2. Important Pharmacy Abbreviations A. Routes (p 8) B. Forms (p 8) C. Times (p 9) D. Measurements (p 9) E. Other (p 10) F. Sample Questions (p 11)

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1 Module Three Pharmacology, Medical and Pharmacy Abbreviations Table of Contents 1. Basic Pharmacology A. Pharmacology i. The Object of Drug Delivery (p 3) ii. Drug Receptors (p 3) iii. Concentration to Produce an Effect (p 3) B. Elements of Drug Disposition i. Absorption (p 4) ii. Distribution (p 4) iii. Metabolism (p 4) iv. Excretion (p 4) C. Factors Affecting Drug Delivery (p 4) D. Adverse Drug Reactions (p 5) E. Sample Questions (p 6) 2. Important Pharmacy Abbreviations A. Routes (p 8) B. Forms (p 8) C. Times (p 9) D. Measurements (p 9) E. Other (p 10) F. Sample Questions (p 11) 1

2 3. Medical Terminology A. Root Words Identifying Body Parts (p 12) B. Prefixes (p 13) C. Suffixes (p 13) D. Summary of Medical Terminology i. Creating a Medical Terminology Word (p 14) E. Some Common Medical Terminology (p 15) F. Sample Questions (p 16) 4. Answer Key for Sample Questions (p 17) 2

3 1. Basic Pharmacology A. Pharmacology Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their interactions with the human body. i. The Object of Drug Delivery The object of drug delivery is to produce the desired effect by:! Delivering the right drug,! With the right concentration,! To the right site of action,! At the right time,! To the right patient. ii. Drug Receptors Drug molecules interact with cell materials called receptors. The receptors are located on the surfaces of cell membranes and inside of the cells. When the drug molecule binds with a receptor, it can cause a reaction that stimulates or inhibits normal cell functions. This is when a drug is producing a desired or undesired effect. The pharmacological effects of these interactions are called agonists and antagonists. Agonist drugs accelerate or slow normal cell functions. Antagonist drugs block receptor action by preventing other drugs from activating them. iii. Concentration to Produce an Effect! A drug must achieve a minimum effective concentration.! There must be enough drug at the site of action to produce a response.! The range of drug concentrations is called a therapeutic window.! When the drug is within the therapeutic window, most patients experience the desired effect of the drug therapy with minimum risks. 3

4 B. Elements of Drug Disposition i. Absorption - This is the process in which a drug is taken up from the site of administration and is transported to the blood stream. This occurs orally, rectally, intravenously, topically, or by inhalation. ii. Distribution This is the process where a drug is delivered to specific organs and tissues via the blood stream to exert its pharmacological effect. iii. Metabolism This is when the drug disappears and changes chemically into another compound. This takes place primarily in the liver. iv. Excretion This process is the elimination of the drug from the body. This takes place primarily in the kidneys. C. Factors Affecting Drug Delivery! Gender! Age! Body weight! Pregnancy! Psychological factors! Genetics 4

5 D. Adverse Drug Reactions REACTION Allergy Drug Dependence Gastrointestinal Hematological Teratogenicity Nephrotoxicity Idiosyncrasy Hepatotoxicity Central Nervous System DESCRIPTION Allergic to the drug. Chronic use of narcotics resulting in psychological dependence. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation. Anticoagulation can cause excessive bleeding. Certain groups of drugs can cause abnormal fetal development. Aminoglycosides and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could cause kidney failure. When taking a drug for the first time a reaction could have a genetic characteristic that alters patient s metabolizing enzymes. Hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, and biliary tract inflammation or obstruction can be caused by some drugs. Confusion, hallucinations, drowsiness, circulation, dizziness, or coma. 5

6 E. Sample Questions 1. Metabolism is when a drug disappears and changes into another compound. Where does this take place? a. Kidney b. Lungs c. Liver d. Stomach 2. Excretion is the elimination of the drug from the body. Where does this take place? a. Kidney b. Lungs c. Liver d. Stomach 3. What is located on the surfaces of cell membranes and inside of the cells? a. Agonist b. Antagonist c. Receptors d. Molecules 4. What is the object of drug delivery? a. Right concentration b. Right site of action c. Right time d. All of the above 5. What type of drugs accelerate or slow normal cell functions? a. Agonist b. Antagonist c. Receptors d. Molecules 6. What is the range of concentration for a drug to produce an effect? a. Minimum b. Maximum c. Response d. Therapeutic window 6

7 7. Which one of the following does not affect drug delivery? a. Weight b. Age c. Height d. Gender 8. What is the study of drugs and their interactions with the human body? a. Pharmacology b. Therapeutics c. PharmD d. None of the above 9. What is the term for the chronic usage of narcotics that can result in psychological dependency? a. Teratogenicity b. Drug Dependence c. Idiosyncrasy d. Allergies 10. What are some adverse drug reactions that effect the Central Nervous System? a. Confusion b. Dizziness c. Drowsiness d. All of the above 7

8 2. Important Pharmacy Abbreviations This section is extremely important to memorize! This information is needed for transcribing prescriptions and performing pharmacy calculations. Suggestion for Memorizing: Make flash cards yourself! Writing the abbreviations and what they stand for will help you to more quickly memorize the following information. A. Routes ad right ear hint: (a) think of audio for the ear as left ear au both ears od right eye hint: (o) think of ocular for the eye os left eye ou both eyes IM intramuscular IV intravenous IVP intravenous push IVPB intravenous piggyback SC subcutanteously per neb by nebulizer po by mouth pr rectally pv vaginally SL sublingually top topically B. Forms aq cm elix liq syr cap tab supp SR, XL ung water cream elixir liquid syrup capsule tablet suppository slow/extended release ointment 8

