Ethno Library System in Kamrupa

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1 Editorial Ethno Library System in Kamrupa In Assam we had a glorious period of ethnic intelligentsia at the time of medieval period when the saint, poet, dramatist, lyrics, educationist, environmentalists etc. like Srimanta Sankardeva was born. Srimanta Sankardeva was a great geneous no doubt, but he was grown in the fertile land of the then Assam where literature, culture, education, science etc. were searched by the ethnic scholars. Without such and edu-cultural environment it would not been possible to grow like the great Srimanta Sankardeva. This environment was created by the ethnic educationists. Assam had a glorious past of Sanskrit education since the era of Ramayana. Rishi Basistha, who was known as the 'Guru of Sri Ram Chandra, established Basistha Mandira at Pragjyotishpur Jyotish means astronomy. In the long past it was the centre of Astronomy because of which it was known as 'Pragjyotishpura.' Since the age of pragjyotishpura, Kamrupa had the tradition of searching, earning and learning knowledge. There were libraries for the scholars and students. Those libraries were the repository of handwriting books or manuscripts. So we have the history of ethno libraries since the era of Pragjyotishpura in Assam. It is Worth mentioning that, once the whole North East was a part of Bangladesh, a part of Bhutan and Nepal were under the country 'Kamrupa'. The glorious Kamrupa had the history of knowledge culture. Kumar Bhaskara Barmana, who was the greetest king of then kamrupa, grounded a big library where Hu-enchung from China and researched knowledge. He copied valuable books from the Royal library of kamrupa for his own country. Although kamrupa had the libraries at that time, these were not public libraries. Such libraries were used by the kings, the officials, royal priest and Royal scholars only. The general people were not allowed to enter the library. But Srimanta Sankardeva, who was a revolutionist in the field of Vaisnavism, started the public libraries in the Thaan, Naamghar and in the Satra s. The people became the reader or user of the public libraries by the enthusia of great Srimanta Sankardeva. So, he may be recognized as the father of public library system in North East India. He not only revolutionized the public library system but also developed the library science. The library 1

2 science at that time was not only confined to collection of books and disseminate the reading materials but also reproduction of knowledge materials. There were no such printing machines at that time. The whole book production activities were manual or ethnic. That is why the then libraries were regarded as the ethno libraries. Srimanta Sankardeva coined many portfolios to run such libraries and developed professionalism in the field of library management. There were 'Lekharu' who were responsible to copy the manuscripts, the pathaka, who were responsible to disseminate knowledge by reading to the illiterate users, there were kakati, who were responsible for the conservation of library material etc.. He started book landing service also in the library of Satra and Naamghar, The 'Bhakata' who were the bonafied members of the Satras-had right to borrow the books from the libraries. Such Satra libraries are still existing in the satra and Naamghars of Assam and Bengal. At present Assam has Six hundred nos of Satras organized by Srimanta Sankardeva, Madhavdeva, Damodardeva and Harideva. The disciples of such Vaisnava Saints also organized Satras where such libraries existed. The Ahom king, Koch King, Kalita Kings or the Bhunyas, also patronized royal system of library management. Among the kalitas there is a special community, the 'Kayastha' who were specialy related to scribing the manuscripts and manage the royal documents. The script, which was used by the Kayuasthas were known as 'Kaytheli' script. The kalitas or Bhunyas were the prime knowledge activist before the Ahom and Koch regime in Assam. The Ahom and Koch kings invited Brahmins from north India who resulted 'Bamunia script' (Brahmin script) in the field of knowledge system. On the other hand the Ahom Royal libraries of Gargaon, (the capital of Ahom kingdom) used 'Gorgaya lipi' (Gor Goya Script). In this way, the ethno library activities and professionalism were developed in Kamrupa. In Ahom kingdom, the librarians were known as 'Gandhia Barua' Still we have the reading materials, which were produced manualy in such libraries. These are preserved in the archives, research centers, University libraries, apart from the Satra, Naamghar, temple etc. So, we can observe a scientific system of ethno library management which was developed in Kamarupa since the era of Pragjyotishpura. But due to the ignorance and negligence to such native academic system or traditional academic system or culture, we are going to lose such ethno libraries. The new computer age is going to wash away the traditional knowledge system or the ethno libraries. It is a threat to existence and identity of the ethnic culture. Our fathers created letters, then only we have got written language. Can a computer run without 2

3 the letters. Who and where the letter were invented? The ethnic people invented the letters in the ethno libraries. The ethno libraries were the starting institutions of human civilization. No one should forget their past because we are rooted in the past. If we forget it, we will be up rooted. The need of ethno library is to save the strong root of human civilization. Every civilization have been trying to un earth the ethnic knowledge of ethno libraries. Now, we have ethno libraries, where the ethno botany, ethno zoology, ethno sociology, ethno medicines are searching and developing. In this era of ecological imbalance, environmental pollution, climate change condition, the modern scientists searching the ethno libraries to find the ways to tackle some problems, which are not solved by the modern science and technology. After the invention of fuel consumed machines the pollution problem for the environment is occured and globe have to face the global warming. The global warning is a global warning for human civilization. In the name of so called civilization, we have achieved two much materials for physical happiness but we are going lose our habitat. There is no pure environment where the new generation can take bath. We are going to ruin our habitat for our future generation. The way to save our future generation is to adopt ethnic knowledge, which was based on nature and natural power of human being. There are still such knowledge which may give us new way for life and those are in the ethno libraries, in the ethno library materials. That is why we have to preserve the ethno library resources, search the ethno libraries and develop the ethno library science. To save our mother earth, human civilization and to give an environment to live for the future generation, we should protect and preserve the ethno libraries, learn the ethno library science and earn knowledge from the ethno library resources which are preserved since the era of Kamrupa. Dr. HariCharan Das Chief Editor, 3

