Summary The Work of Gregor Mendel Probability and Punnett Squares. Oass

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1 Oass Date Chapter 11 Summary Introduction to Genetics 11-1 The Work of Gregor Mendel The scientific study of heredity is called genetics. Gregor Mendel used purebred pea plants in a series of experiments to understand inheritance. Pea flowers have both male and female parts. Normally, pollen from the male part of the pea flower fertilizes the female egg cells of the same flower. This is called selfpollination. Seeds that come from selfpollination inherit all their characteristics from just one parent. To carry out his experiments, Mendel had to prevent self-pollination. He did this by cutting away the pollen-bearing male parts and then dusting pollen from another plant on the flower. This process is called cross-pollination. The seeds that come from cross-pollination are the offspring of two different parents. Mendel decided to study just a few traits, or characteristics, of the pea plants. He studied seven traits: seed shape, seed color, seed coat color, pod shape, pod color, flower position, and plant height. First, Mendel crossed two plants with different characters, or forms, for the same trait. For example, one plant was tall and the other was short. Mendel used the seeds produced by this cross to grow plants. These plants were hybrids. Hybrids are the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits. To Mendel's surprise, the hybrid plants looked like only one of the parents. He concluded that each trait was controlled by one gene that occurred in two different forms. The different forms of a gene are called alleles. Mendel formed the theory of dominance. He concluded that some alleles are dominant, while others are recessive. Whenever a living thing inherits a dominant allele, that trait is visible. The effects of a recessive allele are not seen if the dominant allele is present. Mendel wanted to know what happened to the recessive allele. He allowed his hybrid plants to self-pollinate. Some of the plants that were produced showed the recessive trait. The alleles responsible for the recessive characters had not disappeared. Before, the dominant allele had masked the recessive allele, so it was not visible. Mendel concluded that the alleles for the same trait can be separated. He called this segregation. Alleles segregate when gametes are formed. Each gamete carries only one copy of each gene Probability and Punnett Squares Mendel used the principles of probability to explain his results. Probability is the likelihood that a particular event will occur. Probability can be used to predict the outcome of genetic crosses because alleles segregate randomly. The gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a Punnett square. In a Punnett square, alleles are represented by letters. A capital letter represents the dominant allele, and a lowercase letter represents the recessive allele. Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are called homozygous. Homozygous organisms are true-breeding for a particular trait. Organisms that have two different alleles for a particular trait are called heterozygous. Heterozygous organisms are hybrid for a particular trait. The physical traits of an organism make up its phenotype (for example, height). The genetic makeup of an organism is its genotype (for example, IT or Tt). Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. 14

2 Class Date One important rule of probability is that probabilities predict the average outcome of a large number of events. They CaIU10t predict what will happen in a single event. The more organisms examined, the closer the numbers will get to the expected values Exploring Mendelian Genetics Mendel wondered whether genes that determine one trait have anything to do with genes that determine another trait. He wanted to know, for example, whether the gene that determines seed shape affects the gene for seed color. To answer this question, he did an experiment. He crossed plants and recorded two traits-seed shape and seed color. Mendel found that the gene controlling seed shape did not affect the gene controlling seed color. Mendel concluded that genes can segregate independently, or undergo independent assortment, during gamete formation. Not all genes show simple patterns of dominant and recessive alleles. In incomplete dominance, one allele is not completely dominant over another. In codominance, both alleles contribute to the phenotype. Many genes have more than two alleles and are said to have multiple alleles. Polygenic traits are traits controlled by two or more genes. The characteristics of any organism are not caused only by its genes. Instead, characteristics are determined by the interaction between the genes and the environment Meiosis According to Mendel, living things inherit a single copy of each gene from each of their parents. When gametes are formed, these two copies are separated. Gametes are made during meiosis. In a complex process, the number of chromosomes in each cell is cut in half. The chromosomes are different from one another and from the parent cell. There are two stages in meiosis. During the first stage, the DNA in special cells in the reproductive organs is copied. The cells then divide. Two cells are formed. These cells are different from each other and different from the parent cell. In the second stage of meiosis, the cells divide again. This time, their DNA is not copied first. Four daughter cells are produced. Each cell contains half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell. In male animals, the gametes produced by meiosis are called sperm. Some plants also have sperm cells. In females, meiosis produces one large reproductive cell and three smaller cells. In animals, the larger reproductive cell is called an egg. In some plants, it is called an egg cell. The three smaller cells produced during meiosis are called polar bodies. They do not participate in reproduction. Meiosis is very different from mitosis. Mitosis makes two cells that are exactly alike. The cells are also exactly like the parent cell. Meiosis, however, produces four cells. Each of the cells has only half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. The cells are genetically different from one another Linkage and Gene Maps Some genes are almost always inherited together. These genes belong to the same linkage group. A chromosome is a group of linked genes. It is actually the chromosomes that assort independently during gamete formation, not single genes. The location of genes can be mapped to a chromosome. The rate of crossover events is used to find the distance between genes on a chromosome. The farther apart two genes are, the more likely they will be separated by a crossover event. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing os Pearson Prentice Holi. 15

