Mendel. The pea plant was ideal to work with and Mendel s results were so accurate because: 1) Many. Purple versus flowers, yellow versus seeds, etc.

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1 Mendel A. Mendel: Before Mendel, people believed in the hypothesis. This is analogous to how blue and yellow paints blend to make. Mendel introduced the hypothesis. This deals with discrete units called passed on from parents to offspring that their separate identity. This is analogous to marbles in a bucket being passed onto offspring. Working with garden plants, Austrian, Gregor Mendel became the Father of Genetics. It is necessary to understand the basic anatomy of a flower to understand Mendel s work. The pea plant was ideal to work with and Mendel s results were so accurate because: 1) Many. Purple versus flowers, yellow versus seeds, etc. 2) Easy to control the. Mendel removed the male so the plants could not -fertilize. 3) Chose traits that were. For instance, purple white flowers, no. 4) Started with / purebred varieties. All the parentals were. The mating or crossing of 2 varieties is called:. is for a single character, like flower color. is for two characters, like flower color and seed shape. 5) Followed the traits for at least generations. P generation ( ), F 1 (first ) which then - pollinate, and the F 2 generation. 6) Used analysis. 7) Large number of offspring / size, probability. 8) life cycle and easy to peas.

2 B. Mendel s Laws: Mendel s experiments showed that the blending model of inheritance was incorrect. Purple x White flowers in the parentals produces all flowers, not pale purple flowers. Therefore, purple flower color (P) is to white (p). Mendel observed the same pattern of inheritance with other characters. Mendel explains this ratio of inheritance with 4 related ideas: 1) versions of genes account for variation. For example, purple versus white flower color. The alternate versions of genes are called. 2) An organism inherits alleles, one from mom and one from dad. Thus a genetic is represented twice in a diploid organism like humans. These homologous loci may be alleles or they may. 3) If the 2 alleles differ, the allele is expressed in the organism s, while the is not seen. 4) The 2 alleles present in a cell separate or during gamete production. The separation of alleles during accounts for the haploid number in sperm and eggs. This is one of Mendel s laws called the.

3 If an organism has identical alleles either or this is called. If the alleles differ this is called. An organism s appearance does not always reveal its genetic composition. The is how an organism looks, like purple versus white. The is its genetic makeup, like PP or Pp or pp. If a pea plant has purple colored flowers, we cannot tell its by looking at it. It could be either or. To determine its genotype it is necessary to cross the purple plant with a white plant (pp). If all the offspring have flowers the unknown purple plant s genotype is. If half are and half are, the unknown purple plant s genotype is. The breeding of an unknown genotype with a homozygous is called a. By performing crosses Mendel developed his 2 nd law called the Law of. He questioned whether 2 characters, like seed shape and seed color were inherited as a or. He discovered that in a dihybrid the two alleles for a character (like seed shape) assort of the two alleles for another character (like seed color). This produces four gametes:.

4 C. Probability: When you flip a coin the chance of flipping a head is and the chance of a tail is. Probabilities must always add up to. Each successive coin toss is an event, so each coin flip is a % chance of getting a head and a % chance of getting a tail. Probability is closer to predicted results when the sample is. D. What does dominant really mean?: Dominant does not mean a trait is more in a population. For example, -having extra fingers or toes, is dominant to the allele for digits. If a baby is born with, polydactyly is exhibited. An allele is not called dominant because it a recessive allele. Alleles are variations in a gene s sequence (A, T, C, G). For example, round versus wrinkled pea seed shape comes about due to the presence or absence of an that converts simple sugars to starch. (R) is dominant, so if a pea seed s alleles are or the enzyme is made and the seeds are. If the pea seed s alleles are, the enzyme is not made to convert the sugar to starch so the seed stores simple sugars. Then enters the seed by causing it to swell and when it dries. E. Beyond Mendelian Genetics: Mendel s peas always looked like one of the parentals, but for some genes this is not the case. #1) is when the F 1 hybrids have an appearance in between the 2 parentals. For example, when you cross snapdragons with snapdragons you get snapdragons. Note: This is not evidence for the blending hypothesis, which would predict that red or white traits could never be retrieved from the F 1 pink hybrids. So obviously Mendel s pea plants exhibited not incomplete dominance, but dominance.

