Figure 1: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: F0 Mating. Figure 1.1: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Expected F1 Outcome

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Figure 1: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: F0 Mating. Figure 1.1: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Expected F1 Outcome"

Transcription

1 I. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance As early cytologists worked out the mechanism of cell division in the late 1800 s, they began to notice similarities in the behavior of BOTH chromosomes & Mendel s factors a) Chromosomes & alleles occur in pairs in diploid cells. b) Homologous chromosomes & alleles segregate during meiosis. c) Fertilization restores the paired condition for both chromosomes & alleles. It was later determined that these similarities were due to the fact that alleles RESIDE on chromosomes. As a result, chromosome behavior during division explains allele segregation & independent assortment. II. Gene Linkage American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan performed mating experiments with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, he traced the inheritance of two traits, body color & wing shape, across generations. Initially, Morgan crossed female dihybrids having gray bodies & normal wings: (b + b vg + vg) with double mutant males having black bodies & vestigial (flightless) wings (bbvgvg). Figure 1: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: F0 Mating Figure 1.1: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Expected F1 Outcome According to Mendel s principle of independent assortment, Morgan s matings were expected to produce 4 phenotypic classes of F1 offspring, in approximately equal ratios: 1 gray-normal: 1 black-normal: 1 gray-vestigial: 1 black-vestigial.

2 Figure 1.2: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Observed F1 Outcome Instead of observing all 4 possible phenotypes in equal ratios, Morgan observed that the phenotypic ratios were not equal, but overwhelmingly skewed in favor of the parental phenotypes. To explain this outcome, Morgan concluded that alleles for body color & wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster were Linked, or found on the same chromosome Figure 1.3: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Gamete Formation Assuming Gene Linkage Figure 1.4: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Expected F1 Results Assuming Gene Linkage

3 If the genes for body color & wing shape are truly linked, one should expect to see nothing but the parental phenotypes in the F1 generation. Instead, we also see recombinants. This observation can be explained in that crossing over can unlink linked genes leading to new allele combinations. Figure 1.5: Transmission of Wing Shape & Body Color Alleles: Effects of Crossing Over Figure 1.6: Linked Genes & MAP Units Linked Genes: a) MAP UNITS (MU) =relative distance between loci on a chromosome; can be expressed as the frequency at which two loci on a chromosome can be separated by crossing over (closer the loci, the less likely crossing over will separate them).

4 III. Sex Chromosomes & Sex Linkage Figure 2: Chromosomal Basis for Gender Determination During fertilization, it is the sperm cell (X OR Y) that determines the gender of the child upon fusing with an ovum (X). If present in the resulting zygote, it is the Y chromosome that will direct its development into a male. If absent, the zygote will develop into a female. Figure 3: X-Linked Alleles: Drosophila Eye Color

5 Figure 3.1: X-Linked Alleles: Hemizygous Males In contrast, females would need to inherit TWO copies of the (w) allele to exhibit white eyes white-eyed females less frequent. Sex-Linked Genes: Figure 3.2: Generalized Sex-Linked (X) Inheritance Pattern Mutated X-linked alleles that cause disease are those associated with hemophilia & color-blindness (both more common among males).

6 IV. Genetic Disorders & Pedigree Analysis Figure 4: Sample Pedigree Pedigrees are models that can be used to determine the inheritance pattern of a trait in a family (or a large group of people) across multiple generations. Figure 5: Inbreeding & Frequency of Recessive Disorders Within isolated gene pools, mate choice is limited. Consequently, mating between related individuals is likely; since such individuals are likely to carry the same harmful alleles, mating between them is more likely to produce affected offspring. Over time, such deleterious recessive alleles are expected to increase in frequency within the gene pool (assuming it remains isolated). Examples of such harmful autosomal recessive alleles include those causing cystic fibrosis, tay sachs, & sickle-cell anemia Tay Sachs: 1 in 3600 births to Central & Eastern European Jews. Results from a mutation of a gene on chromosome 15. Brain cells of infected individuals are unable to produce an enzyme (Hex A) to metabolize lipids called gangliosides formed within the developing brain. If not broken down, these lipids will collect in the brain & disrupt mental & neural functions until the entire central nervous system stops working.