4 Kesa Pator Koponi A Review Beauty Das Chhaygaon College, Boko, Renowned laureate Dr. Gobinda Prasad Sarma with regard to the novel Kesa pator koponi says that it is a modern as well as an open novel. (Sarma, Gobinda Prasad Upanyas aaru Assamiya Upanyas Page No.-120). Written in 1952 by Dr. Prafulladutta Goswami, the length of the novel is short. But during the time of development of Assamese literature this novel contributed a lot in the journey. It gave a new taste to the readers and also to critics. Not only this, the novel is taking into accounts while we consider the development of Assamese novels. In the novel Kesa pator koponi, the kesa pat (green leaves) represents youths and koponi (trembling) represents the initiation of the beating of life in one side while on the other hand, it indicates the restless life of youths. Therefore, Mr Krishna kumar Mishra says- it s the story of youth and their restless life. (Misra, Dr. Krishna kumar Birinchhi kumar baruah aaru Prafulladutta Goswamir Upanyas Page No. - 92) Narrating the story in first person, writer constructed the plot in the historical city of Gauripur, the Phulbari village near Roha and Shillong town. Utpal is the central character of the novel, symbolizes the modern educated middle class people, but he is less of quality of a protagonist character. It has tried to analyses the effect of society on human characters and focused on the dilemma of those characters which is dependent on the mental environment of the contemporary periods. As the central character Utpal has no quality of a protagonist, therefore, he is not engaged in anywhere worth mentioning. There is no beginning and ending in his story; just keeps moving. There is no common plot can be inferred in this novel. The unification that can be seen in the novel is just the unification of thought but not related to the story. (Goswami, Prafulladutta Kesa pator koponi Bhumika prakasak Bhaskardutta baruah Layarsh book Stall.) These words are mentioned by the writer himself in the the preface, comments that the novel puts emphasis on the characterization. 4

5 The novel reflects the protagonist understands of life. The protagonist Utpal is the symbol of modernity because he bears the character of modern human nature by embodying restlessness, loneliness, aimlessness etc. The novelist has described the experience of Utpal in segments. Utpal come from Gauripur to his birth place Raha and in contrary to his willingness, goes to a nearby village Phulbari to collect revenues. But he feels that the fire of rebellion is burring in the hearts of Kachari and Mikir communities of the locality. Influencing by the changing new era, the Rayats refuse to pay revenues. Tahate khajana dibo nokhoje. Natun yugor prabhabot haripine manuhar monot ashirota. (Goswami, Praphulladutta Kesa pator koponi Bhumika prakasak Bhaskardutta baruah Layarsh book Stall.) After reaching the village, Utpal forgets about collecting revenues and attracted towards a beautiful girl Bohagi. The seing Bohagi he remember Nilima, whom he met at Gauripur when he was going to Dhubri with his Marwadi friend Girdharilala. He started his journey to Gauripur. It is a famous town since the Ahom rule. Now, the beauty of Gauripur is at the verge of decline. The heritage of Gauripur has focused the ancient culture of the ancient Assam in such a way- Writer describes about the locality as- It is a small town where the royal landlords are spending their lifeless days with fake pride of their birth in the royal family. The glory and pride of older days are missing now. The old houses with the layers of mosses on its roofs bear the absence of people. The entire environment in surrounded by the melancholy of the declining society. (Goswami. Prafulladutta Kesa Pator koponi. Page No.-7) In the midst of that indifferent environment, Utpal is suddenly mesmerized by the Rabindra Sangeet in a woman voice in an evening of autumn. Following the sweet melody Utpal finds the house of Nilima. That is the first introduction with Nilima. Gradually both feel attraction with each other. In spite of their love, Utpal fails to gather courage to accept Nilima as a life partner. Utpal is driven by fear due to the caste differences prevailing in the contemporary society. Nilima belongs to a Bengali Brahmin family which Utpal comes from lower castes. Utpal says- I cannot forget Nilima. She is a higher caste girl, but I am lower 5

6 caste than her. There is huge difference between us. Goswami. Prafulladutta Kesa Pator koponi. Page No. -17). This is the ultimate feelings of the hero. Once Utpal goes to shilling for two months. His sister always advises him to get a job but unstable Utpal could not arrange it. However, It was not a difficult task for Utpal to get a job, who has passed B.A. and moreover, Shillong being the capital of Assam, was the hub of government jobs. He spoils time and could not determined whether he should go for a government job or a business. Sometimes he forgets his responsibilities when starts discussion about Arts and culture with his friend Rabindra Kumar. In fact, he has no faith upon arts and culture. Utpal feels that with a united effort the practice of art can be continued, therefore, he says to Rabin kumar It is requires money. Art cannot be continued without the money. But in such a country where there is no food to eat, no cloth to wear who will come out to donate money. For a young boy like you and me practicing art is luxurious, it is a sin. Goswami. Prafulladutta Kesa Pator koponi. Page No.-31) Utpal has a good understanding of life but he does not have stability to continue the motion of life with satisfaction. He felt in love with Nilima during his youth days, but not became successful to make her a life partner because of his wrong decision. He did not have the strong mentality for action. He used to say before Rabin kumar that he has a deep understanding of love and life. I am standing infront of my youth stage but have entered in its deep insides. Goswami. Prafulladutta Kesa Pator koponi. Page -38) Three girls came and fall in love with Utpal in the life. Nilima, Minati and Ka Drop. Minati was his classmate. While once he was travelling to Dhubri for a business purpose, he met Minat in the train. Minati was a teacher by profession. He spent a night in a hotel with her. One day Nilima silently leaves Utpal when she comes to know about Utpal s attachment with Minati. And later on, Minati understands Utpal s instability and she also leaves him. And started a married life with someone else. Utpal did not openly express his love before Nilima and on the other hand he could not collect his courage to reject Minati too. 6