3 Class Date Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11-1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages ) ~ Key Concepts What is the principle of dominance? What happens during segregation? Gregor Mendel's Peas (pages ) 1. The scientific study of heredity is called 2. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Gregor Mendel's peas. a. The male parts of pea flowers produce eggs. b. When pollen fertilizes an egg cell, a seed for a new plant is formed. c. Pea plants normally reproduce by self-pollination. d. Seeds that are produced by self-pollination inherit their characteristics from two different plants. 3. What does it mean when pea plants are described as being true-breeding? 4. To perform his experiments, how did Mendel prevent pea flowers from self-pollinating and control their cross-pollination? Genes and Dominance (pages ) Match the term with its definition. Tenns Definitions 5. genes a. Specific characteristics that vary from one individual 6. hybrids to another 7. traits h. The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits 8. alleles c. Chemical factors that determine traits 9. State the principle of dominance. d. The different forms of a gene 10. Is the following sentence true or false? An organism with a recessive allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form. 11. Circle the letters of the traits controlled by dominant alleles in Mendel's pea plants. a. tau h. short c. yellow d. green Pearson EducaHon, Inc., publishing as Pearson PrenHce Hall. 16

4 Class Date Segregation (pages ) 12. How did Mendel find out whether the recessive alleles were still present in the F t plants? 13. About one fourth of the F2 plants from Mendel's F t crosses showed the trait controlled by the allele. 14. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Mendel's explanation of the results from his F t cross. a. Mendel assumed that a dominant allele had masked the corresponding recessive allele in the F1 generation. b. The trait controlled by the recessive allele never showed up in any F2 plants. c. The allele for shortness was always inherited with the allele for tallness. d. At some point, the allele for shortness was segregated, or separated, from the allele for tallness. 15. What are gametes? 16. Complete the following diagram to show how alleles segregate during the formation of gametes. 17. In the diagram above, the dominant allele is represented by and the recessive allele is represented by Pearson EducoHon, Inc., publishing as Peorson Prentice Hall. 17

5 Class Date Section 11-2 Probability and Punnett Squares (pages ) ~ Key Concepts How do geneticists use the principles of probability? How do geneticists use Punnett squares? Genetics and Probability (page 267) 1. The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called 2. Circle the letter of the probability that a single coin flip will come up heads. a. 100 percent b. 75 percent c. 50 percent d. 25 percent 3. Is the following sentence true or false? The past outcomes of coin flips greatly affect the outcomes of future coin flips. 4. Why can the principles of probability be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses? Punnett Squares (page 268) 5. How do geneticists use PlUU1ett squares? 6. Complete the Punnett square to show the possible gene combinations for the F2 offspring. PUNNETI SQUARE FOR TtxTt T t T t Match the terms with the definitions. Terms Definitions 7. genotype a. Organisms that have two identical alleles for a 8. homozygous particular trait (IT or tt) 9. phenotype b. Organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait (It) heterozygous c. Physical characteristic of an organism (tall) d. Genetic makeup of an organism (It) Pearson Education, Inc., publishing os Pearson Prentice Hall. 18

