1 The Use of Family Rituals in Eating Behaviors in Mexican American Mothers Anel Arriola, BS; Kathryn Coe, PhD; Tanya Benitez, PhD; Natasha Tasevska, PhD; Colleen Keller, PhD; Arizona State University, College of Nursing & Health Innovation This research was supported by Dr. Tasevska s start-up funds. Research assistance for data analysis and manuscript development was supported by training funds from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Nursing Research (NIH/NINR), award T32 1T32NR Transdisciplinary Training in Health Disparities Science (C. Keller, P.I.). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the NINR.
2 Purpose The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring traditional food rituals as practiced by Mexican American women and the way those rituals might change in response to immigration to the U.S. Our working hypothesis is that rituals related not only to the consumption of food, but its procurement and preparation are important and their loss may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.
3 Characteristics of rituals For millennia, the performance of complex and frequent rituals has characterized traditional societies around the world. According to archaeologists, our distant ancestors began to ritualize behaviors associated with food procurement, preparation and presentation as far back as 20,000 years ago when they began making ground stone tools.
4 Examples include mortars, pestles and milling stones Historia de la cocina y la gastronomía Arqueología Mexicana: Cocina Prehispánica Recetario
5 Characteristics of rituals Even today, people around the world regularly insist on rituals such as special places and times for eating, the use of special equipment with stylized decoration, predictable sequence among the foods eaten, and proper dress and behavior.
6 Characteristics of rituals The ritualization of any behavior not only results in the slowing down of the behavior, but food rituals can come with the requirement that participants restrain their consumption. Not surprisingly, food rituals are said to have psychological effects, heightening our enjoyment of food and stimulating goal directed action, while decreasing the likelihood of distracted eating.
7 Characteristics of rituals When Latino families migrate to the U.S., food rituals often abruptly change. While one possible effect of the loss of these rituals is an increased prevalence of obesity, the effect that the loss of these rituals has on health and well-being is seldom if ever the focus of research studies. Food rituals, consequently, may play a role in healthful eating and may serve as leverage points for interventions designed to promote healthy eating behaviors within a family.
8 Obesity and migration Certain ethnic groups within the U.S. have higher rates of obesity o Mexican-American females, for example, have higher rates of overweight and obesity and metabolic syndrome than do non- Hispanic white women. o Studies of obesity in Mexican American women show that they experienced significant increases in the incidence of BMI defined obesity during the last decade.
9 Obesity and migration Migration to the U.S. is associated with loss of cultural practices, as well as the adoption of the so called westernized lifestyle, including: o Decreased physical activity (PA) o Increased time spent watching TV o Limited time for food preparation o Greater reliance on fast-foods o Increased consumption of processed foods, meat, sweets and dairy o Decreased consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, beans, grains and fruit juices
10 Sample Data were collected in two stages, 1. focus groups (5, 13 participants) 2. follow up face to face interviews (n =3) Thirteen low-income, overweight/obese Mexican-American women ages years residing in Phoenix, Arizona, were recruited from the participant pool of Madres para la Salud.
11 Sample Participants who signed a consent to be recontacted were called by Spanish-speaking research staff to determine interest and screen for eligibility in the focus group study. Eligible participants were then scheduled to attend one focus group session on nutrition and physical activity.
12 Sample After all focus groups were completed, three women who attended the groups were randomly selected and invited to participate in a follow-up structured interview on family traditions, the role of traditions and rituals in food procurement, preparation and presentation.
13 Focus groups The development of the focus group script was guided by a review of literature and identification of gaps in research on food preparation in Mexican-American women. Focus group discussion questions elicited information on food procurement, preparation, presentation, family traditions in the Latino culture, including patterns of shopping, food purchases, specific and memorable meals, and involvement of family in food preparation.
14 Follow-up structured interviews Individual interviews were guided by a script consisting of seven open-ended questions and prompts focused on family traditions, and the role of traditions and habits in food procurement, preparation and presentation. The focus group and interview scripts were translated and back-translated from English to Spanish by bilingual members of the research team to ensure accuracy and comprehension of the questions.