7 Ka-Drop, a Khasi girl came into the life of Utpal. She also fails to erase his instability and loneliness but he now tries to understand the meaning of love and life with this temporary attachment in the following way- Like getting Ka-Drop at this moment, Sometimes a good understanding and introduction may also be happened inside the darkness. Then it starts exchange the feelings of life. We cannot violet the importance such precious moments in our life.(goswami. Prafulladutta Kesa Pator koponi. Page No.- 41) But Utpal was not mentally prepared to accept Ka-Drop, a Khasi pros lady. Even he cannot feel friendship s attachment with Ka-Drop. He thinks that every man is like a lonely island. Men have no connection with each other as the islands have. In this regard, we may quote the lines from the book Western effects in Assamese literature (Asomiya Sahityat Paschatya Prabhav, Dr. Narayan Das and Dr. Paramananda Rajbashi (Ed) as its happens in Utpal s mind- Heart beatings of life is continuously going like the trembling leaves of a pine tree. Admits how lonely a man is in this juncture! Everybody has a dark cave inside his mind and thoughts. Everyone has his own treasure inside the cave. Ideology of Ka-Drop which is attached with middle class people, Utpal tries to understand it. Ka-Drop has shown to Utpal, the reality and originality of life though them and he even confessed the social socallness which is exists inside him. Ka-Drop is naturally a happy go lucky girl. As Ka-Drop want to live a life freely therefore, she does not want to confine herself with a male counterpart at all time. Such a wild like love Utpal does not want to accept easily. Therefore, he gets once again a chance to feel the mental set up of middle class people through Ka-Drop. As belongs to the middleclass of the society, Utpal well aware about the habits and behavior of these people. Utpal confesses that same type of social hypocrisy he himself possesses too. Therefore, in the behavior of Ka-Drop Utpal once again tries to understand the mindset of middle class people of the society. After all, Ka-Drop releases her with sharp comments to Utpal s friend Prabin- Shamfull! Why then he runs after us. We want everything. We want to fulfill our habitual needs but without pay anything. We do not even want to confess our needs freely. 7

8 We want our habitual needs hiding self inside the room; otherwise we may lose the honour of a gentleman. Goswami. Prafulladutta Kesa Pator koponi. Page No- 42) Utpal has a clear understanding of life. Still he fails to take a static and strong decision in his life. On the other hand, his friends Nitai, Prabin, Girdharilal, Rabin kumar etc have proceeded in their respective lives. Nitai has joined a revolutionary group and has recently married a Bengali girl. Rabin kumar has disguised in the village Phulbari and is fighting against the feudal landlords like the Moujadar. Seeing these changes Utpal also think for Kachari s and Mikir s miserable position of the society. But in his second thought he feel a doubt if any change can be brought to the society with such types of revolution? He has no fixed planning for future. Such type of mindset cannot develop the personality of a human being. A critic has written that Utpal s character cannot inspire us. It is better to term the characters as unnatural. This is provided when Utpal fails to concentrate in any of the business that he chooses. First he tries with the business of jute and leaves it in the midst and then goes for grocery shop with his friend Nitai. When Nitai joined revolutionary group he could not continue the business too. He even seems to be not interested for collecting of revenues. He is also not interested in the newly created political party which has sympathy for leftist ideologies by his friend Rabin Kumar. He has no faith in love affairs also. Sometimes he thinks to change the prevailing social system and after some time he changes the idea. He comes back home from Shillong because of his father s illness. When father dies he could not go to Shillong and therefore, he loses his new job of apprentice clerk for making delay in returning back. When he at last, thinks for marriage, Minati also leaves him by rejecting him instable. He spends a life of wanderer by losing his job and failing to establish a business. During this time he thinks to go back to his native village but still is not confident in his decision. Likewise, the instability and loneliness that seems to dwell in the mind of the character of Utpal remains the same to the end of the novel. 8

9 In this connection, the words of Fritmen Kesa pator koponi are a good example of stream of consciousness novel. (Goswami Praphulladutta, Jiban aru kriti, Page No.-103) With the help of their instability and confused mindset of the character of Utpal we find a wave inside his brain which is always in flux. It is also observed different experience of Utpal and ups and dwn of his life in the story. The comment of novelist about the target is as said- This novel aims to realistically reflect the modern life, full of frustration and wearied thoughts. (Goswami Praphulladutta, Jiban aru kriti, Page No. 106) In the field of Assamese Modern novels kecha pator koponi is a good example. Goswami become successful in bringing the novel in a different way by keeping aside the traditional style of writing. He has portraying the internal reality of the characters rather than concentrating on the external world which has been clearly shown by the creation of the central male character. With the help of this novel the mental world of the central character Utpal is analyzed and at the same time the post-war social circumstances are manifested beautifully. Consisting twenty chapters this is a successful modern Assamese novel in representing the psychology of the people of the post war situation like other great Assamese novels, like- Dabar aru nai (Jogesh Das), Iyaruingam (Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya) and even Mrityunjaya of the same writer.. ***** 9

