You are who you are because of a combination of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism.

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1 Unit 6 Genetics

2 6.1 Genetics You are who you are because of a combination of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT. ENVIRONMENT: all outside forces that act on an organism. HEREDITY: traits that are passed from parents to offspring. GENETICS: the scientific study of heredity.

3 Tools of the Trade PEDIGREE: chart that shows a family s history of inherited traits PUNNETT SQUARE: predicts all possible offspring traits resulting from a cross between two parents.

4 6.2 Who was Gregor Mendel? GREGOR MENDEL: Father of Genetics ; Austrian monk and high school teacher who extensively studied heredity. MENDEL USED PEA PLANTS TO STUDY HEREDITY FOR TWO REASONS: 1. Easy to observe characteristics and traits. CHARACTERISTIC: a hereditary quality of an organism. EX: stem length, seed color

5 TRAIT: contrasting forms of a characteristic. EX: tall stem or short stem yellow seed or green seed 2. Easy to control their reproduction. SELF-POLLINATION: when pollen (sperm) from a plant fertilizes an egg on the same plant. CROSS-POLLINATION: when pollen from one plant fertilizes an egg on another plant.

6 6.3 Mendel s Experiments EXPERIMENT ONE: Mendel observed self pollination in pea plants. RESULTS: Plants kept the same traits generation after generation. EX: Tall plants always produce tall offspring when selfpollinating, short always produce short.

7 EXPERIMENT TWO: Mendel cross-pollinated plants with contrasting traits. PARENTAL (P 1 ) GENERATION: parents with two different traits. FIRST FILIAL (F 1 ) GENERATION: offspring of the P 1 parents, have only one of the two parental traits. RESULTS: All of the F 1 offspring exhibited the same trait, they looked like only one of the parents.

8 EX: P 1 Tall X Short F 1 ALL Tall

9 EXPERIMENT THREE: Mendel allowed the F 1 generation to selfpollinate. SECOND FILIAL (F 2 ): offspring of the F 1 generation. RESULTS: In the F 2 generation ¾ had one trait, ¼ had the contrasting trait. EX: P 1 tall X short F 1 All tall ¾ tall and ¼ short F 2

10 6.4 Mendel s Laws 1. Inherited characteristics (traits) are determined by genes. GENE: sequence of DNA that codes for one trait ALLELE: different forms of a gene Alleles may be symbolized by using capital or lower case letters. T allele for tall stem trait t allele for short stem trait

11 2. Law of Dominance: One allele of the pair of a gene may mask the other allele. DOMINANT ALLELE: allele that controls a trait RECESSIVE ALLELE: allele whose trait is hidden by dominant allele EX: Tall allele is dominant T Short allele is recessive t

12 GENE TRAIT TT pure tall Tall tt pure short short Tt hybrid tall Tall HYBRID: an organism that displays the dominant trait, but carries both the dominant and recessive allele.

13 3. Law of Segregation: The alleles in the pair of a gene are separated during formation of gametes (egg or sperm). GAMETES: haploid reproductive sex cells, have only one allele of each gene.

14

15 4. Law of Independent Assortment: The allele pair of one gene is separated and distributed to gametes (egg & sperm) independently of all other genes. EX: alleles for height gene have no connection with alleles for the seed color gene Parent gene TtYy Possible gametes TY, Ty, ty, ty

16

17 6.5 How can we predict the traits of potential offspring? GENOTYPE: 2 letter symbols representing the types of genes present in an organism EX: TT, Tt, tt PHENOTYPE: the physical appearance of a trait EX: Tall plant, short plant

18 HOMOZYGOUS: genotype in which both alleles of a gene are the same. EX: TT homozygous dominant tt homozygous recessive HETEROZYGOUS: genotype in which the two alleles of a gene are different; hybrid. EX: Tt heterozygous

19 PUNNETT SQUARE: grid used to show all possible offspring resulting from a cross between two parents. TO MAKE A PUNNETT SQUARE 1. Draw square and select a trait to study. 2. List all possible alleles from one parent across top of the square. 3. List all possible alleles from another parent down the side of the square. 4. Fill in the square by placing one female allele and one male allele in each square.

20 6.6 Monohybrid Crosses MONOHYBRID CROSS: a cross that involves one trait, one characteristic, or one pair of contrasting traits. EXAMPLE 1: What would the offspring look like if we crossed a homozygous Tall male with a homozygous short female?

21 All offspring of the P 1 parents (F 1 generation) are HETEROZYGOUS (Tt) and would be TALL. F 1 genotype - Tt phenotype- TALL

22 EXAMPLE II: What would the offspring look like if we crossed two heterozygous tall parents?

23 The offspring of the P generation are ¾ tall and ¼ short. F 1 genotype:1 TT phenotype: 3 Tall 2 Tt 1 short tt genotype ratio phenotype ratio 1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt 3 tall : 1 short

24 6.7 Sex-Linked Traits and Autosomal Inheritance Some genes are carried on the sex chromosomes, and some traits are inherited from autosomes. SEX CHROMOSOMES: chromosomes that determine gender of individuals AUTOSOMES: all chromosomes that are not involved with gender

25 SEX-LINKED TRAIT: any trait coded for by a gene on the sex chromosomes e.g. eye color in fruit flies is a gene found on the X chromosome. X R = red eye color X r = white eye color

26 Timed-pair-share What gender and phenotype will be seen in fruit flies with the following genotypes? 1) X R X r 2) X r X r 3) X R Y 4) X r Y

27 Make a baby! Each partner donates one trait (flips one penny). Ex dad flips heads, gives an R ; mom flips tails gives an r Would be a round face. Once done, draw baby on paper. Answer questions.

28 Exit Slip There have been cases in history where a king divorced his queen because she produced only daughters. Using your knowledge of genetics, explain why this was not really fair to the queen.

29 6.7 Incomplete Dominance INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE: when neither allele of a gene is dominant and can create a hybrid phenotype. EX: Four-o-clock flowers Characteristic flower color R = allele for red color W = allele for white color

30 Genotypes RR RW WW Phenotypes Red Pink White

31 Cross a red flowered plant with a white flowered plant. All offspring are heterozygous (RW) and have the PINK flower color trait.

32 Cross two of the heterozygous pink Genotype: 1 RR Phenotype: 1 Red 2 RW 2 Pink 1 WW 1 White

33

34 CODOMINANCE: occurs when both alleles of a gene are shown in the phenotype; neither is dominant over the other Ex: Human Blood Types Type A, Type B, Type AB, Type O

35

36 Blood Type Genotypes: I A I A I B I B I A I B ii (what are the other possibilities?)

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