15 Data analysis The typed transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were the data for analysis. Transcripts and audiotaped interviews were compared to ensure accurate translation. Content analysis guided description of the data, with the identification of data codes and data categories, and included an iterative approach and constant comparison in data analysis.
16 Data analysis Qualitative content analysis was used to capture and extend knowledge and understanding of cultural and contextual sources for food procurement, preparation and presentation among Mexican-American mothers.
17 Traditional rituals involving the procurement of food One woman described food procurement in some detail. When I was little, I lived with my Grandma in Mexico. So the food that she made was always fresh, traditional. Every day, we went to the grocery store, the butcher. The butcher knew her and he would give her the best meat, soft and with the least grease. Then we bought what we would be eating that day. Then, when I started living with my parents [in the U.S.], I was a little older, and everything changed completely, because they worked all of the time. Then, they had lots of soda, something that I didn t really drink when I was younger.
18 Traditional rituals involving the procurement of food A number of women reported that shopping for healthier foods was easier in Mexico because of the variety of fruits available, but difficult in the U.S. due to the temptation to buy chips and bread, when they had gone to the store to buy fruits, vegetables and meat. The major difference between the US and Mexico is that Mexican stores are small stores like the verdulería vegetable store you can buy any vegetable, legume or fruit. Mercado in Mexico City
19 Traditional rituals involving the procurement of food Depending on where you live, there will be various small verdulerías around where you live. In the US, there are no small stores. Each time you need food, you have to go to the supermarket where you can find everything at any time. Other women reported that they had much less time now and had to take short cuts or eat fast food outside the home. Mercado in Mexico City
20 Traditional rituals involving the preparation of food When discussing the preparation of food several patterns were revealed. First, participants described what they ate and explained that people were seldom hungry, even when they were poor. Food preparation, and, thus, food purchases included the rich use of spices and preparation adjuncts. There are these stores it s called a molino and they sell all sorts of grains, dry peppers, spices and moles that are grinded already. They also sell things like almonds, nuts. Of cooking, well, over there we cooked more vegetables than here. Here we eat more, like, meat than over in Mexico. One really does not prepare mole like in Mexico, because in Mexico one grinds everything.
21 Traditional rituals involving the preparation of food A second pattern that emerged were descriptions of the utensils used. One participant claimed that the mill, and the griddle [were used] to roast everything. Another described the traditional utensils used by her mother and grandmother. The beans were cooked in a clay pot and the spoons also of wood. They were made of wood.
22 Traditional rituals involving the preparation of food Another woman, however, mentioned that her mother cooked beans in a clay pot, until she heard of a study that said this practice was dangerous due to lead. She concluded: My mom would use it for the beans, the clay pot. She had it for 5 or 6 years until [there was a] study [that] said that it was dangerous because of lead and my mom did not want to use that pot, and it was not that she was taught to use that pot, but she kept it as a remembrance.
23 Traditional rituals involving the preparation of food Other utensils mentioned included tin tubs, comales (or long hot plates) pewter pots and spoons. And I remember that she didn t have where to make the tamales in, and she made them over a fire in a [tin] tub, the big kind where clothes are washed outdoors.
24 Traditional rituals involving the preparation of food A third pattern to emerge was a description of the kin who got them involved in cooking and the process of learning to cook, which they explained was by observation and guided practice. Well, my aunts taught me how to cook too. For example, they taught me how to make enchiladas. More than anything they taught me that with one food you can make a ton of meals. That is what they taught me to save the food. they taught me those things, if you do not have a roller then use bottle little things [like] if you do not have something to grind the salsa or a bean masher, oh use a cup
25 Traditional rituals involving the preparation of food Several participants mentioned that they tried to continue the tradition of preparing and serving traditional food, but it was difficult to find the right ingredients: I didn t know where to buy Mexican products and I bought others I didn t like. Further, when they tried serving traditional meals to children, the children indicated that they preferred hamburgers and fries or chicken nuggets or pizza my children, several women reported, like the food that they get at school better they become accustomed to that food because they spend more time at school than they do at home. Several participants reported attempting to teach their children not only to prepare food, but to clean up after a meal.