10 Characteristics English Language (A brief discussion) Dhruba Nath. M.A. B.Ed. Subject Teacher (English), Raniganj H.S. School Abstract Throughout this writing a mild effort has been cherished to focus a brief discussion on the English Language, its vocabulary and neologism in English by playwrights & poets. KeyWords: Neologism,Language,Verbs,Prepositions,Articles asculine,nominative,archaism Introduction: The English Language is not only the language of England and United States but it is spoken and read by the largest number of people and has been recognized as a link (2nd) language throughout the world. It may be true that historical, political and economic factors have contributed to the wide expansion of English. But it is also true that certain inherent Characteristics are the main cause of its worldwide popularity and appeal. Methodology: Communicative language teaching, principled eclecticism and humanistic approach have been followed on preparing this writing. Discussion and result: This discussion can bring out the students interest about English language and motivate is a chance for them to talk about the things they really care about. Characteristics of English language: The following characteristic features have made the English language what it is today. They have put a stamp of individuality on it. 10

11 i) Heterogeneousness of the language: Prominent among the characteristics of English languages must be mentioned the mixed character of its vocabulary. It has taken materials from almost everywhere in the world. When England was first conquered by the Anglo Saxons in the 5th and 6th centuries, English was almost a pure or unmixed language which could frame new word for new ideas from its own native resources and heartly borrowed any foreign word. But now it has become the most mixed of languages. ii) Masculinity: Another quality of the English language is its masculinity. Jespersonsays: It seems to me positively and expressly masculine, it is the language of a grown-up man and has very little childish or feminine about it. Simplicity of inflections and fix word order are features which speaks the masculinity of the language. There are also other features like the sound system, sobriety and business-like brevity of expression, monosyllabic, logical consistency in using tense forms and freedom from pedantry which are signs of the masculinity of the language. Sobriety is a masculine quality. An English man does not like to use more words or more syllables than are strictly necessary. He dislikes strong or hyperbolical expression of admiration. That is not half bad or She is rather good looking are often the highest praises. An English man is always afraid of appearing ridiculous by showing strong emotions. As this trait is certainly found more frequently in man than in woman. So this feature of the English language is one of the signs of masculinity. Again, the English speak in a more monotonous way than most other nations. Even English ladies are in this respect more restrain than many man belonging to other nations. In conversations violent changes in intonation are avoided. They are most unlike Frenchman and woman, who are very impulsive and emotional. The Masculinity of English: following : The qualities that characterize English as a masculine language are generally the a) Sound system. b) Simplification of endings. c) Monosyllabism. d) Business like shortening of words and sentences. 11

12 e) Sobriety of expression. f) Word-order. g) Logic h) Freedom from pedantry. Let us have a discussion on them in short. Sound system: The sound system of the English language is one of the proofs of its masculine quality. The reasons are as follows:- a) The English consonants are well-defined and precisely pronounced. Each English consonant belongs to its own type, e.g. t is always t as in but, a k is always a k as in kin. b) The English consonantal sounds are not affected by vowel sounds. Vowel sounds are not usually modified by surroundings. For instance the vowel a has a separate sound from the vowel e. (But in these two separate sound are combined in to one sound which belongs to neither to the sound of a nor to the sound of e as in ale or whole.) Simplification of endings: In grammar, English has got rid of many superfluities found in earlier English. In old English there were many endings in nouns, Verbs and adjectives which made the language rather complicated. In the sentence, for example, all the wild animals that live there, all (adjective) the article), Wild (adjective), that (relative pronoun) do not now receive any mark of the plural corresponding to the plural number of the noun they qualified. English has freed itself from the superfluous endings in grammar and has become much more simplified. (It has reduced endings etc. to the shortest forms possible, and often done way with the endings altogether). To cite more example, the word land had numerous endings in singular and plural and in various cases like the nominative, objective, possessive etc. [e.g. land. lands, lande, landas, landa, landum]. But the word has now two endings, one is plural (lands) and the other is possessive (land s). So English has gained in masculine vigor by avoiding the use too many inflectional endings. It has, as it were, put on a masculine robe (dress) marks by its manly simplicity by discarding the superfluous feminine ornaments. Monosyllabism: Another masculine characteristic of the English language is that it had rendered many words of two syllables or more into words of one syllable. It is easily to be seen that there is always a greater force in uttering a word of one syllable than in uttering a word of two syllables or more. For in a words of two syllables, one is bound to be an 12

13 accented syllable, and the moment the unaccented syllable is uttered after the accented syllable, the force of the utterance looses its intensity and turns after. That a monosyllabic word is generally more forceful than a two syllabled word is borne out by the use of the two expressions thanks and thank you. thanks for example is no doubt harsher and less polite, but it seems to posses greater force than the two syllabled Thank you where the strongly stressed syllable thank is followed by the weakly-stressed word Thank You. The tendency towards monosyllabism has led to the condensing of bigger sentences in to smaller ones in many cases. As an example we may say that the normal English expression would require a big sentence like If there is no cure there will be pay. But the manly power of English has rendered it easy for the language by simply using the brief expression No cure, no pay. Other examples of this kind are First come, first served. Live and learn. etc. Business like shortness found in morphological abbreviations: The tendency towards business like shortness also leads to morphological shortenings reducing in many cases, words of more than one syllable to monosyllables. The morphological shortenings are of frequent occurrence in English, e.g. (cabriolet) shortened in to cab, Omnibus shortened in to bus, photograph shortened into photo, telephone shortened into phone. This is called process of shortening. This brevity in the use of words and sentences is one of the masculine characteristics of the English language. It makes the language concise. It shows that monosyllabism is one of the characteristic features of the English language. Sobriety in Expression: In English language there is demand for the economy of expression. These shortenings lead to a masculine sobriety in expressing ideas. An Englishman always speaks in a measured way. He avoids exaggerated ejaculations and tries to bring sobriety or restrain in his expressions. Moreover an Englishman is afraid of appearing ridiculous by showing strong emotions either of joy or of sorrow. So his language tends to be sober. An Englishman will always try to avoid violent changes in intonation or expressing heights of emotion. Word-order: Order and consistency signalize the modern stage of the English language. English shows more regularity and less caprice in the matter of word-order. For instance: i) An auxiliary verb does not stand far from its principal verb, i.e. I shall go. ii) The subject precedes the verb, e.g. The boy walks everyday. iii) The transitive verb precedes its objects The sun gives light. 13