7 Cystic Fibrosis: 1 in 2500 Caucasian births. Results from a mutation in a gene on chromosome 7 that normally codes for a membrane protein (CFTR) that functions in Cl- transport between cells & the extracellular fluid. The channels are defective or absent in cystic fibrosis sufferers, resulting in an abnormally high extracellular Cl- concentration. This causes the mucus that coats certain cells to be thicker & stickier than normal. The mucus builds up in the lungs, pancreas, digestive tract & various other organs. Sickle Cell Anemia: 1 in 500 African births. Caused by a mutation resulting in the wrongful production of a single amino acid in the Hb protein. Upon releasing oxygen, the abnormal Hb proteins may cluster together to form rod-like structures, causing them to assume a sickle shape. Unlike normal red blood cells, which last about 120 days in the bloodstream, sickled red blood cells last days. Since they cannot be replaced fast enough, the blood is chronically short of red blood cells, a condition known as anemia. Blood transfusions can relieve the symptoms, although there is no cure. Figure 6: Autosomal Dominant Disorders: Huntington s Disease Alleles for dominant disorders (e.g. Huntington s allele) are extremely rare within populations & lethal in the homozygous condition. Thus, always assume that an individual affected by a dominant disorder to be heterozygous for the condition. Figure 7: Methods of Genetic Screening *Both methods can be used to assess the development of a fetus prior to birth through the production of a karyotype. The information provided by the karyotypes includes chromosome number, shape, & the presence of any deletions, inversions, translocations, or duplications.

8

Patterns of Inheritance

Patterns of Inheritance 1 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 2 Topics Mendel s Principles Variations on Mendel s Principles Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes 3 Experimental

More information

A gene is a sequence of DNA that resides at a particular site on a chromosome the locus (plural loci). Genetic linkage of genes on a single

A gene is a sequence of DNA that resides at a particular site on a chromosome the locus (plural loci). Genetic linkage of genes on a single 8.3 A gene is a sequence of DNA that resides at a particular site on a chromosome the locus (plural loci). Genetic linkage of genes on a single chromosome can alter their pattern of inheritance from those

More information

Human Genetic Diseases. AP Biology

Human Genetic Diseases. AP Biology Human Genetic Diseases 1 3 4 2 5 2006-2007 6 Pedigree analysis n Pedigree analysis reveals Mendelian patterns in human inheritance u data mapped on a family tree = male = female = male w/ trait = female

More information

The Chromosomal Basis Of Inheritance

The Chromosomal Basis Of Inheritance The Chromosomal Basis Of Inheritance Chapter 15 Objectives Explain the chromosomal theory of inheritance and its discovery. Explain why sex-linked diseases are more common in human males than females.

More information

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions

More information

Human Genetic Diseases (Ch. 15)

Human Genetic Diseases (Ch. 15) Human Genetic Diseases (Ch. 15) 1 2 2006-2007 3 4 5 6 Genetic counseling Pedigrees can help us understand the past & predict the future Thousands of genetic disorders are inherited as simple recessive

More information

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Factors and Genes Mendel s model of inheritance was based on the idea of factors that were independently assorted and segregated into gametes We now know that these

More information

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Overview: Locating Genes on Chromosomes A century

More information

Chapter 15 Notes 15.1: Mendelian inheritance chromosome theory of inheritance wild type 15.2: Sex-linked genes

Chapter 15 Notes 15.1: Mendelian inheritance chromosome theory of inheritance wild type 15.2: Sex-linked genes Chapter 15 Notes The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Mendel s hereditary factors were genes, though this wasn t known at the time Now we know that genes are located on The location of a particular gene

More information

Chapter 28 Modern Mendelian Genetics

Chapter 28 Modern Mendelian Genetics Chapter 28 Modern Mendelian Genetics (I) Gene-Chromosome Theory Genes exist in a linear fashion on chromosomes Two genes associated with a specific characteristic are known as alleles and are located on

More information

Patterns in Inheritance. Chapter 10

Patterns in Inheritance. Chapter 10 Patterns in Inheritance Chapter 10 What you absolutely need to know Punnett Square with monohybrid and dihybrid cross Heterozygous, homozygous, alleles, locus, gene Test cross, P, F1, F2 Mendel and his