26 Rituals and the Consumption of Food Another pattern that emerged were descriptions of how important the social aspects of meals were. When describing a memorable and ideal dinner, participants emphasized importance of people, of meals being family oriented. Some [meals] are more special because sometimes there is more, uhm, a family member that is coming from far away, and then you feel happy because they came. And not others because it s almost just my husband, me, and my kids there. All Christmases are memorable but that one in my life I remember is because, well, many people went to the house, so many that we did not fit inside the house.
27 Loss of rituals and traditions In this study we examined traditional food rituals and their loss related to migration. We found that significant changes did occur in rituals of food procurement, preparation, and presentation. These changes were related not only to the fact that women were working outside the home, which was not true in all cases, but to the fact that ingredients were unavailable locally, that recipes had been forgotten and that the necessary utensils were unavailable as they remained in Mexico with family members there. Women did appear to recognize that the loss of these rituals had social effects and they indicated some nostalgia for the rituals in which they had participated in Mexico, which included many members of their families. They also recognized that they were not teaching their children the rituals they had known in Mexico although in several cases attempts were made to do so.
28 Discussion These results, suggest that an important aspect of teaching nutrition to displaced persons may be lessons that acknowledge that women now have less time, but help her, within those confines, to re-ritualize the procurement, preparation, and presentation of food. This could include lessons in shopping with children (e.g., how to use this opportunity to build social ties and teach them about healthy eating), cooking classes for mothers and children and lessons on low-fat Mexican cooking.
29 Discussion They also could include lessons on table decoration, manners, and storytelling at meals. While table manners may seem to be an archaic concept, manners are important in helping ensure the occasion is a comfortable one for all participating. It also could include information exchange on how to find the ingredients needed locally so they can continue to prepare the foods they love.
1 Making Tortillas without Lard: Latino Parents Perspectives on Healthy Eating, Physical Activity, and Weight Management Strategies for Overweight Latino Children Glenn Flores, MD, Julio Maldonado, Paola
Eating Healthy on the Run Do you feel like you run a marathon most days? Your daily race begins as soon as your feet hit the floor in the morning and as your day continues you begin to pick up speed around
HEALTHY FAMILIES MAKING HEALTHY CHOICES HEALTHY FAMILIES MAKING HEALTHY CHOICES We know that keeping your family healthy is important to you. Eating right and being active are big parts of staying healthy.
Hidden Reasons for the Obesity Epidemic of Our Generation Multiple factors affect teens and adults alike today as they navigate the territory of food, and all things associated with it, especially caloric
1 Self-Improvement Paper Becky Sanchez PSYC 10, M, W 8:10-9:35 a.m. The Strategy(ies) for Academic Success I plan to Work Towards and Why I first saw the strategies for academic success handout in a workshop
A passion for produce builds healthier lives: Evaluation of program outcomes Passion for Produce (P4P) is a healthy eating program that offers a fruit and vegetable distribution and nutrition education
HANDOUT 1 Healthy Food for Healthy Adults Eating healthy food means eating a variety of food everyday, including whole grains, fruits and vegetables, milk and other dairy products, and meat, seafood, or
Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes Read other booklets in the Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes series: Are You at Risk for Heart Disease? Do You Need To Lose Weight? Keep the
Vertrag 10.008123 ENGLISH Swiss Food Panel -A longitudinal study about eating behaviour in Switzerland- Short versions of selected publications Zuerich, 16.10. 2013 Address for Correspondence ETH Zurich