6 Class Da te 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Homozygous organisms are true-breeding for a particular trait. 12. Is the following sentence true or false? Plants with the same phenotype always have the same genotype. Probability and Segregation (page 269) 13. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about probability and segregation. a. In an F1 cross between two hybrid tall pea plants (Tt), ~ of the F2 plants will have two alleles for tallness em. b. The F2 ratio of tall plants to short plants produced in a cross between two hybrid tall pea plants (Tt) is 3 tall plants for every 1 short plant. c. Mendel observed that about %of the F2 offspring showed the dominant trait. d. Segregation occurs according to Mendel's model. 14. In Mendel's model of segregation, what was the ratio of tall plants to short plants in the F2 generation? Probabilities Predict Averages (page 269) 15. Is the following sentence true or false? Probabilities predict the precise outcome of an individual event. 16. How can you be sure of getting the expected 50 : 50 ratio from flipping a coin? 17. The the number of offspring from a genetic cross, the closer the resulting numbers wiil get to expected values. 18. Is the following sentence true or false? The ratios of an F1 generation are more likely to match Mendelian predicted ratios if the F1 generation contains hundreds or thousands of individuals. Reading Skill Practice Taking notes helps the reader focus on the main ideas and the vocabulary of the reading. Take notes while rereading Section Note the main ideas and the highlighted, boldface terms in the order in which they are presented. You may copy the ideas word for word or summarize them using your own words. Do your work on a separate sheet of paper. Pearson Educo~on, Inc., publishing os Pearson Pren~ce Hall. 19

7 Class Date Section 11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics (pages ) ~ Key Concepts What is the principle of independent assortment? What inheritance patterns exist aside from simple dominance? Independent Assortment (pages ) 1. In a two-factor cross, Mendel followed different genes as they passed from one generation to the next. 2. Write the genotypes of the true-breecling plants that Mendel used in his two-factor cross. Phenotype a. round yellow peas b. wrinkled green peas Genotype 3. Circle the letter that best describes the F) offspring of Mendel's two-factor cross. a. Homozygous dominant with round yellow peas b. Homozygous recessive with wrinkled green peas c. Heterozygous dominant with round yellow peas d. Heterozygous recessive with wrinkled green peas 4. Is the following sentence true or false? The genotypes of the F) offspring inclicated to Mendel that genes assort independently. 5. How clid Mendel produce the F2 offspring? 6. Circle the letter of the phenotypes that Mendel would expect to see if genes segregated independently. a. round and yellow b. wrinkled and green c. round and green d. wrinkled and yellow 7. What did Mendel observe in the F2 offspring that showed him that the alleles for seed shape segregate independently of those for seed color? 8. What were the phenotypes of the F2 generation that Mendel observed? Pearson Educo~on, Inc., publishing os Pearson Pren~(e Holi. 20

8 Class Da te 9. What was the ratio of Mendel's F2 generation for the two-factor cross? 10. Complete the Punnett square below to show the predicted results of Mendel's twofactor cross. MENDEL'S TWO-FACTOR CROSS RrYyx RrYy RY Ry ry ry RY Ry ry ry 11. State Mendel's principle of independent assortment. A Summary of Mendel's Principles (page 272) 12. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Mendel's principles. a. The inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by genes that are passed from parents to their offspring. h. Two or more forms of the gene for a single trait can never exist. c. The copies of genes are segregated from each other when gametes are formed. d. The alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of one another. 13. When two or more forms of the gene for a single trait exist, some forms of the gene may be and others may be Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles (pages ) 14. Is the following sentence true or false? All genes show simple patterns of dominant and recessive alleles. Peorson Educo~on, Inc., publishing os Peorson Prentice Holi. 21

9 Class Date Complete the table of the different patterns of inheritance. PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE Type Description Examples One allele is not completely dominant over another. The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two homozygous phenotypes. Both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism. Genes have more than two alleles. Two or more genes control a trait. Applying Mendel's Principles (page 274) 16. List three criteria Thomas Hunt Morgan was looking for in a model organism for genetic studies. a. b. c. 17. Is the following sentence true or false? Mendel's principles apply not just to pea plants but to other organisms as well. Genetics and the Environment (page 274) 18. Characteristics are determined by interaction between genes and the Pearson EduCllHon, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prenfice Hall. 22