More information

Chapter 15 - The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. A. Bergeron +AP Biology PCHS

Chapter 15 - The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. A. Bergeron +AP Biology PCHS Chapter 15 - The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance A. Bergeron +AP Biology PCHS Do Now - Predicting Unpredictable Genotypes As an inexperienced (albeit precocious) gardener, I am always looking to maximize

More information

By Mir Mohammed Abbas II PCMB 'A' CHAPTER CONCEPT NOTES

By Mir Mohammed Abbas II PCMB 'A' CHAPTER CONCEPT NOTES Chapter Notes- Genetics By Mir Mohammed Abbas II PCMB 'A' 1 CHAPTER CONCEPT NOTES Relationship between genes and chromosome of diploid organism and the terms used to describe them Know the terms Terms

More information

Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Fig. 15-1

Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Fig. 15-1 Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Fig. 15-1 Overview: Locating Genes Along Chromosomes Mendel s hereditary factors were genes, though this wasn t known at the time Today we can show that

More information

Mendel. The pea plant was ideal to work with and Mendel s results were so accurate because: 1) Many. Purple versus flowers, yellow versus seeds, etc.

Mendel. The pea plant was ideal to work with and Mendel s results were so accurate because: 1) Many. Purple versus flowers, yellow versus seeds, etc. Mendel A. Mendel: Before Mendel, people believed in the hypothesis. This is analogous to how blue and yellow paints blend to make. Mendel introduced the hypothesis. This deals with discrete units called

More information

The Discovery of Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits

The Discovery of Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits The Discovery of Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits Outcomes: 1. Compare the pattern of inheritance produced by genes on the sex chromosomes to that produced by genes on autosomes, as investigated by Morgan.

More information

Extra Review Practice Biology Test Genetics

Extra Review Practice Biology Test Genetics Mendel fill in the blanks: Extra Review Practice Biology Test Genetics Mendel was an Austrian monk who studied genetics primarily using plants. He started with plants that produced offspring with only

More information

Class XII Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Biology

Class XII Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Biology Question 1: Mention the advantages of selecting pea plant for experiment by Mendel. Mendel selected pea plants to carry out his study on the inheritance of characters from parents to offspring. He selected

More information

Honors Biology Review Sheet to Chapter 9 Test

Honors Biology Review Sheet to Chapter 9 Test Honors Biology Review Sheet to Chapter 9 Test Name Per 1. Label the following flower: sepal, petal, anther, filament, style, ovary, stigma Draw in ovules and label. Color the female structure red and the

More information

Genetics: CH9 Patterns of Inheritance

Genetics: CH9 Patterns of Inheritance Genetics: CH9 Patterns of Inheritance o o Lecture note Directions Highlight Key information (10-30% of most slides) My Thoughts: Questions, comments, additional information, connections to prior knowledge,

More information

The passing of traits from parents to offspring. The scientific study of the inheritance

The passing of traits from parents to offspring. The scientific study of the inheritance Inheritance The passing of traits from parents to offspring Genetics The scientific study of the inheritance Gregor Mendel -Father of modern genetics -Used peas to successfully identify the laws of heredity

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS-Please type your awesome answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What is an X-linked inheritance pattern? Use a specific example to explain the role of the father and mother in

More information

Downloaded from Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Downloaded from  Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Genetics: Genetics is a branch of biology which deals with principles of inheritance and its practices. Heredity: It is transmission of traits from one

More information

Lesson Overview. Human Chromosomes. Lesson Overview. Human Chromosomes

Lesson Overview. Human Chromosomes. Lesson Overview. Human Chromosomes Lesson Overview Karyotypes A genome is the full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA. A study of any genome starts with chromosomes, the bundles of DNA and protein found in the

More information

Genetics. The study of heredity. Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (mid 1800 s) Developed set of laws that explain how heredity works

Genetics. The study of heredity. Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (mid 1800 s) Developed set of laws that explain how heredity works Genetics The study of heredity Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (mid 1800 s) Developed set of laws that explain how heredity works Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel original pea plant (input) offspring