3 Secrets to Beating Pancreatitis Pain the Pancreatitis Vegetable Connection This ebook is for information purposes only and does not constitute professional medical advice. Copyright and all rights reserved
KEY MESSAGES: MAKE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE CHOICES Make Healthy Lifestyle Choices Learning Objectives After your discussion, the listeners or audience should be able to: Name the two most common risk factors
1 Food portion sizes have changed over the past 20 years. Slides marked by are adapted from Portion Distortion by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at http://hin.nhlbi.nih.gov/portion 2 Typical
Weekly Questions for Dieters In this document, you will find a schedule of questions that you, the coach, should ask your dieter during their time on the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method. First and foremost,
LESSON 12 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON DON T LET PORTION SIZES CAUSE YOU TO FUMBLE OBJECTIVES: 1. What is happening to our portion sizes? 2. What is a portion? What is a serving size? Using your hand to measure
Step 1: Self-Assessment Introduction and Directions Nutrition is the study of nutrients in the food you eat and how your body processes those nutrients. Proper nutrition is critical to developing and maintaining
Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel Functional Skills English Level 2 Component 2: Reading 12 16 October 2015 Time: 60 minutes You may use a dictionary. Centre Number Candidate Number
ADULTS ADULTS MyPlate and Physical Activity MyPlate and Physical Activity 100 points Q: What are the five food groups? A: Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Dairy, and Protein 200 points Q: Give an example of
Diabetes Prevention: What Every Woman Needs To Know 1 in 11 adults in the United States suffer from diabetes. 1 in 3 adults in the United States suffer from prediabetes. Most cases of type 2 diabetes are
Whole School Food Policy Article 24 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation
Healthy Grocery Initiative Polly s Country Market Chelsea, MI Courtney Stinson, RDN Healthy Grocery Initiative Target market Nutritional Gatekeepers Goals People are trying new foods and recipes Increased
ReShape B-Roll Script Title Slide SOUNDBITES ReShape Medical Receives FDA Approval for Non-Surgical Weight Loss Device Video Provided by: ReShape Medical Contact: MSLGROUP email@example.com 781-684-0770
The Spectrum: A Scholars Day Journal Volume 3 Article 12 January 2013 Healthy Eating Habits of School Aged Children in Rural-Areas Amanda M. Wormley The College at Brockport State University of New York
Case Study #1 Patricia 29 years old Patricia is a housewife. She is married and has two children. Patricia is Hispanic and was originally born in Mexico. She uses mostly pre-packaged and convenience foods.
Ulster Council GAA Health Booklet Name: Class: School: supported by The Food Pyramid 5 a Day Fruit & Vegetables Drink Plenty of Water HEALTH PROMOTION UNIT DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND CHILDREN What counts
3rd Grade, Module 2 Fruits and Vegetables Did You Know? LiveWell Kids Nutrition Grade: 3rd Module 2: Fruits & Vegetables Fruits and vegetables are important sources of vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium and
Lesson 3 You Are What You Eat Key Words calories carbohydrates deficient diabetes fats fiber metabolism minerals nutrients osteoporosis protein stimulant vitamins What You Will Learn to Do Evaluate how
Lesson 3 Assessing My Eating Habits Overview This lesson introduces the federal guidelines for healthy eating. Students assess their eating habits against these guidelines and make suggestions for improvement.
Protect the quality and safety of your food Description of tool This tool provides useful information about protecting the quality and safety of food. School teachers can use this information while teaching
Introduction to the Lifestyle Survey This program is designed to help lower your chances of getting heart disease. To get started, we need to know about your current eating and physical activity habits.
