Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx. M&M, fig. 16.4

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1 The Eye

2 Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx M&M, fig. 16.4

3 The eye is formed by three layers, or tunics. From the outside to the inside of the eyeball the three tunics are the fibrous tunic, which forms a capsule enclosing and protecting the other components of the eye. It is subdivided into the sclera, with primarily structural functions, and the cornea, which is part of the optic apparatus. vascular tunic, which forms the choroid, the choroid, ciliary body and iris. This tunic is also called the uveal tract. The choroid has primarily nutritive functions. The ciliary body generates the aqueous humor of the eye, but the ciliary also functions in the optic apparatus. The iris is part of the optic apparatus in which it functions a contractile diaphragm, i.e. the aperture of the eye. neural tunic consists of the retina. The retina proper forms the photoreceptive layer of the eye. As a double-layered epithelium, the retina also covers the ciliary process and the posterior surface of the iris, where it has both nutritive and structural functions. The ciliary and iridial parts of the retina are described together with the ciliary process and iris.

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8 some pictures 8

9 Eye ball consists of three layers: 1. External layer- Sclera ; 2. Middle layer- Choroid ; 3. Innermost layer- Retina ;

10 Movement of eye Eye movement simulator ( eyes/version1/eyesim.ht m) Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

11 Innervation 11

12 Extrinsic eye s Muscle Movement Nerve Superior oblique Depresses eye, turns laterally IV (Trochlear) Lateral rectus Turns laterally VI (Abducens) Medial rectus Turns medially III (Oculomotor) Superior rectus Elevates III (Oculomotor) Inferior rectus Depresses eye III (Oculomotor) Inferior oblique Elevates eye, turns laterally III (Oculomotor)

13 Large Models - Anterior Structures Sclera Lacrimal gland Iris Pupil

14 Large Models - Muscles (Anterior) Superior rectus * Medial rectus *Tendon of superior oblique Lateral rectus Medial rectus

15 Small Models - Anterior Structures Retina Pupil Model Copyright Somso Sclera Iris Choroid Cornea Iris Sclera Pupil

16 Small Models - Muscles (Anterior) Superior rectus Medial rectus Tendon of superior oblique Model Copyright Somso Lateral rectus Inferior oblique Inferior rectus Medial rectus

17 Large Models Medial View Lacrimal gland Superior rectus Tendon of Superior oblique Optic nerve Choroid Optic nerve Sclera Medial rectus

18 Small Models Medial View Superior rectus Tendon of superior oblique Tendon of superior oblique Model Copyright Somso Medial rectus Optic nerve Cornea Sclera Inferior rectus Inferior oblique

19 Large Models Posterior Structures Sclera Lacrimal gland Choroid Optic nerve

20 Large Models Muscles (Posterior) Superior rectus * *Tendon of superior oblique Lateral rectus Medial rectus Lateral rectus Inferior rectus

21 Small Models Posterior View Sclera Sclera Retina Macula lutea Optic nerve Choroid Model Copyright Somso

22 Small Models Muscles (Posterior) Superior rectus Tendon of superior oblique Lateral rectus Medial rectus Model Copyright Somso Medial rectus Inferior rectus Inferior oblique

23 Large Models Lateral Optic nerve Superior rectus Lateral rectus Sclera Optic nerve Lateral rectus Lacrimal gland Inferior oblique

24 Small Models Lateral Superior rectus Tendon of superior oblique Lateral rectus Sclera Retina Choroid Inferior oblique Inferior rectus Optic nerve Model Copyright Somso

25 Eye Wall Layers and Chambers Sclera Cornea Vitreous humor Anterior cavity Retina Choroid Anterior cavity Posterior cavity Model Copyright Somso Cornea

26 Internal Structures Ciliary body Suspensory ligaments Iris Fovea centralis Optic disk Model Copyright Somso Lens

27 Sclera Cow Eye Cornea Sclera Iris Iris Retina Posterior cavity Choroid is darkly pigmented layer Pupil is opening in iris Retina is partially detached Optic nerve

28 Sheep Eye Posterior cavity Cornea Cornea Sclera Iris Lens Optic nerve Sclera Cornea Retina Choroid is darkly pigmented layer Pupil is opening in iris Retina is partially detached Lens Optic nerve

29 Vision Tests Ishihara Color Plates Snellen-Visual Acuity Chart Astigmatism Chart Blind Spot Test Figure

30 Large Eye Model with Lid

31 1. (outer layer) Fibrous: dense connective tissue Sclera white of the eye Cornea 2. (middle) Vascular: uvea Choroid posterior, pigmented Ciliary body Iris Muscles control lens shape Processes secrete aqueous humor Zonule (attaches lens) 3. (inner layer) Sensory Retina and optic nerve 31

32 Ora serrata Ciliary body Ciliary zonule suspensory ligament) Cornea Iris Pupil Anterior pole Anterior segment (contains aqueous humor) Lens Scleral venous sinus Posterior segment (contains vitreous humor) (a) Diagrammatic view. The vitreous humor is illustrated only in the bottom part of the eyeball. Sclera Choroid Retina Macula lutea Fovea centralis Posterior pole Optic nerve Central artery and vein of the retina Optic disc (blind spot) Figure 15.4a

33

34 Posterior View of the Anterior Half of the Eye Figure 16.9a

35 The Vascular Tunic

4/22/16. Eye. External Anatomy of Eye. Accessory Structures. Bio 40B Dr. Kandula

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