More information

Unit 5: Genetics Guided Notes

Unit 5: Genetics Guided Notes 1 Unit 5: Genetics Guided Notes Basic Mendelian Genetics Before Gregor Mendel 1) When Mendel started his work, most people believed in the blending theory of inheritance. (Inheritance, Heredity, and Genetics

More information

Relating Mendelian Inheritance to the Behavior of Chromosomes

Relating Mendelian Inheritance to the Behavior of Chromosomes Chapter 15 Relating Mendelian Inheritance to the Behavior of Chromosomes 1. Explain how the observations of cytologists and geneticists provided the basis for the chromosome theory of inheritance. 2. Explain

More information

B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principles of genetics

B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principles of genetics B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principles of genetics The Chromosome theory of inheritance is a basic principle in biology that states genes

More information

Human Genetic Diseases (non mutation)

Human Genetic Diseases (non mutation) mutation) Pedigrees mutation) 1. Autosomal recessive inheritance: this is the inheritance of a disease through a recessive allele. In order for the person to have the condition they would have to be homozygous

More information

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits.

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. Section 1: Chromosomes and Phenotype KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. VOCABULARY carrier sex-linked gene X chromosome inactivation MAIN IDEA:

More information

Introduction. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Introduction. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Introduction It was not until 1900 that biology finally caught up with Gregor Mendel. Independently, Karl Correns, Erich von Tschermak, and Hugo de Vries all found that Mendel had explained the basic rules

More information

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Lecture Outline Overview: Locating Genes Along Chromosomes Today we know that genes Gregor Mendel s hereditary factors are located on chromosomes. A century

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Chapter 15 Chromosomal Basis for Inheritance AP Biology Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) When Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed

More information

NOTES: : HUMAN HEREDITY

NOTES: : HUMAN HEREDITY NOTES: 14.1-14.2: HUMAN HEREDITY Human Genes: The human genome is the complete set of genetic information -it determines characteristics such as eye color and how proteins function within cells Recessive

More information

Patterns of Heredity - Genetics - Sections: 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, & 11.3

Patterns of Heredity - Genetics - Sections: 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, & 11.3 Patterns of Heredity - Genetics - Sections: 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, & 11.3 Genetics = the study of heredity by which traits are passed from parents to offspring Page. 227 Heredity = The passing of genes/traits

More information

Lecture 13: May 24, 2004

Lecture 13: May 24, 2004 Lecture 13: May 24, 2004 CH14: Mendel and the gene idea *particulate inheritance parents pass on discrete heritable units *gene- unit of inheritance which occupies a specific chromosomal location (locus)

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Calico cats are female because 1) A) the Y chromosome has a gene blocking orange coloration.

More information

The Modern Genetics View

The Modern Genetics View Inheritance Mendelian Genetics The Modern Genetics View Alleles are versions of a gene Gene for flower color Alleles for purple or white flowers Two alleles per trait 2 chromosomes, each with 1 gene The

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Gregor Mendel. Father of modern genetics

Mendelian Genetics. Gregor Mendel. Father of modern genetics Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel Father of modern genetics Objectives I can compare and contrast mitosis & meiosis. I can properly use the genetic vocabulary presented. I can differentiate and gather data

More information

Meiosis and Genetics

Meiosis and Genetics Meiosis and Genetics Humans have chromosomes in each cell What pattern do you notice in the human karyotype (a technique that organizes chromosomes by type and size)? Humans are diploid 1 Gametes are produced

More information

Lecture 17: Human Genetics. I. Types of Genetic Disorders. A. Single gene disorders

Lecture 17: Human Genetics. I. Types of Genetic Disorders. A. Single gene disorders Lecture 17: Human Genetics I. Types of Genetic Disorders A. Single gene disorders B. Multifactorial traits 1. Mutant alleles at several loci acting in concert C. Chromosomal abnormalities 1. Physical changes

More information

READING ASSIGNMENT GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS I. HOW DO MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARE?