14 iv) The adjective nearly always stands before its noun, e.g. John is a talented boy. Logic: Comparing different languages, English is by far the most logical of all languages with the sole exception of Chinese. We notice distinction between I buy and I am buying, I bought, I was buying, when we look at the tense we find that the difference between the past tense he did, and the present perfect tense he has done and the past perfect he had done is maintained with great consistency. Freedom from pedantry: Freedom from pedantry is one of the masculine traits of the English language. That means an Englishman does not bother so much about rules of grammar. The logic of grammar says that the words family and clergy are singular. But in reality these words indicates a plural sense. Because family means a group of persons who are related and clergy means all the priests, ministers and preachers of a church. Exactly, in the other way, we find such sentences :- i) Three years is but too short. (one unit of three years). ii) Ten minutes is heaps of time. iii) A fortnight (originally 14 nights). All these show freedom from pedantry. We also find such a sentence, that is the Adjectival use of Adverbs : The then residence (the residenceused then), Another sentence, the Adjectival use of proposition. i) I have invited my out college friends. (Friends who have come out of the college). This has resulted in enormous richness of English vocabulary. This is not found so much in other languages. This is another part of the masculinity of the English language. Makers of English Language: A Complete history of the making of English would include the names of the makers. Shakespeare, Milton, Chaucer, Spenser, Dr. Johnson are some of the masters who have contributed greatly to the growth, development and enrichment of the English language. Translations of the Bible at different periods have also considerably influenced English vocabulary and grammar. The language of Shakespeare and its influence upon English language. (Shakespeare s use of English) Shakespeare has no equal says Bradley, with regard to the extent and profundity of his influence on our tongue. No other individual writer has exercised so much influence on the English language as Shakespeare. He was acquainted with more than words. He wrote about so great a variety of subjects and touched upon so many human facts and 14

15 relations that he needed the number of words in his writings. He had also remarkable familiarity with a technical expression. A great many words used by Shakespeare have now another value than they had then : bonnet (= a man s cap), notorious (well-known use) (in a good sense) companion (Used in a bad sense), politician (=seems always to employ intriguing). The prominent feature of Shakespeare s use of the English language are mentioned below - i) Boldness in the use of metaphors and similes. Such expressions at once trike the readers imagination as something unconventional. Vaulting ambition, which over leaps itself. ii) Boldness of his sentence structure: Words are not put in their proper places. Sometimes he places the negative before the verb ( I no doubt ), ( She not denies it ). He use double negatives. ( Nor is this not my nose neither ). He also used double comparatives or superlatives: ( More larger ), ( Most noblest ), ( this was the most unkindness cut of all ). Shakespeare also used archaizing words. ( Eune for Eyes, it is used for the sack of rhyme or for comic effect). If this scorn of your bright eyne. [As you like it] There is boldness in the use of new compounds. A number of new words formed by adding the French original prefix en or em e.g. enact, embattle. There is also boldness in the use of phrases. Shakespeare has enriched the language not only with many new words but also with phrases and proverbial expression : For example pink of courtesy (Romeo and Juliet) The tower of strength (Richer III), A denial come to judgment (Merchant ofvenice), to have one pound of flesh Merchant of Venice Cowards die many times before their actual deaths (Julius Caesar); full of sound and fury (Macbeth): the be-all and end-all (Macbeth), this mortal coil. Shylock: Shylock is one of Shakespeare s most interesting creation, even from the point of view of language. Shakespeare has succeeded in creating for shylock a language different from that of anybody else. Shylock has his Old Testament at his fingers end. Shylock uses some biblical words, which do not occur elsewhere in Shakespeare. Shylock s language is peculiar just as Shakespeare makes caliban and the witches in Macbeth used certain words which were not used by others. So, Shylock is one of Shakespeare s most interesting creations from the point of view of language. 15

16 Chaucer: Chaucer s writings has a powerful influence on the English language Chaucer not only imported hundreds of words in to English, he also created hundreds. There is no doubt that Chaucer s writings had a powerful influence on the language, but it seems difficult to prove this by definite examples. But it is certain that a large place must be given to Chaucer. The first 14 lines of The prologue of the Canterbury tales shows that he has borrowed a good number of words from French. Spenser: Spenser s influence on the English language and of the poetic style is very great. Though most of the words invited by Spenser, have now become obsolete. The modern English vocabulary not a few traces of his influence. e.g. blatant (adjective).[spenser first used it in poetry] has now got corrent; elfin, darning-do, braggadocio (Vain gbriou knight)- are some of the inventions of Spenser. Modern archaizing of poetry owes its vocabulary more to advance Spenser than to any other poets. Pope and his contemporaries made a very sparing use of archaism. Spenser became the poet of their heart and they adopted a great many words which had long been forgotten Spenser is also called the poets poet. Milton: Milton contributed about eight thousand words to English Vocabulary. Certain passages of Milton are however of quoted: Man of light and leading ; Pandemonium (Milton s coinage), the human face divine, anarch, impassive etc. Conclusion: Thus we see there are many ways how new words are created in English. There was a considerable number of new ideas and thing which were borrowed by the English. References: * English Language - Jesperson * University Grammar of English * Shakespeare s Masterpieces. * A Golden Book of English Poems. *********** 16

