2 OBJECTIVES Chemical nature of the thyroid hormones How different enzymes play a role in thyroid hormone formation? And what drugs affect them? Describe Function & Metabolism of thyroid hormones.
3 Thyroid hormones derived from two iodinated tyrosine molecules
5 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Large numbers of closed follicles (100 to 300 micrometers in diameter) are filled with a secretory substance called colloid. The major constituent of colloid is the large glycoprotein thyroglobulin, with a molecular weight of about 335,000 per subunit. Each Tg exists as a homodimer with a molecular weight of 660,000. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus synthesize and secrete the thyroglobulin into the follicles Thyroglobulin contains the thyroid hormones, T 3 and T 4, within its molecule.
6 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Each molecule of thyroglobulin contains about 130 tyrosine amino acids, and they are the major substrates that combine with iodine to form the thyroid hormones. Thus, the thyroid hormones form within the thyroglobulin molecule. Each thyroglobulin molecule contains up to 30 iodinated tyrosine molecules, but only 3 thyroxines and even fewer triiodothyronines. In this form, the thyroid hormones are stored in the follicles in an amount sufficient to supply the body with its normal requirements of thyroid hormones for 2 to 3 months.
7 Iodine To form normal quantities of thyroxine, about 50 mg. of ingested iodine in the form of iodides are required each year, or about 1 mg/week. Iodides ingested orally are absorbed from the GIT Iodine is removed from the circulating blood by the cells of the thyroid gland and used for synthesis of the thyroid hormones. The basal membrane of the thyroid cell has the specific ability to pump the iodide actively to the interior of the cell, using a pump called the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). This is called iodide trapping. In a normal gland, the iodide pump concentrates the iodide to about 30 times its concentration in the blood.
8 Synthesis of thyroid hormones Active uptake of iodide into follicular cell Iodide iodine - H 2 O 2 (catalysed by TPO) Active uptake of iodine at follicular/ colloid interface Incorporation of iodine onto tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin Coupling of iodinated tyrosines Storage of T 3 and T 4
9 Active transport of iodine (ATPase dependent) against electrical and chemical gradient - concentration of iodine times that of the circulation
10 Thyroxine and its precursors Structure & Synthesis thyroid hormone synthesis
11 Incorporation of iodine onto tyrosine residues on the thyroglobulin molecule
12 1) Release of T4 and T3 into circulation g T4 & 10 g T3/day 2) ~ 10% T4 undergoes monodeiodination to T3 before secretion 3) Fusion of colloid droplets with lysosomes --> hydrolysis and release of thyroid hormones 4) Stimulated by TSH colloid droplets with the bound thyroid hormones are taken back into follicular cells by pinocytosis
13 Concentration of Iodide (I - ) ACTIVE TRANSPORT BY THYROIDAL (I - ) TRANSPORTER LINKED WITH Na + /I + ATPase Inhibition Perchlorate (ClO - 4) Thiocyanate (SCN - )
14 Oxidation of iodide (I - I) Iodide Iodine Inhibitor Propylthiouracil Thyroid peroxidase & H 2 O 2
15 Ion transport by the Thyroid follicular cell ClO 4-, SCN - BLOOD I - I organification COLLOID NaI symporter (NIS) Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) Propylthiouracil (PTU) blocks iodination of thyroglobulin
16 Iodination of tyrosine (Organification) Oxidized Iodine + tyrosine residues ( thyroglobulin) MIT and DIT Inhibitor Thioureas Peroxidase
17 Coupling of Iodotyrosyls DIT + DIT Thyroxine (T 4 ) Thyroperoxidase DIT + MIT Thyroperoxidase Triiodothyronines (T 3 ) Inhibitor Propylthiouracil
18 5 5 Thyroid hormone metabolism
19 Thyroid Hormone Release About 93 % of the thyroid hormone released from the thyroid gland is normally T4 and only 7 % is T3. However, during the ensuing few days, about one half of the thyroxine is slowly deiodinated to form additional triiodothyronine.
20 Thyroid hormone transport Thyroid binding globulin (TBG) Highest affinity Thyroid binding prealbumin binds 15 % Intermediate affinity Albumin binds 10 % Low affinity, High capacity
21 Thyroid Hormone transport Thyroid hormones are transported in the blood bound to protein carriers Only 0.02% of T4, and 0.2% of T3 are free The free fraction is responsible for hormone action About 99% of T3 is derived from peripheral conversion of T4
22 Metabolism of thyroid hormones Series of deiodinations by deiodinases In liver, kidney, thyroid, pituitary gland, CNS brain, brown fat, placenta, pituitary gland Other metabolic pathways: sulphation, decarboxylation, conjugated with glucuronide
24 Factors that decrease TBG Hereditary Androgens Corticosteroids Thyrotoxicosis Nephrotic syndrome malnutrition major illness
25 Thyroid function in pregnancy Rise in Total Binding globulin (due to estrogen) inc. total T4 and T3, due to estrogen Free T4 and T3 are normal HCG has weak TSH agonist activity, and responsible for the slight thyroid enlargement during pregnancy Anti thyroid drugs like Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism cross the placenta to varying degrees.