READING ASSIGNMENT GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS I. HOW DO MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARE? READING ASSIGNMENT GENETIC ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS I. HOW DO MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARE? II. HOW CAN WE DETERMINE EXPECTED RATIOS OF OFFSPRING? What rules can we learn from Mendel s work with

More information

Laboratory. Mendelian Genetics

Laboratory. Mendelian Genetics Laboratory 9 Mendelian Genetics Biology 171L FA17 Lab 9: Mendelian Genetics Student Learning Outcomes 1. Predict the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of a monohybrid cross. 2. Determine whether a gene is

More information

Chapter 10 Notes Patterns of Inheritance, Part 1

Chapter 10 Notes Patterns of Inheritance, Part 1 Chapter 10 Notes Patterns of Inheritance, Part 1 I. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) a. Austrian monk with a scientific background b. Conducted numerous hybridization experiments with the garden pea, Pisum sativum,

More information

Genetics. by their offspring. The study of the inheritance of traits is called.

Genetics. by their offspring. The study of the inheritance of traits is called. Genetics DNA contains the genetic code for the production of. A gene is a part of DNA, which has enough bases to make for many different proteins. These specific proteins made by a gene decide the of an

More information

Heredity. Biology 30i Cooper

Heredity. Biology 30i Cooper Heredity Biology 30i Cooper Early Theories of Inheritance Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) l proposed the first widely accepted theory of inheritance called pangenesis egg and sperm consist of particles

More information

Genetics Mutations 2 Teacher s Guide

Genetics Mutations 2 Teacher s Guide Genetics Mutations 2 Teacher s Guide 1.0 Summary Mutations II is an extension activity, which reviews and enhances the previous Core activities. We recommend that it follow Mutations and X-Linkage. This

More information

Unit 3: DNA and Genetics Module 9: Human Genetics

Unit 3: DNA and Genetics Module 9: Human Genetics Unit 3: DNA and Genetics Module 9: Human Genetics NC Essential Standard: 3.2.3 Explain how the environment can influence expression of genetic traits 3.3.3 Evaluate ethical issues surrounding the use of

More information

Ch. 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Ch. 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Ch. 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Nov 12 12:58 PM 1 Essential Question: Are chromosomes the basis of inheritance? Nov 12 1:00 PM 2 1902 Walter S. Sutton, Theodor Boveri, et al Chromosome Theory

More information

Mendelian Genetics. 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Genes can be mapped to specific locations on chromosomes.

Mendelian Genetics. 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Genes can be mapped to specific locations on chromosomes. 7 Extending CHAPTER Mendelian Genetics GETTING READY TO LEARN Preview Key Concepts 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. 7.2 Complex

More information

Date Pages Page # 3. Record the color of your beads. Are they homozygous or heterozygous?

Date Pages Page # 3. Record the color of your beads. Are they homozygous or heterozygous? 1 Patterns of Inheritance Process and Procedures Date Pages 645-650 Page # 3. Record the color of your beads. Are they homozygous or heterozygous? 6. Record the colors of the two beads. Are they homozygous

More information

Ch 10 Genetics Mendelian and Post-Medelian Teacher Version.notebook. October 20, * Trait- a character/gene. self-pollination or crosspollination

Ch 10 Genetics Mendelian and Post-Medelian Teacher Version.notebook. October 20, * Trait- a character/gene. self-pollination or crosspollination * Trait- a character/gene shape, * Monk in Austria at age 21 * At 30, went to University of Vienna to study science and math * After graduating he returned to the monastery and became a high school teacher

More information

Chromosomes and Human Inheritance. Chapter 11

Chromosomes and Human Inheritance. Chapter 11 Chromosomes and Human Inheritance Chapter 11 11.1 Human Chromosomes Human body cells have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosomes Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes

More information

Lesson Overview Human Chromosomes

Lesson Overview Human Chromosomes Lesson Overview 14.1 Human Chromosomes Human Genome To find what makes us uniquely human, we have to explore the human genome, which is the full set of genetic information carried in our DNA. This DNA

More information

Diploma in Equine Science

Diploma in Equine Science The process of meiosis is summarised in the diagram below, but it involves the reduction of the genetic material to half. A cell containing the full number of chromosomes (two pairs) is termed diploid,

More information

Chapter 11 Patterns of Chromosomal Inheritance

Chapter 11 Patterns of Chromosomal Inheritance Inheritance of Chromosomes How many chromosomes did our parents gametes contain when we were conceived? 23, 22 autosomes, 1 sex chromosome Autosomes are identical in both male & female offspring For the

More information

Principles of Genetics Biology 204 Marilyn M. Shannon, M.A.