17 Role of Media And Civil Society In Protection Of Human Rights Mr. Pranay Nath, Dhubri Abstract:- All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Incontemporary times the topic Human Rights occupied an important place of discussion. It is very sad to say that majority of the people specially third world countries did not know what is human rights and how can it protect? Another remarkable point that in majority of human rights violation cases,educated people and government are directly or indirectly responsible. Majority of peoples are not conscious about their basic a result they are suffering from violation of human rights. Human rights are violates by various acts or causes which are unknown by majority of protect our human rights people should be educated and conscious. This article is an attempt to study the basic knowledge of human rights,causes of violation and safeguards to human rights. Key Words:- Human Rights, violation, civil society and media s role. Introduction:- Human Rights and the violation of human rights is an important area of concern not only in India but also in the whole world. Here I will take about some of the human rights that are being violated in India the reason they are violated and how the problem can be stopped. At first I defined human rights Human Rights are those basic and fundamental rights which are essential to all human being for the development of personality and life. This right is inherent to all human irrespective of their caste, class, creed, place of birth, religion, nationality etc. It enshrined the right of every human being to life, liberty and security of person, freedom from slavery, torture, inhuman treatment, arbitrary detention, equality before law, and a fire trial, freedom of movement, the protection of the family, the ownership of property, freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, participation in the government of his country, social security the right to form or join a union, an adequate standard of living and education etc., in short we can say all civil and fundamental rights are the human rights. 17

18 Protection of human rights, indicated by human rights index is a measure of a country s status or level of development. Protection of human rights is of prime importance because they are the basic rights to be enjoyed by every human being. Violation of Human Rights The issues relating to human rights violation not only pertain to human in general but also specific vuluerable sections like women, children, bonded labourers, persons with disability and refugees violation of human rights can take place when any action that does take away any freedom from an individual is considered a violation. In India although the constitution makes a list of fundamental rights and freedom with respect to all individual, violation are still present. The violation of human rights may be by various acts or causes which are shortly discuss as under:- 1. Corruption:- The violation of human rights take place within India s political system A democratic society cannot protect human rights when the politicians and police forces surrounding it are corrupt. Corruption affects India at all levels of decision making. Corruption is a major obstruct in the development of India. There is an estimate that only 17 percent of funds allocated by Govt. for poverty reduction actually reaches the poor. Corruption actually violates human rights in a significant way. The violation of human rights has been present since the existence of India and it will stay that way until some significant charges are made. 2. Fake Encounter /Extra Judicial Killing:- Extra judicial killing in India by the Security forces or police are known as encounter killing. This means that the victim was killed due to an armed encounter with security forces or police. Sometimes this encounter may be false. For example Lokhanbala encounter and Israt Jahan encounter are the fake encounter and these are the serious violation of human rights. 3. Lengthy Judicial Process:- Judicial system in India are not above violating human rights. Lengthy Judicial process violates human rights. In this regard I point out the quotation Justice delayed, Justice denied. Peoples are waiting for a long time for justice. 4. Trafficking women and children:- Women and children are trafficked for various purposes, such as marriage, agriculture labour, domestic labour, sex work etc., Once trafficked they have little to no options for leaving the place or position they now find 18

19 themselves in. This people can now find themselves in position having to work against their will. 5. Child Labour:- In India child labour is a serious topic. Though there are many provisions in our constitution to stop child labour, we often frequently find child labour in various sectors such as agriculture, factories, hostels, shop, tea stall grace etc., India is the home of larges number of working children in the world, with between 40 and 115 million child workers between the ages of 5-14 years. About 80% of India s child work are employed in the agriculture sector these child labour or workers violates human rights. 6. Domestic Violence:- Domestic violence also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, family violence and intimate partner violence is a pattern of behaviour which involves the abuse by one partner against another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, cohabitator etc. The convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence states that Domestic Violence shall mean all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the victim. 7. Communal Violence and Ethinic conflict:- Communal violence and ethinic conflicts are the worst examples of violation of human rights. Innocent people are killed or seriously injured. Thousands of peoples are homeless. Peoples are suffering malnutrition and various disease, women and children are also worst suffers of brutalities. Bodoland Ethinic conflict in 2012 and Muzaffarnagar communal violence in Uttar Pradesh are the examples of human rights violation. 8. Custodial death:- Almost every day we see in news papers or news on broad cast media or internet one of the most common topic we can bind is deaths in custody. We get to hear about most often from people surrounding us and it has been happening for quite a long time not only in a particular country or regions but in the whole world many people in dying in custody each year. The deaths while in custody remains a very controversial matter as it is 19