Preparation Worksheet Name: Date: Health Goals: My Dream for My Body: The 10-Day Detox program includes six components: food, supplements, exercise, relaxation, measuring and tracking, and community. The
The Goods on Nutrition: Eat to Live 2 Lesson 1: The Goods on Nutrition Vocabulary list Reference Notes alternative n. something available in place of another. anemia n. a blood disorder characterized by
PARENT SERIES Tarrah B. Mitchell, M.A. & Amy E. Noser M.S. Parent Series Editor/ Carolyn S. Schroeder, Ph.D., ABPP Clinical Child Program, University of Kansas PEDIATRIC WEIGHT-MANAGEMENT Helping children
POSTER 1-1: REPLACE SWEETENED DRINKS Read the Label! Nutrition Facts 20 oz. cola Serving Size: 1 bottle (591mL) Servings Per Container: 1 Amount Per Serving Calories 240 Calories from Fat 0 % Daily Value
Utah State University Extension Utah Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education Report Fiscal Year 2008 Heidi LeBlanc Utah SNAP Ed (Food $ense) Funded by USDA Food and Nutrition Services Supplemental
Speak English Now Podcast The Podcast That Will Help You Speak English Fluently. With No Grammar and No Textbooks! Episode #036 With your host GEORGIANA Founder of SpeakEnglishPod.com and Profesoraingles.com
Alignment of Eating Smart Being Active with the SNAP-Ed Evaluation Framework (Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Prevention Indicators): Individual ST1. Short Term Healthy Eating: Readiness & Capacity
Triggers of food behaviours: Habit and Unconscious Influences Dr Mary McCarthy Department of Food Business & Development, Cork University Business School, UCC Outline Context for food behaviours: source
Your Nutrition Connection This publication provides information about achieving and staying at a healthy body weight and health, focusing on breast cancer risk Your Healthy Body Weight and Breast Cancer
a. This is the same as for the general public, but people with diabetes, like the rest of the public, often eat more salt than they need. b. Putting this all together - cake, rice, bread, and fried chicken
A Note From Dr. Mike Since the release of my #1 Best-Selling book the 17-Day Diet millions of people have achieved their health and weight loss goals. Everyone s journey is different; our motivations are
PE3620000-01-17 Rev. date 2014013 2017 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington Gestational diabetes Information to help you stay healthy during your pregnancy What is gestational diabetes? How gestational
Thank you for your interest in partnering with The Idaho Foodbank to provide valuable cooking and nutrition education to members of your community! Enclosed you ll find information to help you gain a better
Go Paleo Watch the Pounds Disappear Page 1 INDEX Chapter 1: Why You Should Shift To The Paleo Lifestyle? ------------ 5 Paleo Diet A Perfect Human Diet ----------------------- 6 The Paleo Vs Vegan ----------------------------------------
SlimShots Nutrition Tips A balanced approach is the key to success. Remember your goal is to create a program that works for your lifetime! If you would like to ease into your new lifestyle, start with
Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) / Arizona Nutrition Network (AzNN) Fruits & Veggies -- More Matters 2012 Post Campaign Research Report Report Prepared for: Arizona Department of Health Services
2017 Highlights A Message From UF/IFAS Extension Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program As the principal investigator of the UF/IFAS Extension Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP),
IMPROVING THE MEALTIME EXPERIENCE An audit checklist to consider how far a Care Home is implementing quality care re the mealtime experience. Place a tick in one of the 3 boxes Yes, No, Partly in relation
Presented by: Marcia Archer CHILDHOOD OBESITY has more than TRIPLED 9 MILLION CHILDREN The problem touches millions of families!!! Objectives How TRAC came to be Nutrition Plan What we are currently doing
IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EATING FREQUENCY AND OVERWEIGHT STATUS IN CHILDREN? A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Georgetown University in partial fulfillment
2017 AARP Brain Health and Nutrition Survey Laura Mehegan, Chuck Rainville, and Laura Skufca AARP Research January 2018 https://doi.org/10.26419/res.00187.001 About AARP AARP is the nation s largest nonprofit,
Spring - Restore Your Liver Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Unfortunately we live in a stressful and toxic world but there is something you can do about it. IF YOU DO NOTHING toxins build up in your
Sensory Village Market Lesson Plan Morgan s Wonderland Lesson Plans Sensory Village Market TEKS: Personal safety and health skills. The student demonstrates an understanding of health and safety issues
NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE Part I: Summary of New Regulations on Nutrition for Group Child Care Services Effective Date: January 1, 2007 Effective January 1, 2007, Article 47