Principles of Genetics Biology 204 Marilyn M. Shannon, M.A. Principles of Genetics Biology 204 Marilyn M. Shannon, M.A. Introduction Nature versus nurture is a topic often informally discussed. Are world-class musicians that good because they inherited the right

More information

MENDELIAN GENETICS. Law of Dominance: Law of Segregation: GAMETE FORMATION Parents and Possible Gametes: Gregory Mendel:

MENDELIAN GENETICS. Law of Dominance: Law of Segregation: GAMETE FORMATION Parents and Possible Gametes: Gregory Mendel: MENDELIAN GENETICS Gregory Mendel: Heredity: Cross: X P1 Generation: F1 Generation: F2 Generation: Gametes: Dominant: Recessive: Genotype: Phenotype: Law of Dominance: Genes: Alleles: Law of Segregation:

More information

Genetic Disorders. and. blood vessels the and. How many genes are affected by this deletion? Turner s Syndrome- An incomplete or missing chromosome

Genetic Disorders. and. blood vessels the and. How many genes are affected by this deletion? Turner s Syndrome- An incomplete or missing chromosome Genetic Disorders A genetic disorder is an abnormality in the. They can range for a deletion of a gene to the deletion of an entire chromosome. List the types of genetic disorders. Williams Syndrome- A

More information

Chapter 11 introduction to genetics 11.1 The work of Gregor mendel

Chapter 11 introduction to genetics 11.1 The work of Gregor mendel Chapter 11 introduction to genetics 11.1 The work of Gregor mendel What is inheritance? Two uses of the word inheritance Things that are passed down through generations Factors we get from our parents

More information

Genetics and Heredity Notes

Genetics and Heredity Notes Genetics and Heredity Notes I. Introduction A. It was known for 1000s of years that traits were inherited but scientists were unsure about the laws that governed this inheritance. B. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

More information

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis SECTION 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid

More information

Lab Activity Report: Mendelian Genetics - Genetic Disorders

Lab Activity Report: Mendelian Genetics - Genetic Disorders Name Date Period Lab Activity Report: Mendelian Genetics - Genetic Disorders Background: Sometimes genetic disorders are caused by mutations to normal genes. When the mutation has been in the population

More information

Review Packet for Genetics and Meiosis

Review Packet for Genetics and Meiosis Name: Date: Block: 1 Review Packet for Genetics and Meiosis Directions: Answer the questions and where indicated, draw a Punnett square and show all work! 1. Who was Gregor Mendel? Where did he live and

More information

Ch. 23 The Evolution of Populations

Ch. 23 The Evolution of Populations Ch. 23 The Evolution of Populations 1 Essential question: Do populations evolve? 2 Mutation and Sexual reproduction produce genetic variation that makes evolution possible What is the smallest unit of

More information

Genetics Lecture 7 More Mendelian Genetics Continued

Genetics Lecture 7 More Mendelian Genetics Continued Genetics Lecture 7 More Mendelian Genetics Continued Novel Phenotypes Other cases of gene interaction yield novel, or new, phenotypes in the F2 generation, in addition to producing modified dihybrid ratios.

More information

Chapter 11. Chromosomes and Human Inheritance

Chapter 11. Chromosomes and Human Inheritance Chapter 11 Chromosomes and Human Inheritance Human Chromosomes Human body cells have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosomes Autosomesand Sex Chromosomes Paired

More information

Normal enzyme makes melanin (dark pigment in skin and hair) Defective enzyme does not make melanin

Normal enzyme makes melanin (dark pigment in skin and hair) Defective enzyme does not make melanin Genetics Supplement (These supplementary modules, a Genetics Student Handout, and Teacher Preparation Notes with suggestions for implementation are available at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_edu/waldron/#genetics.