5 #2) is when both alleles are expressed in the phenotype. One example of this is with three different human blood groups:. These groupings are based upon molecules located on the surface of red blood cells. So an M individual s genotype is, an MN individual s genotype is, and an N individual s genotype is. Notice the MN individual s phenotype expresses types of molecules on RBC s and hence is. #3) exist in populations with than 2 allelic forms. The blood group is an example of multiple alleles (three different alleles of one gene). A, B, AB, and O blood types represent two that either are present or absent on the surface of RBC s- the substance and the substance. Blood type is an example of, where both alleles are expressed. #4) means that a gene affects an organism s phenotype in ways. For example, is caused by a gene. This causes RBC s to change their, resulting in symptoms.

6 #5) is when a gene at locus affects the phenotypic expression of a gene at locus. This is seen with fur color in mice. fur is dominant to. So if a mouse has or it is black. However, a second gene locus determines whether is present or not. In order to have any color / pigment a mouse must have the form of the pigment allele (CC or Cc). If the pigment genotype is, then the mouse is regardless of the genotype at the black / brown locus. #6) is seen with human color and - when a character varies along a. It is defined as the additive effect or effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character. For example, with skin color each dominant allele contributes to skin color and each recessive allele to skin. So a person would be very dark having units of darkness, a person would be very light, and a person would be intermediate. Because polygenic inheritance is the genotypes and each contribute units to skin darkness. Phenotype is determined not only by genes, but also by the. (genes) and (environmental factors) both influence all traits. Nature is the, while nurture can be such things as, exercise, or exposure to sunlight in the case of skin

7 color being affected by the environment. The nurture side of this debate is broadest for traits like skin color and height. Another example of how the environment affects an organism is seen with some. With flowers, the same genetic (nature) varieties produce a range of colors from to based upon the environmental factor of soil. F. Mendel Inheritance in Humans: Ethically, geneticists cannot manipulate the matings of humans. So instead they analyze matings that already occurred in a family by use of a. Pedigrees can be used to track a trait across generations to understand the and to predict the. Recessively Inherited Human Disorders: Recall that when an allele causes a genetic disorder there is either a of a or no protein at all. With recessive disorders individuals have a normal phenotype because one copy of the normal allele produces some of a specific. Heterozygotes that are phenotypically normal are called. Therefore, a recessively inherited disorder shows up only with individuals. In general, genetic disorders evenly distributed among all groups of humans. This is because of conditions when the world was less and people were more geographically. The common recessive lethal genetic disease in the U.S. is. This disorder affects transport between and the fluid. The protein channels that transport chloride in and out of the cell are or absent in people with cystic fibrosis. This causes Cl - to build up in the extracellular fluid that leads to build up around organs and pathways, as well as bacterial infections.

8 disease is another disorder where a dysfunctional enzyme fails to break down in the. This causes seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance. anemia is another recessive disorder common amongst. The substitution of amino acid in the hemoglobin protein of RBC s causes RBC s to sickle. As a result, sickled cells hold oxygen. While this is a recessive disorder its alleles are, so some individuals who are for sickle cell disease suffer some symptoms of the disease due to a fraction of their RBC s being sickled. Approximately out of African Americans are carriers of this allele (SS ). The reason for this high number is because in certain environments like, heterozygotes have an advantage over (SS) where having a single copy of the sickle-cell allele increases resistance to. Dominantly Inherited Human Disorders: harmful alleles are recessive, however there are some dominant disorders. For example, a form of dwarfism is expressed in individuals with or genotypes. Therefore, 99.99% of the population is. Many lethal dominant alleles result due to. Others can escape notice early in life and as a result, be passed onto offspring. One example of a dominant disorder that doesn t show phenotypic symptoms until age ~35 to 45 is disease. This disorder causes degeneration of the. G. Genetic Testing and Counseling: The risk of a genetic disorder can be assessed before a child is even conceived or early in pregnancy allowing parents to make informed decisions. involves inserting a needle into the fluid surrounding the fetus around the 14 th -16 th week of pregnancy. This fluid is then either A) tested with chemicals for certain genetic disorders or B) the cells from the fluid are in a laboratory and within weeks a can identify chromosomal defects. (CVS) is another fetal testing where a doctor out fetal tissue from the around the 8 th to 10 th week of pregnancy. This fetal tissue is then karyotyped immediately, giving results within 24 hours. While both CVS and amniocentesis are means to check for abnormalities, are non-invasive. This technique uses waves to produce an image of the fetus. uses a tube with a viewing scope inserted into the uterus. All invasive procedures carry some risk of or and are therefore reserved for only extreme risk cases.

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