Cheat Sheet: Guidelines for Healthy Eating While some people need a bit more support making dietary changes, others need just a quick outline like this one. The basic tenets of eating well are this: Intake
:: WEIGHT LOSS FUNNEL :: Your Fat Loss Report By: www.downloadplrproducts.com WEIGHT LOSS FUNNEL 1 / 9 What Does The Weight Loss Industry Not Want You To Know? Diet Food Is Not Healthy & They Do Not Work
CHFFF Lesson 1 What are some examples of sweetened drinks? CHFFF Lesson 1 Why are 100% fruit juice and flavored milk the only slow drinks? CHFFF Lesson 1 What are some concerns about diet drinks? CHFFF
NOURISHING FOODS CLEANSE 5 Days of Easy & Nourishing Foods for Your Body, Mind & Spirit Fall Clean Up of Your Small Intestines 2012 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions There has been lots of interest
London Fire Brigade, Co-op and HLP Christmas Day Experience Bringing together socially excluded residents in 2016 1 Five fire stations served a traditional turkey dinner for vulnerable residents on Christmas
DASH Diet Lower your blood pressure by changing your eating habits. The DASH diet is based on findings from the "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension" clinical study that found that high blood pressure
Behavioral changes for losing weight Changing your behaviors or habits related to food and physical activity is important for losing weight. The first step is to understand which habits lead you to overeat
August-September, 2015 Diabetes - the Medical Perspective Diabetes and Food Recipes to Try Menu Suggestions Diabetes - the Medical Perspective Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet despite
My Weight Loss Contract 2009 Personal Commitment Statement I, confirm my commitment to the goals and weight loss plan below, and agree to make the necessary changes to my lifestyle to improve my health
HEART-HEALTHY LIVING Even small steps toward a more healthful lifestyle can make a big difference in keeping your heart healthy. Knowledge, nutrition and activity can help you improve your heart health.
Healthy Smiles for Young Children During Pregnancy: Have a dental checkup. Brush at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Floss daily. Limit sweets and avoid sticky foods. Visit your doctor for pre-natal
Professional Diploma in Nutrition Module 1 Lesson 5: Helping Yourself EQF Level 5 Professional Diploma Fast Food Food that can be prepared quickly and easily and is sold in restaurants and snack bars as
TRACKS Lesson Plan MyPlate and Energy Balance Food For Thought Grades 5 8 Girls Club I. Nutrition Education Goal & Objective: Goal 1: Students will comprehend concepts consistent with USDA guidance related
Lesson 17 Foods Help Your Body in Different Ways Overview This lesson continues instruction in MyPlate, with a focus on how different foods help the body and how much to eat from each food group each day.
Chapter 1: Food, Nutrition, and Health Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Promoting a health care service that improves diabetes management for the elderly in a community would assist in which of the following?
Learning Outcomes: Session 1: Sugar and health At the end of the session the group should: Know that you should eat only small amounts of foods high in sugar Know that you should not have foods high in
Consumer s views on functional and GM foods Sílvia Pinhão Faculty of Food and Nutrition Sciences, Porto University Diet-related diseases have substantial costs both for the individual in the form of reduced
Go NAP SACC Self-Assessment Instrument for Family Child Care Date: Your Name: Child Care Program Name: Child Nutrition Go NAP SACC is based on a set of best practices that stem from the latest research
Transparency/Blackline Master Grade 5 Day 38 Standard 5.NBT.7 The Grocery Excursion Name: Date: You are visiting your grandparents for one week and have been given $200 to purchase groceries for the three
Key Stage 2 Science Working Scientifically Animals Including Humans (Upper KS2 only) PSHE Core Theme 1: Health and Wellbeing English Reading and Comprehension Estimated Teaching Time 50 minutes The Spread
Healthy eating: English Healthy eating This information is about how to eat well and keep to a healthy weight. It explains why a healthy diet is important. There is also a healthy eating guide that explains
NUTRITION SUPERVISION MIDDLE CHILDHOOD 5 10 YEARS MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Overview Middle childhood (ages 5 to 10) is characterized by slow, steady physical growth. However, cognitive, emotional, and social development
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust Carbohydrates A guide to carbohydrate containing foods for people with diabetes A Healthy Diet This information is designed to help you to understand how carbohydrates