More information

CHAPTER- 05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION

CHAPTER- 05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION CHAPTER- 05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION Genetics is the study of principles and mechanism of heredity and variation. Gregor Johann Mendel is known as father of Genetics. Inheritance is the

More information

Linkage Mapping in Drosophila Melanogaster

Linkage Mapping in Drosophila Melanogaster Linkage Mapping in Drosophila Melanogaster Genetics: Fall 2012 Joshua Hanau Introduction: An experiment was performed in order to determine the presence and degree of gene linkage in Drosophila Melanogaster.

More information

SEX DETERMINATION AND INHERITANCE

SEX DETERMINATION AND INHERITANCE Unit 23 SEX DETERMINATION AND INHERITANCE LEARNING OBJECTIVE: 1. To learn the difference in the types of sex chromosomes inherited by the human male and female. 2. To gain some appreciation for the concept

More information

Agro/Ansc/Bio/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MEDICAL GENETICS AND CANCER Chpt 24, Genetics by Brooker (lecture outline) #17

Agro/Ansc/Bio/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MEDICAL GENETICS AND CANCER Chpt 24, Genetics by Brooker (lecture outline) #17 Agro/Ansc/Bio/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MEDICAL GENETICS AND CANCER Chpt 24, Genetics by Brooker (lecture outline) #17 INTRODUCTION - Our genes underlie every aspect of human health, both in function and

More information

Genetics 1 by Drs. Scott Poethig, Ingrid Waldron, and. Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2011

Genetics 1 by Drs. Scott Poethig, Ingrid Waldron, and. Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2011 Genetics 1 by Drs. Scott Poethig, Ingrid Waldron, and. Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2011 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in appearance.

More information

Genetic Counseling PSI AP Biology

Genetic Counseling PSI AP Biology Genetic Counseling PSI AP Biology Name: Objective Students will learn about the field of genetic counseling and will analyze genetic counseling scenarios involving Huntington s disease and Cystic fibrosis.

More information

LAB 10 Principles of Genetic Inheritance

LAB 10 Principles of Genetic Inheritance LAB 10 Principles of Genetic Inheritance Objectives 1. Examine the nature of probability. 2. Solve various types of genetics problems. Overview In this laboratory you will learn about the basic principles

More information

Summary The Work of Gregor Mendel Probability and Punnett Squares. Oass

Summary The Work of Gregor Mendel Probability and Punnett Squares. Oass --------------------------- Oass ---------------- Date Chapter 11 Summary Introduction to Genetics 11-1 The Work of Gregor Mendel The scientific study of heredity is called genetics. Gregor Mendel used

More information

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages )

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages ) Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) This section describes how Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits in garden peas and what his conclusions

More information

MENDELIAN GENETICS IN HUMANS

MENDELIAN GENETICS IN HUMANS AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION/HEREDITY UNIT Unit 1 Part 4C Chapter 14.4 Activity #6 NAME DATE PERIOD MENDELIAN GENETICS IN HUMANS P EDIGREES Key: =male = female or = affected or = normal F = free earlobes f = attached

More information

GENETICS PREDICTING HEREDITY

GENETICS PREDICTING HEREDITY GENETICS PREDICTING HEREDITY INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS Genetics is the scientific study of heredity Heredity is essentially the study of how traits are passed from parents to their offspring. GREGOR MENDEL

More information

Name 9 Patterns of Inheritance Test Date Study Guide You must know: Terms associated with genetics problems: P, F1, F2, dominant, recessive,

Name 9 Patterns of Inheritance Test Date Study Guide You must know: Terms associated with genetics problems: P, F1, F2, dominant, recessive, Name 9 Patterns of Inheritance Test Date Study Guide You must know: Terms associated with genetics problems: P, F1, F2, dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotypic, and genotypic. How to

More information

Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance. Reading Preview. Recessive Genetic Disorders. Essential Questions

Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance. Reading Preview. Recessive Genetic Disorders. Essential Questions 4.2.a Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance The inheritance of a trait over several generations can be shown in a pedigree. Real-World Reading Link Knowing a purebred dog s ancestry can help the owner know

More information

Biology. Slide 1 of 31. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1 of 31. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1 of 31 11 3 Exploring Mendelian 11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics Genetics 2 of 31 Independent Assortment Independent Assortment To determine if the segregation of one pair of alleles affects

More information

AP Biology Day 50. Friday, January 20, 2017

AP Biology Day 50. Friday, January 20, 2017 AP Biology Day 50 Friday, January 20, 2017 Do-Now 1. Review your Gene/cs Problems with your neighbors 2. Prepare for your Ch. 14 quiz Announcements Make sure to have a calculator Complete prac/ce quizzes!