20 believed that the main reasons of these deaths are kept in darkness from the world this is the huge amount of violation of human rights. 9. Controversial Act:- Controversial Act passed by parliament such as A.F.S.A(1957) TADA (Terrorist and Destructive activities Act 1989) violates human rights in many times. These acts are controversial because these are not fully acceptable by all political parties intellectual groups or civil society and there are huge possibility of misuse of these acts by armed forces, polices or even politicians. 10. Political reason/role of political leaders:-although every person deserves the natural right to life, liberty and personal security, it is not uncommon for a lot of people to suffer from human rights violation due to political reasons. Human rights violation is particularly rampant in developing countries where the government is corrupt or lack of resources to ensure the fulfillment of basic rights The government of Sudan, for example has long been accused as a human rights violator who orchestrates the genocide in Darfur. Another example of human rights violation due to political reasons is the Guantanamo detention centre where alleged terrorists are held. Many of the captives are not in fact terrorists, but once they are suspected by the U.S authority, they are subject to torture. Some even lost their life. Role of Civil Society in Protection of human rights Scientist Einstem said We should be constantly alert to stop all types of violations and he also said the world is dangerous not because of the dangerous people but becomes of the good people who always remain silent without doing anything. Civil Society consists by various groups organization intellectuals etc., being a part of the Civil society every groups or organization shall have the duties and responsibilities towards society beyond their own responsibilities. Everyday in every part of the world Civil society contributes to the promotion, protection and advancement of human rights. whatsoever they all themselves human rights defenders, human rights N.G.Os Bar associations student clubs trade unions or charities working with discriminated groups, Civil 20

21 society actors work for a better future and share the commons goals of justice, equality and human dignity. It is the Civil society who guide the Govt. to act in accordance with the needs of the society. Where the civil society is more active there are less violation of human rights. A dynamic diverse and independent civil society able to operate freely, knowledgeable and skilled with regards to human rights, is a key element in securing sustainable human rights protection in all regions of the globe. Role of education in protection of human rights Education has a very important role of play for promotion and protection of human rights. Education makes us aware about our civil and political rights often called as the first generation rights and the social economic and cultural rights as the second generation rights. Being a tool to spread awareness and information and assimilation, creating and disseminating knowledge among its recipients education can play a crucial role at each of levels for protection of human rights. A comprehensive education of human rights consists of two components: knowledge and information on human rights and the mechanisms that protect these rights. It is important that education also impart the skills needed to promote defend and apply human rights in daily life. Without mass awareness on human rights it is difficult to protect and defend human rights. Awareness is important in order to resolve the human right conflicts. This can be achieved only with human rights education. The Vienna congress in 1993 incorporates a separate section on role of education in protection and promotion of human rights. Education is a tool for eliminating the violations of human rights. An educated person or society can only know its rights and have the knowledge to protect it. Every people should be literate not just in order to make them educated and capable of earning but also recognize their rights towards themselves and to each other. Human right education is about Empowering the individual to both recognize human rights abuses and to commit their prevention. Thus a core part of human right education is the strengthening of respect for human rights. Now it is the global responsible of every person and the govt. to promote education and hence promote human rights. 21

22 Education should be imparted to each and every one so that they understand the importance of human right. Education in their own mother language about human rights will make the learners more prompt about their values and ways to use them in their day to day life. There is no doubt that education has a major role to play for protection and promotion of human rights. Human right education is considered as one of the major tools to stop the violation against human rights. Human rights are the basis of human values, disciplines and dignity. It should be enhanced, protected and promoted to every nook and corner with the help of education. From the above discussion we see the importance and how education can play a vital role in this regard. Media s Role in Protecting human rights Media came into existence in India in 1780 with the introduction of a news paper namely The Bengle Gazette and since then it has been playing a very important role in civilization. We call media is the fourth pillar of democracy. Media includes News papers, Magazines, Radio, T.V. Film, internet etc. Media are always interested to make news when there is a violation of human rights. If every thing is normal there is nothing to make news. Media always awaits human right violations because such incidents make good news. There is revolutionary change in every sphere of life mainly due to communication and media world. Media today plays a decisive role in the development of society. Thus the role of media in protection of human rights can not be ignored. Media is a communicator of the public. Today its role extends not only to giving facts as news it also analyses and comments on the facts and thus shapes the views of the people. The impact of media on society today is beyond doubt and debate. The media has been setting for the nations its social political economic and even cultural agenda. Media can play major role in protecting and promoting human rights in the world. It can make people aware of the need to promote certain values in the cause of human right, 22

23 which are of external value to the mankind. Peace non-violence, disarmament maintenance and promotion of ecological balances and ensuring human right to all irrespective of caste, colour and creed should be the minimum common agenda for the media. The media can perform this role in different ways. It can make people aware of their rights, expose its violation and focus attention on the people and areas in need of the protection of human rights and pursue their case till they achieve them. Media can also give publicity to the individuals and organization which are engaged in securing human rights. This will encourage as well as motivate othe to do the similar work. Media can inform and educate the people on their rights and suggest ways and means which they can solve problems and thus empowering them to protect rights. Media s new role today is reporting analyzing and communicating. While playing this new role there is risk of its misuse, for that self regulation is the need of the hour. Journalists should set Lakshman Rekha while reporting human rights violation. Thus, media has a sacred duty to focus human rights violations and measures for protecting them. Conclusion: Human rights are occupied an important place in contemporary era.allmost all countries people are more or less noticed human rights many cases of human rights violation the governments are directly or indirectly involved.the only way to protect our human rightr,people should literate and conscious about human rights.thus the human rights are indispensable to human being these rights are violate by various ways and also protect them by different means and ways. References :- 1. Nulotpal Deka :- Human Rights : Perspective and challenges 2. Baxi Upendra :- Two Nations of Human Rights : Modern and 3. Chiriyankandath :- Human Rights in India Contemporary in the future of Human Rights. 4. Helena Kennedy :- Conflict resolution and Human Rights ******* 23