9 C. Times ac pc q qd qd qod bid tid qid hs h prn stat before meals after meals every every day every hour every other day two times a day three times a day four times a day at bedtime hour as needed immediately D. Measurements aa ad aq. ad dil fl gm gr mg mcg meq l ml qs ss tsp. tbsp gtt of each up to add water up to dilute fluid gram grain milligram microgram milliequivalent liter milliliter a sufficient quantity one-half teaspoon tablespoon drop 9

10 E. Other c s disp NR ud amp BSA comp D5W NS emuls Sig sol lot tinc troche tuss with without dispense no refills as directed ampule body surface area compound dextrose 5% in water normal Saline emulsion write, label solution lotion tincture lozenge cough 10

11 F. Sample Questions Match each abbreviation in column 1 with its correct meaning in column ad a. before meals 2. os b. three times a day 3. prn c. directions 4. stat d. right ear 5. hs e. every 6. po f. by mouth 7. bid g. both eyes 8. tid h. immediately 9. q i. four times a day 10. sig j. left ear 11. qid k. two times a day 12. ou l. left eye 13. as m. bedtime 14. ung n. gram 15. gtt o. ointment 16. ac p. milligram 17. mg q. drop 18. gm r. as needed 19. pc s. every day 20. qd t. after meals 11

12 3. Medical Terminology Medical Terminology is a system made up of root words, prefixes, suffixes and combining vowels used for the language of medicine in all areas of the health care industry. Most terms are related to the diagnosis of the patient. A. Root Words Identifying Body Parts Memorize Root Words and Corresponding Body Parts Suggestion for Memorizing: Make flash cards yourself! Writing the abbreviations and what they stand for will help you to more quickly memorize the following information. Root Word card cyst dermal gastr hemat hepat mast metri my nephr neur ocul oste ot pector pneum ven Body Part heart bladder skin stomach blood liver breast uterus muscle kidney nerve eye bone ear chest lung vein 12

13 B. Prefixes are added in front of a root word to clarify its meaning. Prefix hyper hypo sub trans dys end para poly bi intra macro micro pre post tri Meaning high low under through difficult within around much two within large small before after three C. Suffixes are added at the end of a root word to clarify its meaning. Suffix ic, ac, ous, tic algia emia ia itis logy sis pathy oma rrhea tomy toxic phagia Meaning pertaining to pain blood condition condition of inflammation study abnormal disease tumor discharge incision poison swallowing 13

14 D. Summary of Medical Terminology Medical Terminology is a system made up of root words, prefixes, suffixes and combining vowels. Combining vowels are used to connect the prefix, root word, and suffix. The most common combining vowel is o, followed by i, and then e. i. Creating a Medical Terminology Word Endometriosis Prefix Combining vowel Root word Combining vowel Suffix Meaning end (within) o metri (uterus) o sis (abnormal) abnormal growth of uterus tissue Pneumonia Root word Combining vowel Suffix Meaning pneum (lung) o nia (condition of) inflammation of the lungs 14

15 E. Some Common Medical Terminology Suggestion for Memorizing: Make flash cards yourself! Writing the words and their definitions yourself will help you to more quickly memorize the following definitions. Term Definition 1. Hypertension high blood pressure 2. Hyperlipidemia increased lipids in the blood 3. Hypothyroidism deficiency of the thyroid 4. Hepatitis inflammation of the liver 5. Gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach, intestinal tract 6. Tendonitis inflammation of a tendon 7. Neuralgia severe pain in a nerve 8. Arthritis inflammation of a joint 9. Endometriosis abnormal growth of uterus tissue 10. Prostatitis inflammation of the prostate 11. Bronchitis inflammation of bronchial membranes 12. Pneumonia inflammation of the lungs 13. Pulmonary pertains to the lungs 14. Cystitis inflammation of the bladder 15. Conjunctivitis inflammation the eye 16. Tympanitis inflammation of the middle ear 17. Cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle 15

16 F. Sample Questions 1. The root word pector stand for which body part? a. Bone b. Stomach c. Chest d. Liver 2. What does the prefix hyper mean? a. Low b. High c. Large d. Small 3. What is medical terminology made up of? a. Root words b. Prefixes c. Suffixes d. All of the above 4. What is the most common combining vowel used in medical terminology? a. a b. e c. i d. o 5. Match the term in column 1 with its correct definition in column Hypertension a. inflammation of the eye 2. Hepatitis b. pertains to the lungs 3. Gastroenteritis c. high blood pressure 4. Neuralgia d. deficiency of the thyroid 5. Arthritis e. severe pain in a nerve 6. Bronchitis f. inflammation of the liver 7. Pneumonia g. inflammation of the stomach 8. Pulmonary h. inflammation of the lungs 9. Conjunctivitis i. inflammation of a joint 10. Hypothyroidism j. inflammation of bronchial membranes 16

17 4. Answer Key 1. E. 1. c 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. a 6. d 7. c 8. a 9. b 10.d 2. F. 1. d 2. l 3. r 4. h 5. m 6. f 7. k 8. b 9. e 10. c 11. i 12. g 13. j 14. o 15. q 16. a 17. p 18. n 19. t 20. s 3. F. 1. c 2. b 3. d 4. d 5. = 1. c 2. f 3. g 4. e 5. i 6. j 7. h 8. b 9. a 10.d 17