More information

Answers to Practice Items

Answers to Practice Items nswers to Practice Items Question 1 TEKS 6E In this sequence, two extra G bases appear in the middle of the sequence (after the fifth base of the original). This represents an insertion. In this sequence,

More information

Genetics Unit Exam. Number of progeny with following phenotype Experiment Red White #1: Fish 2 (red) with Fish 3 (red) 100 0

Genetics Unit Exam. Number of progeny with following phenotype Experiment Red White #1: Fish 2 (red) with Fish 3 (red) 100 0 Genetics Unit Exam Question You are working with an ornamental fish that shows two color phenotypes, red or white. The color is controlled by a single gene. These fish are hermaphrodites meaning they can

More information

Human inherited diseases

Human inherited diseases Human inherited diseases A genetic disorder that is caused by abnormality in an individual's DNA. Abnormalities can range from small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of a whole

More information

Guided Notes: Simple Genetics

Guided Notes: Simple Genetics Punnett Squares Guided Notes: Simple Genetics In order to determine the a person might inherit, we use a simple diagram called a o Give us of an offspring having particular traits Pieces of the Punnett

More information

Genetics & Heredity 11/16/2017

Genetics & Heredity 11/16/2017 Genetics & Heredity Biology I Turner College & Career High School 2017 Fertilization is the fusion of an egg and a sperm. Purebred (True breeding plants) are plants that were allowed to selfpollinate and

More information

Pedigree Analysis Why do Pedigrees? Goals of Pedigree Analysis Basic Symbols More Symbols Y-Linked Inheritance

Pedigree Analysis Why do Pedigrees? Goals of Pedigree Analysis Basic Symbols More Symbols Y-Linked Inheritance Pedigree Analysis Why do Pedigrees? Punnett squares and chi-square tests work well for organisms that have large numbers of offspring and controlled mating, but humans are quite different: Small families.

More information

Drosophila melanogaster. Introduction. Drosophila melanogaster is a kind of flies fruit fly that is widely used in genetic

Drosophila melanogaster. Introduction. Drosophila melanogaster is a kind of flies fruit fly that is widely used in genetic Jessie Tran Mrs. Lajoie Honors Biology Date of Experiment: 4 May 2015 Due Date: 12 May 2015 Determining the Inheritance Patterns of Purple Eyes, Lobe Eyes, and Yellow Body Genes of Drosophila melanogaster

More information

April, 19rg. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO CROSSING OVER IN THE MALE OF DROSOPHILA OF GENES IN THE SECOND AND THIRD PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES. T. H. MORGAN.

April, 19rg. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO CROSSING OVER IN THE MALE OF DROSOPHILA OF GENES IN THE SECOND AND THIRD PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES. T. H. MORGAN. April, 19rg. No. q BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO CROSSING OVER IN THE MALE OF DROSOPHILA OF GENES IN THE SECOND AND THIRD PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES. T. H. MORGAN. In a brief note in Science for November 22, 1912,

More information

How do genes influence our characteristics?

How do genes influence our characteristics? Genetics Supplement 1 This activity will focus on the question: How do genes contribute to the similarities and differences between parents and their children? This question can be divided into two parts:

More information

Complications in single gene analysis

Complications in single gene analysis Complications in single gene analysis A. Lethals In chickens creeper X creeper 2/3 creeper : 1/3 normal But: 1/4th of the eggs never hatched and were found to have grossly deformed chicks Legend: C'C'

More information

Genetics, Analysis & Principles/5e ANSWERS TO PROBLEM SETS CHAPTER 1

Genetics, Analysis & Principles/5e ANSWERS TO PROBLEM SETS CHAPTER 1 Genetics, Analysis & Principles/5e ANSWERS TO PROBLEM SETS CHAPTER 1 Note: the answers to the Comprehension questions are at the end of the textbook. Concept check questions (in figure legends) FIGURE

More information