24 Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta) diversity and correlation with environmental factors in Ghagua of Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary, Kamrup, ASSAM ABSTRACT Razina Ahmed Associate Professor, Deptt. of Zoology, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam Maitrayee Chakravarty Research Scholar, Deptt. of Zoology,University of Science and Technology, Meghalaya Insects, including the species-rich Lepidoptera, play a central role in all terrestrial ecosystems. They have relatively the largest number of species in the animal kingdom and constitute the majority of all described species in the biosphere. Different plant species and habitat of Amchang wildlife sanctuary attracts a wide variety of butterfly fauna which play a vital role in pollination of various plants besides a key component of food chain. A regular survey was conducted from March 2014 to October 2015 by visual observation. Butterflies were sampled from Ghagua study site using line transect method of 1Km were recorded at least thrice in each month. During the study 47 species belonging to five major families were recorded of which Nymphalidae was the most common and followed by Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Satyridae. Evans (1932) reported 962 butterfly species belonging to 6 families from North-Eastern States except Sikkim Himalayas. Out of these 303 butterfly species were recorded from Manas biosphere reserve in Butterfly, which varies from place to place and season to season and even from one minute to the next is because of the biotic and abiotic environments which reasonably affect and influence in the distribution, diversity and abundance of butterflies. The present study was undertaken to assess the diversity, richness and abundance of butterfly species correlated with environmental parameters observed in Ghagua of Amchang wildlife sanctuary, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Keywords: Butterfly, Richness, Abundance, correlation, Introduction Butterflies are mainly day-flying group of the order Lepidoptera, which includes moths. Lepidopteran (order Lepidoptera), include more than 155,000 species of butterflies, moths 24

25 and skippers. The name Lepidoptera is derived from the Greek, meaning Scaly Winged and refers to the characteristic covering of microscopic dust like scales on the wing. Lepidopteron lives on every continent except Antarctica. Though they are far more numerous and diversified in the tropics, some species survive at the limits of polar vegetation. There are many species in nearby every environment from arid desert and high mountain tops to marshes and tropical rainforest. Insects, including the species-rich Lepidoptera, play a central role in all terrestrial ecosystems. They have relatively the largest number of species in the animal kingdom and constitute the majority of all described species in the biosphere. Their short generation times produce rapid population responses to a wide range of biotic and abiotic environment making them vitally important for ecological study (Lewis et al., 1998). The rapid growth of population of insect is mainly because of their short life cycle and the production of hundreds of eggs at a time by the female. It takes generally a short period to develop from egg to larva and pupa to adult. All insect species have a limited distribution range and characteristically, insect numbers fluctuate to a greater or lesser extent both in time and in space. In many places, the rate of change of insect number is fluctuated by the influences of seasonal, cyclical, and other variations of weather. When the season is favourable for development, two or more generation of a species may occur at each year. Successive generations often show different patterns of numerical change. There are about18,000 species of butterflies in the world. India has 1,501species,of which 321 are skippers,107 swallowtails,109 whites and yellows and 521 Brush footed butterflies and 443 Blues, which constitute 65% of total Indian fauna. According to ZSI report,1989; there are 10families, 55 genera and 104 species of butterfly already had been established from N.E. Region of India. However, the state of Assam in North Eastern India, harboring some of the world s richest biodiversity is home to more than 500 species of butterflies. Large scale habitat deforestation and fragmentation has led to the decline of several butterfly population in the state and many species believed to be common during the early part of the 25 of Gauhati University, Assam, India. Chief Adviser: Dr. Prasanta K. Kalita, Dean, Soil & Water Resources Engineering University of Illinois, at Urbana- Champaign, USA. 20 th century have now declined rapidly. Many workers have been done various works on insects and butterflies in Assam and North East India. However a little works has been done for study of Lepidopteran population in different reserve forest and wild life sanctuary. Sharma et al.,(2010) had carried out a research on Diversity and Distribution of Mammals in Amchang Wild life Sanctuary. However, no research has been done on the insects as well as butterfly diversity of Amchang the Wildlife Sanctuary. Therefore in present study it has been aimed to

26 investigate the Lepidoptera (Butterfly) population density of selected area in Ghagua ecosystem in Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary. Objective:- 1) To find out the species diversity, richness and abundance of butterfly by conducting a survey in the selected area of Ghagua in Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary. 2) To study the vegetation pattern in the study area. Study Area:- Amchang wildlife sanctuary is situated on the eastern part of the capital city Ghagua site is located on the North eastern vicinity area of the Amchang wildlife sanctuary. It is located on ʺ E longitude and ʺ N latitude Guwahati, Assam. The area of the sanctuary is about It is located at the lower foothills of Shillong plateau which is the adjoined part of Raja Mayang hill reserve forest and Pabitora reserve forest. Amchang is declared as a wildlife sanctuary on 19 th June 2004 by the Government of Assam. It It is a vast stretch (500 acres) of agricultural land along the forest edge, well managed agricultural, horticultural and fruit cultivating practices are going on in full swing. The various sectors considered for the study are shown in fig. below comprises of three reserve forests Amchang, South Amchang, and Khanapara. The central coordinates of Amchang Hill is 91⁰ East and ʺNorth. The altitude of this area is about m. The Khamranga beel,which is the lowest area and the Parahopa peak is the highest point of 569 m. The northern part of the study area is guarded by mighty Brahmaputra River, the southern part is bordered by the 37 National Highway, the western side is covered by Guwahati Metro City and the eastern part is attached to the Marigaon district. Because of its geographical location, climate, rainfall and good soil conditions, hills and hillocks, numerous marshy lands and 26 of Gauhati University, Assam, India. Chief Adviser: Dr. Prasanta K. Kalita, Dean, Soil & Water Resources Engineering University of Illinois, at Urbana- Champaign, USA.