26 TSH Receptors TSH G protein linked receptor camp IP 3 + DAG Protein Ca 2+ Protein Kinase A CM Kinase C (high concentrations)
28 Actions of TSH Active uptake of iodine* Stimulates other reactions involved in thyroid hormone synthesis Stimulates the uptake of colloid Induces growth of the thyroid gland
29 Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion TSH binds with specific TSH receptors on the basal membrane surfaces of the thyroid cell. Most, if not all, of its effects result from activation of the "second messenger" cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) system of the cell.
30 Thyroid Hormone Regulation Four mechanisms 1. Classic hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis. 2. Pituitary and peripheral deiodinases. 3. Thyroid autoregulation, response to iodine. 4. TSH receptor antibodies.
31 Thyroid hormone receptors Type 2 receptors in nucleus - high affinity for T 3 Dimerize with another T 3 receptor (homodimer) or retinoic acid receptor (heterodimer) Dimerized receptor + other transcription factors gene transcription Membrane receptors? Ion movements The thyroid hormones increase the metabolic activities of almost all the tissues of the body.
32 Dimerization of thyroid hormone receptors and gene activation/inactivation T3 retinoid X receptor (RXR)
33 Mechanism of thyroid hormone action
34 Structural similarities among receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones
35 Mechanism of thyroid hormone action Receptors for thyroid hormones are nuclear and its affinity is ten times higher for T 3 than T 4 Four variants of nuclear receptor were observed and mitochondrial receptor for T 3 was also described Free thyroid hormone receptor (TR) without bound hormone is bound to hormone response element of DNA (HRE) and corepressor (CoR)
36 Increased expression of proteins by thyroid hormones Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase main component of glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle in mitochondria (one of transport systems for NADH into mitochondria) Cytochrome c oxidase the complex mitochondrial enzyme in the electron transport chain (from cytochrome c to oxygen) ATPases (eg. Ca ATPase of muscle cells) Carbamyl phosphate synthase enzyme of urea cycle Growth hormone
37 Increased respiration during hyperthyroidism Increased synthesis of ATP increased synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase increased oxidative phosphorylation (it means the increased consumption of oxygen) increased production of ATP Increased consumption of ATP increased synthesis of various ATPase (eg. Ca dependent in muscles) increased depletion of store of ATP
38 Mechanisms increasing body temperature during hyperthyroidism Reducing efficiency of ATP synthesis - increased synthesis of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased transport NADH by this shuttle than malate/aspartate shuttle Increased synthesis of ATP Increased consumption of ATP Uncoupling of phosphorylation and oxidation in mitochondria
39 Thyroid hormone activation of target cells. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 23 June :22 PM)
40 Approximate relation of daily rate of thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) secretion to the basal Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 23 June 2009 metabolic rate. 05:22 PM)
41 Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones The rate of utilization of foods for energy is greatly accelerated. Protein synthesis is greatly increased as well as the rate of protein catabolism. The mitochondria in most cells of the animal's body increase in size as well as number. Furthermore, the total membrane surface area of the mitochondria increases almost directly in proportion to the increased metabolic rate of the whole animal.
42 Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones The growth rate of young people is greatly accelerated. Growth and development of the brain during fetal life and for the first few years of postnatal life require thyroid hormones.
43 Increase bone turnover. Physiological effects of thyroid hormone Increases oxygen consumption and heat production Positive chronotropic (the heart rate )and inotropic effects ( affect the force of cardiac contraction) on heart. Increase sensitivity to adrenergic effectors Up-regulates -adrenergic receptors Increase gut motility.
44 Physiological effects of thyroid hormone Increases reflex response Increase hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Stimulates lipolysis Developmental effects Growth Brain development
45 Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones Decreases the concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. Increases numbers of low density lipoprotein receptors on the liver cells, leading to rapid removal of low density lipoproteins from the plasma. Increases significantly the rate of cholesterol secretion in the bile and consequent loss in the feces.
47 Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones Increased metabolism in the tissues causes more rapid utilization of oxygen than normal and release of greater than normal quantities of metabolic end products from the tissues. These effects cause vasodilation in most body tissues, thus increasing blood flow. Cardiac output also increases. Thyroid hormone has a direct effect on the excitability of the heart, which in turn increases the heart rate.
48 Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones Increase the strength of the heart when only a slight excess of thyroid hormone is secreted. However, when thyroid hormone is increased markedly, the heart muscle strength becomes depressed because of long term excessive protein catabolism. The increased rate of metabolism increases the utilization of oxygen and formation of carbon dioxide; these effects activate all the mechanisms that increase the rate and depth of respiration.
49 CNS Effects of Thyroid Hormones Excitatory effects on the central nervous system, including cognition. Slight increase in thyroid hormone usually makes the muscles react with vigor, but when the quantity of hormone becomes excessive, the muscles become weakened because of excess protein catabolism. One of the most characteristic signs of hyperthyroidism is a fine muscle tremor. Because of the excitable effects of thyroid hormone on the synapses, it is difficult to sleep, in case of excess.
50 Effects of Thyroid Hormones Increases both the rates of secretion of the digestive juices and the motility of the GIT. Increases the rates of secretion of most other endocrine glands Insulin PTH Lack of thyroid hormone is likely to cause loss of libido in both males and females. In females lack or excess can cause menstrual irregularities.
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