10 Class Date Section 11-4 Meiosis (pages ) ~ Key Concepts What happens during the process of meiosis? How is meiosis different from mitosis? Introduction (page 275) 1. List the two things that Mendel's principles of genetics required in order to be true. a. b. Chromosome Number (page 275) 2. What does it mean when two sets of chromosomes are homologous? 3. Circle the letter of each way to describe a diploid cell. a.2n b. Contains two sets of homologous chromosomes c. Contains a single set of homologous chromosomes d. Agamete 4. Circle the letter of the number of chromosomes in a haploid Drosophila cell. ~ 8 b. 4 ~ 2 d. 0 Phases of Meiosis (pages ) 5. Draw the chromosomes in the diagrams below to show the correct phase of meiosis. Prophase I Metaphase I Pearson Educo~on, Inc., publishing os Pearson Pren~ce Holi. 23 Anaphase II

11 Class Date 6. Identify which phase of meiosis is shown in the diagrams below. 7. Why is meiosis described as a process of reduction division? 8. What are the two distinct divisions of meiosis? a. b. 9. Is the following sentence true or false? The diploid cell that enters meiosis becomes 4 haploid cells at the end of meiosis. 10. How does a tetrad form in prophase I of meiosis? 11. Circle the number of chromatids in a tetrad. a. 8 b. 6 c. 4 d What results from the process of crossing-over during prophase I? Pearson EducaHon, Inc., publishing as Pearson PrenHce Hall. 24

12 Class Date 13. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about meiosis. a. During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes separate. b. The two daughter cells produced by meiosis I still have the two complete sets of chromosomes, as does a diploid cell. c. During anaphase II, the paired chromatids separate. d. After meiosis II, the four daughter cells contain the diploid number of chromosomes. Gamete Formation (page 278) Match the products of meiosis with the descriptions. Product of Meiosis Description 14. eggs a. Haploid gametes produced in males 15. sperm b. Haploid gametes produced in females 16. polar bodies c. Cells produced in females that do not participate in reproduction Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis (page 278) 17. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mitosis and meiosis. a. Mitosis produces four genetically different haploid cells. b. Meiosis produces two genetically identical diploid cells. c. Mitosis begins with a diploid cell. d. Meiosis begins with a diploid cell. Reading Skill Practice You can often increase your understanding of what you've read by making comparisons. A compare-and-contrast table helps you to do this. On a separate sheet of paper, make a table to compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis. For more information about compare-and-contrast tables, see Organizing Information in Appendix A in your textbook. Peorson Educotlon, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentlce Hall. 25

13 Class Date Section 11-5 Linkage and Gene Maps (pages ) ~ Key Concept What structures actually assort independently? Gene Linkage (page 279) 1. Is the following sentence true or false? Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that some genes violated the principle of independent assortment. 2. Morgan grouped the Drosophila genes that were inherited together into four groups. 3. List the two conclusions tfu.t Morgan made about genes and chromosomes. a. b. 4. Why didn't Mendel observe gene linkage? Gene Maps (pages ) 5. Explain why two genes fowld on the same chromosome are not always linked forever. 6. The new combinations of alleles produced by crossover events help to generate genetic 7. Is the following sentence true or false? Genes that are closer together are more likely to be separated by a crossover event in meiosis. 8. What is a gene map? 9. How is a gene map constructed? Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prenfice Hall. 26

14 Class Date Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Vocabulary Review Labeling Diagrams used twice heterozygous parent dominant allele recessive allele 6. Use the words listed below to label the Punnett square. Some words may be H h homozygous offspring heterozygous offspring 1. ' I \ HI \h ' HH Hh Hh hh Matching In the space provided, write the letter of the definition that best matches each tenn. 7. phenotype a. likelihood that something will happen 8. gamete b. shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome c. physical characteristics of an organism 9. genetics d. containing one set of chromosomes 10. probability e. sex cell 11. haploid. chemical factor that determines traits 12. gene map g. specific characteristic 13. gene h. scientific study of heredity 14. multiple alleles 1. gene with more than two alleles 15. trait Completion Fill in the blanks with terms fron1 Chapter The process in which two genes segregate independently is called 17. Plants that, if left to self-pollinate, produce offspring identical to themselves are called 18. The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits are called 19. The process during sexual reproduction in which male and female sex cells join is called 20. The process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half is called Pearson Educo~on, Inc., publishing os Peorson Prenfice Holi. 27

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