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1 Table of Contents # Date Title Page # 1. 01/30/17 Ch 8: Muscular System /14/17 Ch 9: Nervous System 12 03/13/17 Ch 10: Somatic and Special Senses 53 03/27/17 Ch 11: Endocrine System 53 i 1

2 03/27/17 Ch. 11: Endocrine System Objective: Students will be able to identify and describe the major endocrine glands of the body. Glands of the Endocrine System 1. Hypothalamus 5. Pineal 2. Pituitary 3. Parathyroid 6 Thyroid 7. Thymus Adrenal 4. Testes 9. Pancreas 10. Ovaries 2

3 3

4 03/27/17 Ch. 11: Endocrine System Objective: Students will be able to identify and describe the major endocrine glands of the body. Glands of the Endocrine System 1. Hypothalamus 5. Pineal 2. Pituitary 3. Parathyroid 6 Thyroid 7. Thymus Adrenal 4. Testes 9. Pancreas 10. Ovaries 4

5 03/27/17 Ch. 11: Endocrine System Objective: Students will be able to identify and describe the major endocrine glands of the body. Glands of the Endocrine System 5

6 03/27/17 Ch. 11: Endocrine System Objective: Students will be able to compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems. Endocrine System Consists of glands that secrete chemical hormones which diffuse from the interstitial fluid into the bloodstream to travel and act on target cells. Does NOT consist of: exocrine glands--with ducts to the surface, eg: sweat, oil paracrine and autocrine secretions--not true hormones because they never reach the blood stream--they act locally. para--neighboring, auto-- secreting cell Endocrine System and Nervous System Similarities Both systems oversee cell-to-cell communication using chemical signals that bind to receptor molecules. Both regulate body processes to maintain homeostasis. Both integrate other systems in response to stimuli. Differences Nervous Neurons (Nervous) Use Neurotransmitters Receptors on postsynaptic cell Speed= seconds Duration= short Endocrine Glandular Epithelium Use Hormones Receptors on target cell Speed= seconds to hours Duration= short to long (seconds to days) 6

7 Receptors Heart Control Center Brain (Sympathetic Pathway) Effectors Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) Stimulus Blood volume raises Response Na + excretion increases High Normal Low Drop in Cl -, K +, Na + Stimulus Vasoconstriction, Aldosterone secretion, Thirst Response Macula densa (distal convoluted tubule) Receptors Brain (Sympathetic Pathway) Control Center Angiotensin II Effectors 7

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9 Example 11.9 p. 284 Receptors Control Center Hypothalamus releases TRH Pituitary releases TSH Effectors Thyroid releases T 3 and T 4 Hypothalamus (low levels of TSH/TRH) Stimulus Increased demand for energy Response Increase rate of carb and lipid breakdown, mobilize lipids Normal Increased levels of T 3 and T 4 in blood Stimulus Response Thyroid stops secretion of T 3 and T 4 Hypothalamus Receptors Effectors Anterior Pituitary stops secretion of TSH Control Center Hypothalamus stops secretion of TRH 9

10 refer to p. 132 Receptors Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Glands Stimulus Increased blood Ca ++ levels Control Center Thyroid releases calcitonin Inhibits PTH secretion High Normal Low Effectors Osteoblasts deposit calcium in bones kidneys/intestines release calcium Response Decreased blood Ca ++ levels Decreased blood Ca ++ levels Stimulus Response Increased blood Ca ++ levels Parathyroid Glands Receptors Example p. 289 Secrete PTH Control Center Effectors Osteoclasts release calcium from bones kidneys/intestines conserve calcium 10

11 03/28/17 Ch. 11: Endocrine System Objective: Students will be able to discuss how negative feedback mechanisms regulate hormonal secretions. Control of the Endocrine System 1. The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary stimulate other endocrine glands 2. The nervous system stimulates a gland directly 3. Changes in the internal environment stimulate glands directly All of the above involve negative feedback mechanisms see p. 297: Use fig to answer see p. 295: Prostaglandins Regulate cells, can stimulate hormone secretion (from adrenal cortex) or inhibit secretions (HCl from stomach), but: they act quickly are not stored act more locally than hormones Endocrine Questions Use fig to explain how blood glucose concentration is maintained. Which of the 3 types of control are involved? 11

12 12

13 03/28/17 Ch. 11: Endocrine System Objective: Students will be able to distinguish between steroid and nonsteroid hormones and explain how each affects target cells. Steroid Form from Cholesterol Examples: estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol Goes into nucleus and binds to DNA to turn on genes. See Page 279 Non-steroid Form from other biomolecules: primarily amino acids Examples: amines (norepinephrine, epinephrine), peptides (antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin), proteins (parathyroid hormone, growth hormone) Some form from glycoproteins--a combination of protein and carbohydrate Examples: FSH, Luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone Binds to membrane and triggers a cascade in the cell. See Page 280--describe the "cascade" 13

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