNMENT GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS I. HOW DO MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARE? II. HOW CAN WE DETERMINE EXPECTED RATIOS OF OFFSPRING? What rules can we learn from Mendel s work with

More information

Patterns in Inheritance. Chapter 10

Patterns in Inheritance. Chapter 10 Patterns in Inheritance Chapter 10 What you absolutely need to know Punnett Square with monohybrid and dihybrid cross Heterozygous, homozygous, alleles, locus, gene Test cross, P, F1, F2 Mendel and his

More information

B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principles of genetics

B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principles of genetics B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principles of genetics The Chromosome theory of inheritance is a basic principle in biology that states genes

More information

The Modern Genetics View

The Modern Genetics View Inheritance Mendelian Genetics The Modern Genetics View Alleles are versions of a gene Gene for flower color Alleles for purple or white flowers Two alleles per trait 2 chromosomes, each with 1 gene The

More information

What are sex cells? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results?

What are sex cells? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results? CHAPTER 5 3 Meiosis SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are sex cells? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results? National

More information

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits.

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. Section 1: Chromosomes and Phenotype KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. VOCABULARY carrier sex-linked gene X chromosome inactivation MAIN IDEA:

More information

Chapter 02 Mendelian Inheritance

Chapter 02 Mendelian Inheritance Chapter 02 Mendelian Inheritance Multiple Choice Questions 1. The theory of pangenesis was first proposed by. A. Aristotle B. Galen C. Mendel D. Hippocrates E. None of these Learning Objective: Understand

More information

PROBABILITY and MENDELIAN GENETICS

PROBABILITY and MENDELIAN GENETICS PROBABILITY and MENDELIAN GENETICS NAME BACKGROUND In 1866 Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, published the results of his study of inheritance on garden peas. Although Mendel did not understand the mechanics

More information

Punnett Squares. Dihybrid Cross

Punnett Squares. Dihybrid Cross Punnett Squares Dihybrid Cross 6F: Students will predict possible outcomes of genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-mendelian inheritance TEKS Each parent has TWO traits

More information

Date Pages Page # 3. Record the color of your beads. Are they homozygous or heterozygous?

Date Pages Page # 3. Record the color of your beads. Are they homozygous or heterozygous? 1 Patterns of Inheritance Process and Procedures Date Pages 645-650 Page # 3. Record the color of your beads. Are they homozygous or heterozygous? 6. Record the colors of the two beads. Are they homozygous

More information

NARRATION FOR UNDERSTANDING INHERITANCE: MENDEL, METHOD, AND MAPPING

NARRATION FOR UNDERSTANDING INHERITANCE: MENDEL, METHOD, AND MAPPING NARRATION FOR UNDERSTANDING INHERITANCE: MENDEL, METHOD, AND MAPPING Each of us, unless we re an identical twin, is characterized by a unique combination of traits that makes us different from all other

More information

Genetics. Why do offspring resemble their parents? What role can technology play in genetics? Let s explore the answers to these questions.

Genetics. Why do offspring resemble their parents? What role can technology play in genetics? Let s explore the answers to these questions. In a monastery garden, a curious monk discovered some of the basic principles of genetics. The monk, Gregor Mendel (1822 1884), laid the groundwork for the study of genetics, which has advanced our understanding

More information

MR. DALLINGA S BIOLOGY

MR. DALLINGA S BIOLOGY MR. DALLINGA S BIOLOGY Gregor Mendel Facts Born July 22 nd 1822 in Czechoslovakia A region of Austria. Today is Czech republic. Life of Poverty Entered a monastery to get an education The monastery was

More information

2. Was there a scientific way to predict the outcome of a cross between two parents?

2. Was there a scientific way to predict the outcome of a cross between two parents? Name Date Period Heredity WebQuest DNA from the Beginning Mendelian Genetics Go to http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/1/concept/index.html Children resemble their parents Read the text and answer the following

More information

Laboratory. Mendelian Genetics

Laboratory. Mendelian Genetics Laboratory 9 Mendelian Genetics Biology 171L FA17 Lab 9: Mendelian Genetics Student Learning Outcomes 1. Predict the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of a monohybrid cross. 2. Determine whether a gene is

More information

The passing of traits from parents to offspring. The scientific study of the inheritance

The passing of traits from parents to offspring. The scientific study of the inheritance Inheritance The passing of traits from parents to offspring Genetics The scientific study of the inheritance Gregor Mendel -Father of modern genetics -Used peas to successfully identify the laws of heredity

More information

Downloaded from Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Downloaded from  Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Genetics: Genetics is a branch of biology which deals with principles of inheritance and its practices. Heredity: It is transmission of traits from one

More information

Chapter 9. Patterns of Inheritance. Lectures by Chris C. Romero, updated by Edward J. Zalisko

Chapter 9. Patterns of Inheritance. Lectures by Chris C. Romero, updated by Edward J. Zalisko Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Lectures by Chris C. Romero, updated by Edward J. Zalisko 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Essential Biology, Fourth Edition Eric Simon, Jane

More information